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CRISIS DE LA CADENA ALIMENTARIA

Hoja informativa del FCC-EMPRES

En esta sección se presentan las actividades básicas del EMPRES del MGCCA, exponiendo programas e iniciativas eficaces que ilustran la función que la FAO desempeña para ayudar a los Estados Miembros a prevenir las plagas y enfermedades transfronterizas de animales y plantas de elevado impacto y las amenazas para la inocuidad alimentaria, así como a prepararse y responder ante las mismas.
En una serie de hojas de información se exponen las iniciativas que la FAO ha presentado y desarrollado, los ámbitos que ha mejorado y, sobre todo, los logros alcanzados respecto de la prevención de situaciones de emergencia que afectan a la cadena alimentaria y respecto de la preparación y la respuesta ante las mismas.

La Marchitez por Fusarium es causada por el hongo Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense transmitido por el suelo. Es una de las enfermedades más destructivas de banano en todo el mundo. Su nueva Raza 4 Tropical (Foc R4T) ha causado graves pérdidas en el Sudeste Asiático, afectando negativamente la subsistencia de los pequeños productores. Recientemente, se ha extendido a África (Mozambique) y al Medio Oriente, causando preocupaciones de su posible propagación al subcontinente indio y América Latina con repercusiones graves para los pequeños productores, los trabajadores y la cadena de valor del banano.

Fall Armyworm is a transboundary insect pest that feeds on more than 80 crop plants, particularly maize when available, and it is able to move 100 km per night. It can cause significant yield losses if not well managed and has a high potential to affect food security.To support farmers and countries in responding to the FAW threat, FAO has taken a lead role in providing technical expertise, policy advice, training, coordination, and communication on FAW management.

The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) is the most destructive pest of palms, causing widespread damage to several palm species in diverse agro-ecosystems worldwide. This information sheet illustrates Mauritania’s pest management success story through an innovative participatory approach. It describes how FAO engaged farmers of Tidjikja to protect their oasis against RPW with inspection for early detection, treatment techniques, trap management and date palm cleaning.

Rinderpest is a highly contagious disease that, throughout history, has resulted in the mortality of hundreds of millions of livestock and has caused significant disruption and damage to agricultural supply chains throughout the world. FAO, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and regional partners implemented the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme, which brought an end to the disease in 2011. Rinderpest is the first animal disease to be eradicated worldwide.

This information sheet focuses on the work that the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) – a global network jointly managed by FAO and WHO – is doing to prevent, prepare, and respond to food safety events and emergencies. INFOSAN contributes to efficient prevention and control of cross-border spread of unsafe food through information sharing among countries in case of food safety emergencies. It also fosters a global community of practice among food safety professionals. The INFOSAN Secretariat’s arm at FAO is located in the FAO Food Safety and Quality Unit, specifically in the Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) – Food Safety programme.

The information sheet describes The information sheet describes the results achieved by the ‘Programme to improve national and regional locust management in Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA)’ established in 2011. The Programme is based on the key concepts of the locust preventive control strategy consisting of monitoring locust habitats. Early to detection of changes in number, density, behaviour and appearance within the locust populations leads to reduced damage on crops and rangelands, reduced negative impact on human health and environment due to less use of chemicals and reduced cost.

The information sheet also describes the way forward to the Programme, based on a common vision, objectives, expected results and envisaged activities for the coming five years. 

Chestnut (Castanea species) are trees providing crucial resources for livelihoods in many parts of the world, with a wide range of economic, social and environmental benefits. The Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW) Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is considered to be one of the most harmful insect pests of chestnut varieties in the world and can cause serious damage. However, protecting forest health from ACGW is possible using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles including classical biological control methods.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging threat for public health globally and can be a cause of severe respiratory infection in humans, especially those suffering other ailments. Dromedary camels are thought to be a natural reservoir of MERS-CoV and can be a source of infection for humans. MERS-CoV is transmitted from person to person through close contact, especially in healthcare settings. However, there is currently no evidence of sustained person-to-person spread.

The Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria, is the world’s most dangerous migratory pest with a voracious appetite unmatched in the insect world. Established in 1955 by FAO, when the world was in the midst of a 12-year-long Desert Locust plague, the Desert Locust Control Committee (DLCC) is the primary forum that brings together locust-affected countries, donors and other agencies to discuss Desert Locust management under the FAO umbrella. DLCC is also the primary advisory body to the Director-General of FAO on all Desert Locust issues.

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when micro-organisms – bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites – evolve resistance to antimicrobial substances, like antibiotics, antifungals and others. This occurs naturally through adaptation to the environment or through selective pressure when microorganisms come into contact with antimicrobials. The process is accelerated when there is inappropriate or excessive use of antimicrobials. As a result, medicines that were once effective treatments for disease in people and animals become less effective or not effective at all, leading to a reduced ability to successfully treat infections. This in turn leads to more severe or prolonged illnesses, increased mortality, production losses in agriculture and reduced livelihoods and food security.

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