Кризис продовольственной цепи

информационный бюллетень FCC-ЭМПРЕС

В данном разделе представлены основные мероприятия FCC-ЭМПРЕС в рамках успешных программ и инициатив, демонстрирующих роль ФАО в оказании странам-членам поддержки в профилактике, обеспечении готовности и реагировании на вспышки опасных трансграничных вредителей и болезней животных и растений и угроз безопасности пищевых продуктов.
В серии информационных бюллетеней наглядно показывается, что ФАО предложила и разработала, что она усовершенствовала и, что самое главное, чего она добилась в профилактике, обеспечении готовности и реагировании на чрезвычайные ситуации, затрагивающие пищевую цепь.

Given the growing number of nuclear power plants and nuclear power stations being built, the aging of existing ones, and the nuclear incidents that have occurred in the past, the improvement of nuclear emergency preparedness and response in food and agriculture has never been more necessary and urgent.

A nuclear incident often leads to disarray, and may have long-term consequences for people, trade and the economy.

Lessons learned from previous power plant accidents have identified critical areas for improvement – including data sampling and analysis, data management, and data visualization for swift decision-making – which would allow food control and health authorities to respond and disseminate information to all relevant stakeholders on a timely basis. In addition, these improvements form the basis of an effective emergency response system that can protect the food chain and water supply systems and prevent the consumption of contaminated foods.

The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed the Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture (DSS4NAFA), a cloud-based Information Technology (IT) decision support system with improved capacity to manage large volumes of spatial and temporal data, real-time information processing and visualization, and provide enhanced aid to response actions and decision-making.

Tsetse-transmitted Trypanosomoses are a family of infectious diseases unique to Africa that are caused by various species of blood parasites. They affect both people (Human African Trypanosomosis – HAT, or sleeping sickness) and animals (African Animal Trypanosomosis – AAT, or nagana), and they occur in 37 sub-Saharan countries over an area of more than 10 million km² – which corresponds approximately to one-third of Africa’s total land area. The infection threatens over 50 million people and at least 50 million cattle.

The disease is often neglected by both endemic countries and donors as it mostly affects poor and vulnerable smallholders in rural areas.

In the framework of the Programme Against African Trypanosomosis (PAAT), FAO deals with the constraints that Trypanosomoses pose on agricultural production, rural development and food security.

The Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), FAW, is an insect native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In the absence of natural control or good management, it can cause significant damage to crops. It prefers maize, but can feed on more than 80 additional species of crops, including rice, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, vegetable crops and cotton.

FAO is taking an active role in coordinating partners’ activities, plans and approaches to provide sustainable solutions to the FAW challenge. An integral part of FAO’s sustainable management programme for FAW in Africa is the FAW Monitoring and Early Warning System (FAMEWS) that consists of a mobile app for data collection and a global platform for mapping the current situation.

The occurrence of the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa in the Apulia region in Italy, poses a serious threat for olive production in the Mediterranean countries. 

The host complexity of X. fastidiosa and the diverse ways of its dissemination make the disease more likely to be introduced into the Near East and North Africa (NENA) countries through the movement and trade of potentially infected host plants. These facts imposed the necessity of strengthening the phytosanitary measures applied in the region and putting in place a harmonized surveillance programme.

To face this challenge, FAO launched a Regional Technical Cooperation Project to help NENA countries in their efforts to enforce preventive measures for the introduction and spread of X. fastidiosa - Olive Quick Decline Syndrome - in their territories.

In recent years, outbreaks of animal diseases such as Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), African swine fever (ASF) and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) have had a devastating impact on communities’ livelihoods and food security. In addition, many animal diseases can spread to humans (known as zoonoses), sometimes with lethal outcomes, as seen with rabies, avian influenza and Rift Valley fever. 
To reduce the risk posed by these pathogens, it is necessary to establish a strong animal disease surveillance system that is capable of timely exchange of information with other sectors, such as public health and the environment. However, in many countries, the animal health systems are underdeveloped and underfunded, a factor that places these nations at a disadvantage when they are required to prepare for animal diseases, including zoonoses.
Strengthening the capacities of national veterinary services is therefore crucial to fill this gap and ensure that:
1. The impact of economically important livestock diseases such as FMD, ASF, PPR and avian influenza is reduced;
2. Countries are able to maintain disease-free status through efficient surveillance activities;
3. Zoonoses are detected in animals prior to their spillover to humans.

Саранчовые представляют серьезную угрозу сельскому хозяйству, в том числе лугам и пастбищным угодьям на Кавказе и в Цен- тральной Азии на площади более 25 млн. гa. Во время вспышек три основных вида саранчовых вредителей: азиатская перелетная саранча (Locusta migratoria migratoria), итальянский прус (Calliptamus italicus) и мароккская саранча (Dociostaurus maroccanus) наносят урон всем видам сельскохозяйственных культур и дикора-стущей растительности, угрожая тем самым продовольственной безопасности и средствам к существованию по крайней мере 20 млн. человек. Наиболее уязвимые слои населения - жители сельских районов, чьё здоровье и окружающая среда могут пострадать от отрицательного воз-действия противосаранчовых обработок.

Саранчовые – это мигрирующие вредители, способные перелетать на расстояние до 100 км в день и заселять новые территории, что повышает их вредоносность. Как на Кавказе, так и в Центральной Азии, постоянные очаги саранчовых зачастую расположены по обе стороны границ. Это нередко приводит к миграциям кулиг и перелетам стай через политические границы.

Саранчовые легко адаптируются к изменяющимся условиям среды и могут стать еще более опасными из-за глобального потепления и исключительных погодных явлений, связанных с изменением климата. С целью сокращения частоты и интенсивности саранчовых вспышек на Кавказе и в Центральной Азии ФАО, начиная с 2011 г., осуществляет “Программу по улучшению национальной и региональной борьбы с саранчой на Кавказе и в Центральной Азии”.

Pine dieback, caused by bark beetles, is severely damaging Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Belarus and Ukraine. Bark beetles usually attack dead or dying trees and serve as primary decomposers. However, under stressful conditions, such as drought or high tree density, they can attack and destroy healthy trees in large numbers, overcoming tree defenses. To face this situation, FAO is providing technical assistance for combating the dieback of pine forests using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies.

African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease that causes a haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and wild boar.  It is characterised by high fever, internal haemorrhage and multiple organ failure with a lethality that approaches 100 percent. ASF is currently widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Russian Federation and the Italian island of Sardinia. Its arrival in the Caucasus in 2007 and its progressive advance through the Russian Federation into Eastern Europe, where it now seems established, demonstrated the high potential for transboundary spread of ASF. In August 2018, China reported the occurrence of ASF for the very first time.

Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD) caused by the virus named Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) is listed among the world’s worst 100 invasive species. BBTD is currently a major threat to banana cultivation in sub-Saharan Africa, and a menace for over 100 million people for whom banana is the major staple food.

FAO has been supporting countries in their efforts to control BBTD through awareness raising, farmer training and capacity building in various areas such as surveillance, diagnosis, prevention and integrated disease management.

The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata Wied., is considered a major agricultural pest worldwide because of its direct damage to fruit and vegetable production, and restrictions imposed to commercialization of horticultural commodities by countries free of the pest. The presence of this pest was officially reported in the Dominican Republic in March 2015. IAEA, FAO and USDA immediately joined hands to assist the country in establishing a national monitoring network to delimit the distribution of the outbreak and initiate an eradication campaign with support from the Guatemala, Mexico, USA Moscamed Programme and regional organizations. In July 2017, the Caribbean country declared officially that it is free of the invasive pest, only two years after an outbreak led to considerable damage to its agricultural industry.

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