أزمة السلسلة الغذائية

ورقة المعلومات

يعرض هذا القسم الأنشطة الرئيسية لإطار إدارة أزمات السلسلة الغذائية – نظام الوقاية من الأزمات من خلال برامج ومبادرات ناجحة تبيّن دور الفاو في دعم البلدان الأعضاء من أجل الوقاية من الآفات والأمراض الحيوانية والنباتية العابرة للحدود والعالية التأثيرات والتهديدات على سلامة الأغذية، والتأهّب والاستجابة لها.

وتظهر سلسلة من صفائح المعلومات ما استحدثته المنظمة وما قامت بتطويره وتحسينه وبالأخصّ ما أنجزته للوقاية من حالات الطوارئ التي تؤثر على السلسلة الغذائية وللتأهب والاستجابة لها.

Outbreaks of transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases, including forest pests and aquatic diseases, food safety and radiation events has been increasing over the past years, impacting people’s access to quality food, and putting their livelihoods and health at risk. To address this challenge, FAO established the Food Chain Crisis Management Framework (FCC), an approach combining prevention, preparedness, and response to emergencies affecting the food chain and caused by transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases (including aquatic and forests pests and diseases), food safety and radiological threats.

RIFT VALLEY FEVER (RVF) is a zoonotic, viral, vector-borne disease representing a threat to human health, animal health and livestock production in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Near East and potentially Europe and the rest of the world.

The impact of the disease on people’s livelihoods (socio-economic) and on trade (restrictions) can be high. Climatic factors are important drivers of RVF viral activity as they drive vector abundance and population dynamics, thus influencing the risk of disease emergence, transmission and spread. A climate-affecting phenomenon such as El Niño can have high impact on RVF.

Transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including zonooses are highly contagious epidemic diseases that can spread extremely rapidly, irrespective of national borders. Controlling infectious diseases of animals, and minimizing their impact on countries’ economies and livelihoods of people is crucial. Veterinary laboratories can play a critical role in the early detection of new or re-emerging animal diseases, as well as in the fight against endemic diseases and in addressing complex issues at the human-animal-environment interface.

Many of the pesticides used in desert locust control pose a risk to the environment and to human health, even if they are used judiciously. To minimize the impact of pesticides use on human health and the environment, member countries of the FAO Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region (CLCPRO) established baseline environmental requirements that locust campaigns should comply with.

Surveillance and early warning of animal disease outbreaks, including zoonotic diseases, with potential public health impact enables national authorities to advise at-risk populations. However, early detection and timely reporting of animal diseases from the field are a challenge in developing countries. For this reason, FAO has developed EMA-i (Event Mobile Application) for data collection and to facilitate real-time disease reporting to support veterinary services capacities in disease surveillance implemented in the field.

Locusts and grasshoppers pose a serious threat to agriculture in Caucasus and Central Asia. During outbreaks, the three main locust pests (Italian, Moroccan and Migratory Locusts) attack all types of crops and plants.

More than 25 million hectares of cultivated areas can be affected and locusts can jeopardize food security and livelihoods of more than 20 million people. To safeguard food security and the livelihood of rural populations through reduction of locust outbreaks and upsurges, FAO initiated the “Programme to improve national and regional locust management in Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA)” in 2011.

TRANSBOUNDARY ANIMAL DISEASES and those animal diseases that affect human health have a strong impact on public health, community livelihoods, and trade. In this context, the VETLAB Network offers a unique opportunity for countries facing similar challenges to work together and better coordinate activities, including training, information dissemination, expertise and experience exchange, and the design of common disease control strategies.

Several species of Tephritidae have a greater impact on global agricultural horticulture trade than almost any other pest. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture helps Member States control invasive pest fruit flies by providing technical and scientific support and transferring nuclear and related technologies to reduce losses in fruit and vegetable production, minimize insecticide use, preserve biological diversity.

UNSAFE FOOD causes considerable morbidity and mortality. More than 200 diseases are spread through food contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites, natural toxins, pesticides, and chemical or radioactive substances. Exposure to these contaminants can lead to infectious diseases, acute toxicities, cancers and developmental defects.

FAO’s Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) designed and developed a web-based secure information system to support country level veterinary services by facilitating regional and global disease information: EMPRES Global Animal Disease Information System (EMPRES-i), http://empres-i.fao.org.

 

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