食物链危机

FCC-EMPRES系统信息资料

本节介绍FCC-EMPRES系统通过成功的计划和举措开展的核心活动,阐明粮农组织支持成员国预防、防备、应对跨界和高影响动植物病虫害以及食品安全威胁的作用。

制作的一系列宣传材料展示了粮农组织在预防、防备和应对危及食物链的突发事件中采取的行动、开发的手段、改进的系统以及最重要的是取得的成就。

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when micro-organisms – bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites – evolve resistance to antimicrobial substances, like antibiotics, antifungals and others. This occurs naturally through adaptation to the environment or through selective pressure when microorganisms come into contact with antimicrobials. The process is accelerated when there is inappropriate or excessive use of antimicrobials. As a result, medicines that were once effective treatments for disease in people and animals become less effective or not effective at all, leading to a reduced ability to successfully treat infections. This in turn leads to more severe or prolonged illnesses, increased mortality, production losses in agriculture and reduced livelihoods and food security.

The human food chain is under continued threat from an alarming increase in the number of outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs). Considering the resurgence of certain animal diseases, and persistent threats posed by TADs, a strong emphasis is needed to continue FAO efforts towards building country capacities in preparedness for animal disease emergencies. Planning for emergency disease eradication and control programmes enables regions and national veterinary services to be better equipped to cope with the emergency and achieve rapid and cost-efficient control.

In all regions of the world, livelihoods of people are sustained partially or entirely by the livestock sector. Livestock contribute approximately 40 percent of the global value of agricultural output and support the livelihoods and food security of almost a 1.3 billion people. Supporting efforts to reduce the risk of transboundary threats to animal and public health is critical.

Global disease intelligence and early warning, supported by science-based risk assessment are key to inform decisions, actions, and timely communication between agencies and sectors responsible for human health, animal health, wildlife, and food safety.

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a destructive, fast spreading viral disease that kills sheep and goats (small ruminants) and devastates livelihoods throughout most of Africa, the Middle East, West, Central and South Asia, and most recently East Asia. The PPR situation is dynamic and threatening. In 2016, the disease was reported for the first time in Georgia and Mongolia. FAO and OIE, in consultation with key stakeholders, developed a five-year Global Eradication Programme 2017-2021.

Invasive alien species (IAS) have become a serious threat to the productivity of forest plantations in many parts of the world. In Zimbabwe, there are three new invasive insects species on Eucalyptus plantations - bronze bug, blue gum chalcid, and red gum lerp psyllid - that are presently causing devastating damages to the Eucalyptus trees in the country. In order to control invasive alien insect species of Eucalyptus and prevent current and future pest incursions, FAO provides technical assistance to the country for the implementation of integrated forest pest management practices.

LOCUSTS are a serious threat to agro-pastoral resources, food security and livelihoods in Africa and Asia where they can have major economic, social and environmental impacts. Effective early response to locust infestations and their management relies on having well established and tested contingency plans before a locust emergency develops.

Transboundary animal diseases (terrestrial and aquatic), plant pests and diseases (agriculture and forest plants) and food safety hazards, are raising public awareness for their potential impact on food and nutrition security, human health, livelihoods, and trade. The ability to predict FCC threats through a forecasting process is imperative for Governments to act quickly by taking necessary measures to prevent these threats, limit their geographic spread and minimize their impact. To address this challenge, FAO Food Chain Crisis-Intelligence and Coordination Unit (FCC-ICU) developed an Integrated Forecasting Approach.

In July 1965, the 44th session of the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) approved the establishment of the COMMISSION FOR CONTROLLING THE DESERT LOCUST IN THE CENTRAL REGION (CRC) based on recommendations by the 11th FAO Conference session (1961) and a Special Conference held in Beirut (1965). The agreement came into force on 21 February 1967. The CRC covers Northeast Africa and the Near East and comprises 16 member countries: Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

Accidental or malicious releases of radioactive material have the potential to threaten health and disrupt life. Experience has shown that communities, agricultural production and food trade can be affected by major accidents. Such events may have international or even global consequences, therefore, it is important to prepare and make arrangements for dealing with them. The the Joint FAO/IAEA Division serves as the focal point for cooperation by channelling information, supporting efforts and providing its services.

The FAO Commission for controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region (CLCPRO) strengthens national capacities of locust-affected countries in West and Northwest Africa in planning, training, research and effective and timely response to Desert Locust invasions in order to prevent upsurges and plagues. The Commission contributes significantly to food and livelihoods security in northern Africa through its regional approach in preventing serious damage that locusts can inflict on pastures and agricultural production in the concerned member countries.

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