| ||Perca marina Linnaeus, 1758: 290 (original description).|
| ||Perca norvegica Müller, 1776: 46.|
| ||Sebastes norvegicus Cuvier, 1829: 327.|
| ||Sebastes septentrionalis Valenciennes, 1844: pl. 9.|
| ||Sebastes norvegicus Günther, 1860: 9.5|
| ||Sebastes marinus marinus Andriashev, 1954: 331.|
|En - Golden redfish, Fr - Sébaste doré, Sp - Gallineta dorada.|
3Alpha Code: REG Taxonomic Code: 1780100101|
|Preorbital bone with 1 or 2 spinous points over maxilla; suborbital ridge without spine and generally weakly marked; supplemental preopercular spine absent; all 5 preopercular spines about equal in length; supracleithral spine present; 2 opercular spines; other spines present include the nasal, pre, supra ant post-ocular and parietal. Symphyseal knob absent, or present as a rounded protuberance. Lower preopercular spine directed downward and slightly backward, rarely downward and slightly forward. Front side of supra-occipital commissure between parietal ridges with 4 pores.
Dorsal fin has 14-16 (usually 15) strong spines and 13-16 (usually 14-15) soft rays. Anal fin with 3 spines and 7-10 (mostly 8) soft rays; the membrane of the pectoral fins extends almost to the tips of the rays, which number 18-21 (mostly 19) rays.
Spines on the preoperculum are flattened, the ventral spines downward pointing. Lateral line with 31-39 (more often 34) scales.
Colour bright red except for the belly which has pink or rose flush, and a dusky area on posterior part of opercle.
|From de Kattegat and the northern part of the North Sea, northward to the western coast of Spitsbergen, southern part of the Barents Sea eastward to the Kanin Banks and Novaya Zembla shoals, rare in the White Sea, common around Iceland and along the south part of the eastern coast of Greenland. Elsewhere, along western coast of Greenland, along North America coast southward to Flemish Cape, Grand Banks and Gulf of St. Laurence.|
|Habitat and Biology|
|The juveniles are living in the fjords, bays and inshore waters;the adults are found off the coast at 100 to 400 m, less commonly down to 500 m.At great depths, fishes have a larger size than in shallow waters.Feeds mostly on euphausiids in summer; herrings in autumn and winter; capelins, herrings, euphausiids and ctenophores in spring.Gregarious throughout life. A slow growing species.|
Ovoviviparous; insemination of the females in August-September (Barents Sea) and from October to January (off Iceland and Greenland); fertilization of the ripe oocytes during February and March; release of larvae from April to June or even to August.
|Attains about 100 cm and 15 kg in weight, at a considerable age. Few specimens today live long enough to exceed 50 cm (usually 35-55 cm).|
|Interest to Fisheries|
|They are also caught in large numbers by vessels from northern Europe, and to a lesser extent from North America. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 7 264 t. The countries with the largest catches were Faeroe Islands (7 129 t) and France (128 t).|
Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten fried, broiled, microwaved and baked.
Blanc, M. & J.-C. Hureau. - 1973 Scorpaenidae. In: J. C. Hureau & Th. Monod (eds.). Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM). Unesco, Paris. Vol. I: 579-585. Fishbase: ICLARM .
Hureau, J.-C. & N.I. Litvinenko. - 1986 Scorpaenidae. In: P.J.P. Whitehead et al., (eds.). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris, vol. I: 1211-1229.
Wheeler, A. - 1978Key to the Fishes of Northern Europe. A guide to the identification of more than 350 species. Frederick Warne (Publishers) Ltd., London. 380 pp. Remarks below that depth it is largely replaced by Sebastes mentella Travin, 1951, which extends to 1000 m.