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Mytilus galloprovincialis:   (click for more)

Mytilus galloprovincialis:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Mytilus galloprovincialis  Lamarck, 1819
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  • M. edulis galloprovincialis  , , or M. edulis form galloprovincialis (of authors); this suggests that what has been called M. galloprovincialis is probably a race or variety of M. edulis . See sheet Mytilus edulis and remarks.
    FAO Names
    En - Mediterranean mussel, Fr - Moule méditerranéenne, Sp - Mejillón mediterráneo.
    3Alpha Code: MSM     Taxonomic Code: 3161000112
    Diagnostic Features
    Equal to Mytilus edulis but separated by the following characters: a) the umbones turning downwards tending to make the basal line of the shell concave; b) the valves are higher and less angular on the upper margin and tend to grow larger; c) the mantle edge darker, becoming blue or purple. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Mediterranean Sea.
    Habitat and Biology
    The exact range of M. galloprovincialis is not known because of the confusion with other, very similar Mytilus . In Europe it lives on all coasts that have hard substrates.Intertidal to 40 m deepattached by byssus threads to rocks and piers, within sheltered harbours and estuaries and on rocky shores of the open coast, sometimes living in dense masses wherever there are suitable surfaces for attachment.The diet of mussels consists of phytoplankton and detritus filtered from the surrounding water.The dimensions of the species is greatly influenced by its biotope: intertidal shells often remain small, rarely exceding 6 cm, while deep-water shells easily measure 9 cm.
    Size
    Maximum 15 cm; common 5-8 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Natural and cultivated. The exploitation of these beds which was manual until recently developed in a giant industry in the fifties. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 55 819 t. The countries with the largest catches were Italy (37 876 t) and Greece (15 860 t).
    Marketed fresh, frozen and canned.
    Local Names
    Arabic : Tamr el bahr .
    Catalan : Clòtxina ,  Musclo .
    English : Bay mussel ,  Black mussel ,  Blue mussel ,  Common mussel ,  Edible mussel ,  Mussel .
    French : Moule ,  Moule commune .
    German : Miesmuschel .
    Greek : Mýdi .
    Hebrew : Zidpit galit .
    Italian : Mitilo .
    Serbo-Croat : Dagnja .
    Spanish : Mejillón .
    Turkish : Midye .
    Remarks
    Extremely variable in shape and colour. Some shells have a pattern of radiating striae on a pale, often olive background. Most shells are smooth and relatively thin, but in some populations they have a rough surface due to heavy growth lines. These shells can be fairly thick. The periostracum is often intact, but in some conditions it may be absent, leaving the blue shell unprotected against erosion. Mediterranean specimens are usually large, flat, and have more concave basal line, giving the shell a rounded shape and may regard a separate species, a subspecies or a form of M. edulis . They called M. galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819. M. edulis galloprovincialis, or M. edulis form galloprovincialis .
    Bibliography
    Alegre, M., J. Lleonart & J. Veny- 1992Espècies Pesqueres d'interès comercial. Nomenclatura oficial catalana. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Cultura, DARP, TERMCAT. 64 pp.
    Hepper, B.T. - 1957Notes on Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lamarck in Great Britain. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 36 (1): 33-40.
    Lewis, J.R. & H.T. Powell. - 1961Curved and ungulate forms of Mytilus edulis . Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 137 (4): 583-598.
    Poppe, G.T. & Y. Goto. - 1993European Seashells.
    Vera, J. - 1992Diccionario multilingüe de especies marinas para el mundo hispano. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Secretaria General Técnica. 1282 pp.
    Verlag Christa Hemmen, darmstadt, Germany,221 pp. vo. II: Tebble, N. - 1966 British Bivalve Seashells. A Handbook for Identification, London Trusties of the British Nuseum (Natural History): 212 pp.
     
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