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CRISIS DE LA CADENA ALIMENTARIA

Hoja informativa del FCC-EMPRES

En esta sección se presentan las actividades básicas del EMPRES del MGCCA, exponiendo programas e iniciativas eficaces que ilustran la función que la FAO desempeña para ayudar a los Estados Miembros a prevenir las plagas y enfermedades transfronterizas de animales y plantas de elevado impacto y las amenazas para la inocuidad alimentaria, así como a prepararse y responder ante las mismas.
En una serie de hojas de información se exponen las iniciativas que la FAO ha presentado y desarrollado, los ámbitos que ha mejorado y, sobre todo, los logros alcanzados respecto de la prevención de situaciones de emergencia que afectan a la cadena alimentaria y respecto de la preparación y la respuesta ante las mismas.

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when micro-organisms – bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites – evolve resistance to antimicrobial substances, like antibiotics, antifungals and others. This occurs naturally through adaptation to the environment or through selective pressure when microorganisms come into contact with antimicrobials. The process is accelerated when there is inappropriate or excessive use of antimicrobials. As a result, medicines that were once effective treatments for disease in people and animals become less effective or not effective at all, leading to a reduced ability to successfully treat infections. This in turn leads to more severe or prolonged illnesses, increased mortality, production losses in agriculture and reduced livelihoods and food security.

The human food chain is under continued threat from an alarming increase in the number of outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs). Considering the resurgence of certain animal diseases, and persistent threats posed by TADs, a strong emphasis is needed to continue FAO efforts towards building country capacities in preparedness for animal disease emergencies. Planning for emergency disease eradication and control programmes enables regions and national veterinary services to be better equipped to cope with the emergency and achieve rapid and cost-efficient control.

Wheat is the most widely grown crop globally and a source of food and livelihoods for over 1 billion people in many developing countries. Rust diseases are historically the most damaging diseases of wheat. Their frequency, extent and impact has increased significantly in the last two decades causing global concerns. Their high capacity of developing new races makes most wheat varieties vulnerable to them. FAO is continuously re-enforcing its collaboration with partners to enhance countries’ capacities in prevention and preparedness to rust diseases.

In all regions of the world, livelihoods of people are sustained partially or entirely by the livestock sector. Livestock contribute approximately 40 percent of the global value of agricultural output and support the livelihoods and food security of almost a 1.3 billion people. Supporting efforts to reduce the risk of transboundary threats to animal and public health is critical.

Global disease intelligence and early warning, supported by science-based risk assessment are key to inform decisions, actions, and timely communication between agencies and sectors responsible for human health, animal health, wildlife, and food safety.

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a destructive, fast spreading viral disease that kills sheep and goats (small ruminants) and devastates livelihoods throughout most of Africa, the Middle East, West, Central and South Asia, and most recently East Asia. The PPR situation is dynamic and threatening. In 2016, the disease was reported for the first time in Georgia and Mongolia. FAO and OIE, in consultation with key stakeholders, developed a five-year Global Eradication Programme 2017-2021.

Invasive alien species (IAS) have become a serious threat to the productivity of forest plantations in many parts of the world. In Zimbabwe, there are three new invasive insects species on Eucalyptus plantations - bronze bug, blue gum chalcid, and red gum lerp psyllid - that are presently causing devastating damages to the Eucalyptus trees in the country. In order to control invasive alien insect species of Eucalyptus and prevent current and future pest incursions, FAO provides technical assistance to the country for the implementation of integrated forest pest management practices.

LOCUSTS are a serious threat to agro-pastoral resources, food security and livelihoods in Africa and Asia where they can have major economic, social and environmental impacts. Effective early response to locust infestations and their management relies on having well established and tested contingency plans before a locust emergency develops.

Transboundary animal diseases (terrestrial and aquatic), plant pests and diseases (agriculture and forest plants) and food safety hazards, are raising public awareness for their potential impact on food and nutrition security, human health, livelihoods, and trade. The ability to predict FCC threats through a forecasting process is imperative for Governments to act quickly by taking necessary measures to prevent these threats, limit their geographic spread and minimize their impact. To address this challenge, FAO Food Chain Crisis-Intelligence and Coordination Unit (FCC-ICU) developed an Integrated Forecasting Approach.

Fusarium Wilt Disease is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense and is one of the most destructive diseases of banana worldwide. Its new race Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) has been causing serious losses in Southeast Asia and severely affecting livelihoods of small producers. It has recently spread to Africa (Mozambique) and some countries of the Middle East. This is raising concerns that it might also spread to the Indian Sub-continent and Latin America.

In July 1965, the 44th session of the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) approved the establishment of the COMMISSION FOR CONTROLLING THE DESERT LOCUST IN THE CENTRAL REGION (CRC) based on recommendations by the 11th FAO Conference session (1961) and a Special Conference held in Beirut (1965). The agreement came into force on 21 February 1967. The CRC covers Northeast Africa and the Near East and comprises 16 member countries: Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

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