This report provides a forward-looking summary of major risks to agriculture and food security including their likelihood and the extent of their probable impact. It is a product of the analysis provided by existing FAO information and Early Warning systems (GIEWS, FCC-EMPRES, IPC) and, where necessary, external information, acting as a focus lens on the most urgent situations globally to alert decision makers at all levels of the Organization.

This book promotes Integrated Pest Management, to contribute to reduced reliance on pesticides and the avoidance of adverse impacts from pesticide use on the health and safety of farming communities, consumers and the environment. Through the IPM approach, technical advice is provided to help plan methods and measures to control major pests and diseases occurring or expected to occur in the countries of Western Asia and Eastern Europe. The specific descriptions contain a short summary of the biology of the species, completed with information on methods and tools of monitoring and control. Preventive control methods are also discussed.

FAO’s first forecast of global wheat production in 2017 points to an above-average output, but down from the record high of 2016, mostly reflecting expectations of reduced crops in North America.

COUNTRIES IN NEED OF EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE: FAO estimates that 37 countries, including 28 in Africa, are in need of external assistance for food. Conflicts and weather-related shocks are the main drivers of food insecurity. The food security situation is of grave concern in northern Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen, where over 20 million people are facing severe food insecurity due to the protracted conflicts compounded by droughts in some cases. Famine was already officially declared in South Sudan.

AFRICA: Dry weather-reduced outputs in North and Southern Africa drove the 2016 regional output downwards to a below-average level; however production in these subregions are expected to recover in 2017 due to overall beneficial weather. Conflicts in parts of Central, East and West Africa continue to severely stress food security conditions and undermine the agriculture sector, while drought in parts of East African has also intensified food insecurity.

ASIA: Early prospects for the 2017 winter wheat crop are generally favourable, following an above-average regional cereal output in 2016. Conflicts continue to acutely impact agriculture, livelihoods and food security in the Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen and Iraq, resulting in low harvests and increased humanitarian needs.

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: A record cereal crop in Mexico and production recoveries elsewhere in Central America, after last year’s drought-reduced harvests, resulted in a bumper 2016 cereal output in the subregion. Prospects for the 2017 maize harvest in South America are overall favourable, mainly reflecting price‑induced expansion in plantings in the main producing countries Argentina and Brazil.


On 25 September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – including 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets – committing the international community to end poverty and hunger and achieve sustainable development between 2016 and 2030. Six months later, a global indicator framework for the SDGs – comprising 230 indicators - was identified to monitor the 169 targets and track progress, becoming the foundation of the SDGs’ accountability structure. The number of indicators - four times greater than for the MDGs - represents an immense challenge for countries. FAO - proposed ‘custodian’ UN agency for 21 SDG indicators and a contributing agency for six more – can assist countries in meeting the new monitoring challenges. This publication presents FAO’s work in developing and strengthening indicators that measure food, agriculture and the sustainable use of natural resources, shining a light on the 21 indicators of FAO custodianship. It describes how the organization can support countries track progress and make the connection between monitoring and policymaking to achieve the SDGs.

Together with its partners, FAO works to increase the resilience of agricultural livelihoods at risk of disasters and crises. People with resilient livelihoods are better able to withstand damage, recover and adapt when disasters cannot be avoided. The increasing frequency and intensity of disasters caused by climate change reinforces the urgency to build the resilience of agricultural livelihoods of vulnerable communities.