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Highly migratory large pelagic fish

Functional group 6: Swordfish
A single-species group, the swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is an highly migratory species with the stock range covering the entire north Atlantic and adjoining waters.

Functional group 7: Other billfish

With the exception of black marlin, all the species in this group are highly migratory with stock areas covering half or more of the Atlantic Ocean and adjoining waters.

Atlantic blue marlinMakaira nigricans
Atlantic white marlinTetrapturus albidus
Atlantic sailfishIstiophorus platypterus
Longbill spearfishTetrapturus pfluegeri
Black marlin (see note)
Makaira indica

Note: Black marlin are only known as strays into the Atlantic however they were included in the group for purposes of estimating diet composition of billfish overall.


Functional groups 8-11: Highly migratory tunas
These four functional groups each consist of one species of tuna. All are highly migratory with stock areas covering half or more of the Atlantic Ocean and adjoining waters.

8Yellowfin tunaThunnus albacares
9SkipjackKatsuwonus pelamis
10AlbacoreThunnus alalunga
11BigeyeThunnus obesus

Regional large pelagic fish

The regional large pelagic functional groups are all ones for which the stock area is believed to be relatively localized i.e. limited to the Lesser Antilles or at most the Wider Caribbean.

Functional group 12: Blackfin tuna

The single species group blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus) is a small tuna prevalent in the southern parts of the LAPE area.

Functional group 13: Other offshore predators

This group includes several species of small tunas as well as pelagic triggerfish.

Atlantic bonitoSarda sarda
Bullet tunasAuxis spp.
Little tunnyEuthynnus alletteratus
Spotted oceanic triggerfish Canthidermis maculata
Ocean triggerfishCanthidermis sufflamen


Functional group 17: Pelagic sharks
A large number of pelagic shark species are known to occur in the LAPE area however there are few fisheries or other sources of detailed information. The following species are examples for which fishery and/or diet data were available.

Blue sharkPrionace glauca
Bigeye thresherAlopias superciliosus
Thintail thresherAlopias vulpinus
Longfin makoIsurus paucus
Shortfin makoIsurus oxyrhinchus
Bluntnose sixgill sharkHexanchus griseus
Great hammerheadSphyrna mokarran
PorbeagleLamna nasus
Smooth hammerheadSphyrna zygaena
Tiger sharkGaleocerdo cuvier
Blacktip sharkCarcharhinus limbatus
Oceanic whitetipCarcarhinus longimanus
Silky sharkCarcharhinus falciformis
Sandbar sharkCarcharhinus plumbeus
Spinner sharkCarcharhinus brevipinna
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