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Solea vulgaris:   (click for more)

Solea vulgaris:   (click for more)

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  • Pleuronectes solea  Delaroche, 1809
  • Solea solea  , and Solea vulgaris vulgaris (of authors).
    FAO Names
    En - Common sole, Fr - Sole commune, Sp - Lenguado común.
    3Alpha Code: SOL     Taxonomic Code: 1830300701
    Diagnostic Features
    Body oval. Blind side of head covered with numerous small hair-like fringes; upper eye separated from dorsal profile of head by a distance distinctly greater than its diameter; anterior nostril of blind side surrounded by a small ridge but not enlarged, distance from this nostril to head profile contained 1.5 to 1.8 times in distance from nostril to mouth cleft; anterior nostril on eyed side with tube directed backwards, not reaching anterior margin of eye.  Dorsal fin with 72 to 95 rays, its origin on dorsal profile of head before the eyes. Anal fin with 53 to 80 rays. Pectoral fins equally well developed on both sides, with 7 to 10 rays, the fin on eyed side asymmetrical in shape. Base of caudal fin united by a membrane to last ray of dorsal and anal fins, but caudal peduncle still distinct.  Lateral line with 116 to 163 tubed scales, its supratemporal prolongation describing a smooth curve on head.  Colour eyed side greyish brown to reddish brown; blind side white. Pectoral fin of eyed side with a black blotch restricted to distal end of fin; hind part of caudl darker than rest of fin. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Eastern Atlantic (southward from Tronheim Fjord, also North Sea and western Baltic) and Mediterranean (also Sea of Marmara, Bosphorus and south-western Black Sea). Elsewhere, southward to Senegal.
    Habitat and Biology
    Benthic species on sandy and muddy bottoms,from the shore down to 300 m.Usually solitary.Feed polychaete worms, small soft-shelled bivalves, small fishes and crustaceans.
    Reproduction: spawns January-April, with two peaks in February (Mediterranean), or December-May (Bay of Biscay), or April-June (North Sea). 
    About 70 cm; common 15-45 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Flesh highly esteemed. Caught with bottom trawls ("demersal bottom trawling" and "small flatfish (flounders, soles) bottom trawling"). The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 43 879 t. The countries with the largest catches were Netherlands (16 329 t) and France (8 203 t).
    Marketed fresh and frozen; utilized steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved and baked.
    Local Names
    Danish : Søtunge .
    Catalan : Llenguado ,  Palaí ,  Palaia .
    English : Black sole ,  Dover sole ,  Parkgate sole ,  River sole ,  Sea partridge ,  Slip ,  Sole ,  Southport sole ,  ToungeTrue sole .
    Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi; W. B. Scott (eds.) . - 1981 Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Atlantique centre-est; zones de pêche 34, 47 (en partie). Canada Fonds de Dépôt. Ottawa, Ministère des Pêcheries et Océans Canada, en accord avec l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture, Vol. 1-7: pag. var.
    Desoutter, M. - 1990 Soleidae. In: J.C. Quero et al., (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). Unesco, Portugal, vol. II: 1037-1049.
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Lloris, D, J. Rucabado, LL del Cerro, F. Portas, M. Demestre & A. Roig. - 1984 Tots els peixos del mar Català. I: Llistat de Cites i de referències. Treballs Soc. Cat. Ict. Herp., 1: 1-208.
    Lloris, D. & J. Rucabado. - 1998 Guide FAO d'Identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Guide d'Identification des Ressources Marines Vivantes du Maroc. Rome, FAO: 263 pp.
    Quero, J.-C., M. Desoutter & F. Lagardère. - 1986 Soleidae. In: P.J.P. Whitehead et al., (eds.). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris, vol. III: 1308-1324.
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