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  • Scomber leopardus  Shaw, 1803
  • Cybium guttatum  Cuvier, 1829
  • Cybium interruptum  Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831
  • Cybium crockewitii  Bleeker, 1851
  • Scomberomorus guttatus  Fowler, 1905
  • Scomberomorus guttatum  Malpas, 1926
  • Scomberomorus kuhlii  Chevey, 1934
  • Scomberomorus crockewiti  Beaufort, 1951
  • Indocybium guttatum  Munro, 1955
  • Scomberomorus guttatus guttatus  Silas, 1964
    FAO Names
    En - Indo-Pacific king mackerel, Fr - Thazard ponctué indo-pacifique, Sp - Carite del Indo-Pacífico.
    3Alpha Code: GUT     Taxonomic Code: 1750101504
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Scomber guttatus  Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Systema Ichthyologiae:23-24, pl. 5 (Tranquebar, India).
    Diagnostic Features
    Depth of body less than in S. koreanus (22.8 to 25.2% vs 24.4 to 26.7% of fork length). Head larger than in S. koreanus (20.2 to 21.5% vs 19.7 to 20.4% of fork length).  Gillrakers on first arch moderate: 1 or 2 on upper limb; 7 to 12 on lower limb; 8 to 14 total.  First dorsal fin with 15 to 18 spines, usually 16 or more; second dorsal with 18 to 24 rays, usually 20 to 22, followed by 7 to 10 finlets; anal fin with 19 to 23 rays; followed by 7 to 10 finlets, usually 8; pectoral fin rays few, 20 to 23, modally 21.  Lateral line with many fine auxiliary branches extending dorsally and ventrally in anterior third, gradually curving down toward caudal peduncle.  Vertebrae 19 to 22 precaudal plus 28 to 31 caudal, total 47 to 52, usually 50 or 51.  Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs.  Colour: sides silvery white with several longitudinal rows of round dark brownish spots (smaller than eye diameter) scattered in about 3 irregular rows along lateral line. First dorsal fin membrane black (up to the 8th spine white posteriorly, with the distal margin black; pectoral, second dorsal and caudal fins dark brown; pelvic and anal fins silvery white. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Along the shores of continental Indo-West Pacific from Wakasa Bay, Sea of Japan (Nakamura & Nakamura, 1982) and Hong Kong south to the Gulf of Thailand and west to the Gulf lying between the Arabian peninsula and Iran (Collette & Russo, 1979:fig. 10).
    Habitat and Biology
    An epipelagic, neriticspecies believed to be less migratory than S. commerson that may be encountered in turbid waters with reduced salinity. Movements in the Gulf of Thailand might be deduced from seasonal changes in peak fishing months along the coast of Thailand. These peaks are November/December in eastern Thailand, late December/January in the northern part of the Gulf and January-March in its western part (Tongyai, 1970).
    Based on occurrence of ripe females and size of maturing eggs, spawning probably occurs from April to July around Rameswaram Island between India and Sri Lanka (Krishnamoorthi, 1958). Ripe females (32.5 to 46.5 cm fork length) are taken in May in Thai waters.  As with other species of Scomberomorus, the food of Indo-Pacific king mackerel consists primarily of fishes. Juveniles in India feed mainly on teleosts, particularly clupeoids such as Anchoviella (Venkataraman, 1961; Kumaran, 1964; Rao, 1964). Adults also prey mainly on fishes with small quantities of crustaceans and squids (Thailand - Tongyai, 1970, India - Rao, 1964). Anchovies are particularly important: Stolephorus in Singapore Straits (Tham, 1950, 1953), Anchoviella in Waltair, India (Rao, 1964).
    Maximum fork length is 76 cm. Size at first maturity ranges between 48 and 52 cm total length in southern India, and about 40 cm total length in Thailand.
    Interest to Fisheries
    There are commercial and artisanal fisheries for S. guttatus in Kampuchea (Mergeron, 1970), Thailand (Tongyai, 1971), Malaysia (Pathansali, 1968), and India, particularly in the lower Sundarbans, West Bengal (Banerjee & Chakrabarty, 1972), around Madras (Vijayaraghavan, 1955), the Gulf of Mannar-Palk Bay area (Krishnamoorthi, 1957), and Malwan, south of Bombay (Kaikini, 1961). These fisheries may be operational throughout the year, but with peaks that differ from region to region in correlation with differential abundance of Indo-Pacific king mackerel. S. guttatus is one of principal species in the drift net seerfish fishery in India but the catch is not identified to species in the statistics. Indonesia reported between 4 047 and 4 639 t per year in the period from 1978 to 1981 in Fishing Areas 57/71. At the same time vessels from Taiwan (Province of China) caught between 10 838 and 14 699 t in Area 61 (FAO, 1983). The primary gear in most areas appears to be the drift gillnet, but the species is also taken in bamboo stake traps and with hand lines in Thailand (Tongyai, 1970), and by trolling or with hooks and lines in India and Malaysia (Jones, 1968; Rao, 1964; Pathansali, 1968).
    It is utilized fresh or salted in most areas (Kampuchea - Mergeron, 1970; Thailand - Tongyai, 1971; India - Jones, 1968). Although less abundant than the Indian mackerels (Rastrelliger spp.), S. guttatus is highly esteemed for food and commands a higher price in Thailand and India (Tongyai, 1966; Pathansali, 1968).The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 51 395 t. The countries with the largest catches were Indonesia (23 850 t) and India (22 560 t).
    Local Names
    AUSTRALIA : Spotted Spanish mackerel .
    BANGLADESH : Bijram .
    BURMA : Nga-bu-zin .
    INDIA : Aya-kora (Malayalam),  Jhavar ,  Seela ,  Spotted seer ,  Vanjiram (Tamil),  Varimeen (Malayalam).
    INDONESIA : Ajong-ajong ,  Tandang ,  Tengiri .
    IRAN : Ghobad ,  Sheer .
    JAPAN : Taiwansawara .
    MADAGASCAR : Razandamatra .
    SRI LANKA : Spotted Spanish mackerel .
    THAILAND : Insi .
    UK : Indo-Pacific Spanish mackerel .
    former USSR : Indijskaya makrel ,  Pyatnistaya ispanskaya makrel ,  Pyatnistaya pelamida .
    VIET NAM : Cá thu cham .
    Source of Information
    FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of Tunas, Mackerels, Bonitos and related species known to date.Collette, B.B.  &  C.E. Nauen 1983..  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.2:137 p.
    Fischer & Whitehead, eds (1974, Species Identification Sheets, Eastern Indian Ocean/Western Central Pacific)
    Devaray, (1977, 1982, India)
    Kishinouye, (1923, Japan)
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