FAO.org

الصفحة الأولى > أزمة السلسلة الغذائية > الموارد > ورقة المعلومات
أزمة السلسلة الغذائية

ورقة المعلومات

يعرض هذا القسم الأنشطة الرئيسية لإطار إدارة أزمات السلسلة الغذائية – نظام الوقاية من الأزمات من خلال برامج ومبادرات ناجحة تبيّن دور الفاو في دعم البلدان الأعضاء من أجل الوقاية من الآفات والأمراض الحيوانية والنباتية العابرة للحدود والعالية التأثيرات والتهديدات على سلامة الأغذية، والتأهّب والاستجابة لها.

وتظهر سلسلة من صفائح المعلومات ما استحدثته المنظمة وما قامت بتطويره وتحسينه وبالأخصّ ما أنجزته للوقاية من حالات الطوارئ التي تؤثر على السلسلة الغذائية وللتأهب والاستجابة لها.

The Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), FAW, is an insect native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In the absence of natural control or good management, it can cause significant damage to crops. It prefers maize, but can feed on more than 80 additional species of crops, including rice, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, vegetable crops and cotton.

FAO is taking an active role in coordinating partners’ activities, plans and approaches to provide sustainable solutions to the FAW challenge. An integral part of FAO’s sustainable management programme for FAW in Africa is the FAW Monitoring and Early Warning System (FAMEWS) that consists of a mobile app for data collection and a global platform for mapping the current situation.

The occurrence of the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa in the Apulia region in Italy, poses a serious threat for olive production in the Mediterranean countries. 

The host complexity of X. fastidiosa and the diverse ways of its dissemination make the disease more likely to be introduced into the Near East and North Africa (NENA) countries through the movement and trade of potentially infected host plants. These facts imposed the necessity of strengthening the phytosanitary measures applied in the region and putting in place a harmonized surveillance programme.

To face this challenge, FAO launched a Regional Technical Cooperation Project to help NENA countries in their efforts to enforce preventive measures for the introduction and spread of X. fastidiosa - Olive Quick Decline Syndrome - in their territories.

In recent years, outbreaks of animal diseases such as Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), African swine fever (ASF) and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) have had a devastating impact on communities’ livelihoods and food security. In addition, many animal diseases can spread to humans (known as zoonoses), sometimes with lethal outcomes, as seen with rabies, avian influenza and Rift Valley fever. 
To reduce the risk posed by these pathogens, it is necessary to establish a strong animal disease surveillance system that is capable of timely exchange of information with other sectors, such as public health and the environment. However, in many countries, the animal health systems are underdeveloped and underfunded, a factor that places these nations at a disadvantage when they are required to prepare for animal diseases, including zoonoses.
Strengthening the capacities of national veterinary services is therefore crucial to fill this gap and ensure that:
1. The impact of economically important livestock diseases such as FMD, ASF, PPR and avian influenza is reduced;
2. Countries are able to maintain disease-free status through efficient surveillance activities;
3. Zoonoses are detected in animals prior to their spillover to humans.

Locusts and grasshoppers are a serious threat to agriculture, including pastures and rangelands, in Caucasus and Central Asia, where more than 25 million hectares are concerned. During outbreaks, the three main locust pests, the Asian Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria migratoria), the Italian Locust (Calliptamus italicus) and the Moroccan Locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus), attack all kinds of crops and natural vegetation and jeopardise food security and livelihoods of at least 20 million people. The most affected populations are the most vulnerable rural communities, whose health and environment can moreover suffer from adverse impacts of locust control operations.

To reduce the occurrence and intensity of locust outbreaks, FAO has been implementing a regional “Programme to improve national and regional locust management in Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA)” since 2011.

Pine dieback, caused by bark beetles, is severely damaging Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Belarus and Ukraine. Bark beetles usually attack dead or dying trees and serve as primary decomposers. However, under stressful conditions, such as drought or high tree density, they can attack and destroy healthy trees in large numbers, overcoming tree defenses. To face this situation, FAO is providing technical assistance for combating the dieback of pine forests using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies.

African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease that causes a haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and wild boar.  It is characterised by high fever, internal haemorrhage and multiple organ failure with a lethality that approaches 100 percent. ASF is currently widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Russian Federation and the Italian island of Sardinia. Its arrival in the Caucasus in 2007 and its progressive advance through the Russian Federation into Eastern Europe, where it now seems established, demonstrated the high potential for transboundary spread of ASF. In August 2018, China reported the occurrence of ASF for the very first time.

Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD) caused by the virus named Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) is listed among the world’s worst 100 invasive species. BBTD is currently a major threat to banana cultivation in sub-Saharan Africa, and a menace for over 100 million people for whom banana is the major staple food.

FAO has been supporting countries in their efforts to control BBTD through awareness raising, farmer training and capacity building in various areas such as surveillance, diagnosis, prevention and integrated disease management.

The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata Wied., is considered a major agricultural pest worldwide because of its direct damage to fruit and vegetable production, and restrictions imposed to commercialization of horticultural commodities by countries free of the pest. The presence of this pest was officially reported in the Dominican Republic in March 2015. IAEA, FAO and USDA immediately joined hands to assist the country in establishing a national monitoring network to delimit the distribution of the outbreak and initiate an eradication campaign with support from the Guatemala, Mexico, USA Moscamed Programme and regional organizations. In July 2017, the Caribbean country declared officially that it is free of the invasive pest, only two years after an outbreak led to considerable damage to its agricultural industry.

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious transboundary animal diseases (TADs). FMD is still widespread throughout the world. It still occurs in large parts of Africa, the Middle East and Asia and the countries that are free of FMD today remains under constant threat of an incursion. The disease is well-known for its ability to severely affect and indeed disrupt regional and international trade in animals and animal products. It is also notorious for the enormous financial damage it can cause in FMD-free countries hit by an outbreak. FAO and and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed a 15-year global control strategy in 2012 to reduce the burden of FMD in endemic countries and maintain the status of FMD-free countries.

Fall Armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda), is an insect pest of more than 80 plant species, causing damage to economically important cultivated cereals such as maize, rice, sorghum, and also to vegetable crops and cotton. FAO and its partners have been at the forefront of tackling FAW and continue to support prevention, early warning, and effective response. This information sheet presents a critical tool of the FAO’s sustainable management programme for FAW in Africa, which is the FAW Monitoring and Early Warning System (FAMEWS) mobile app. Data from the app provides valuable insights on how the insect populations change over time with ecology, to improve knowledge of its behaviour in Africa and guide best management.

1 2 3 4 5