食物链危机

FCC-EMPRES系统信息资料

本节介绍FCC-EMPRES系统通过成功的计划和举措开展的核心活动,阐明粮农组织支持成员国预防、防备、应对跨界和高影响动植物病虫害以及食品安全威胁的作用。

制作的一系列宣传材料展示了粮农组织在预防、防备和应对危及食物链的突发事件中采取的行动、开发的手段、改进的系统以及最重要的是取得的成就。

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a destructive, fast spreading viral disease that kills sheep and goats (small ruminants) and devastates livelihoods throughout most of Africa, the Middle East, West, Central and South Asia, and most recently East Asia. The PPR situation is dynamic and threatening. In 2016, the disease was reported for the first time in Georgia and Mongolia. FAO and OIE, in consultation with key stakeholders, developed a five-year Global Eradication Programme 2017-2021.

Invasive alien species (IAS) have become a serious threat to the productivity of forest plantations in many parts of the world. In Zimbabwe, there are three new invasive insects species on Eucalyptus plantations - bronze bug, blue gum chalcid, and red gum lerp psyllid - that are presently causing devastating damages to the Eucalyptus trees in the country. In order to control invasive alien insect species of Eucalyptus and prevent current and future pest incursions, FAO provides technical assistance to the country for the implementation of integrated forest pest management practices.

LOCUSTS are a serious threat to agro-pastoral resources, food security and livelihoods in Africa and Asia where they can have major economic, social and environmental impacts. Effective early response to locust infestations and their management relies on having well established and tested contingency plans before a locust emergency develops.

Transboundary animal diseases (terrestrial and aquatic), plant pests and diseases (agriculture and forest plants) and food safety hazards, are raising public awareness for their potential impact on food and nutrition security, human health, livelihoods, and trade. The ability to predict FCC threats through a forecasting process is imperative for Governments to act quickly by taking necessary measures to prevent these threats, limit their geographic spread and minimize their impact. To address this challenge, FAO Food Chain Crisis-Intelligence and Coordination Unit (FCC-ICU) developed an Integrated Forecasting Approach.

In July 1965, the 44th session of the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) approved the establishment of the COMMISSION FOR CONTROLLING THE DESERT LOCUST IN THE CENTRAL REGION (CRC) based on recommendations by the 11th FAO Conference session (1961) and a Special Conference held in Beirut (1965). The agreement came into force on 21 February 1967. The CRC covers Northeast Africa and the Near East and comprises 16 member countries: Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

Accidental or malicious releases of radioactive material have the potential to threaten health and disrupt life. Experience has shown that communities, agricultural production and food trade can be affected by major accidents. Such events may have international or even global consequences, therefore, it is important to prepare and make arrangements for dealing with them. The the Joint FAO/IAEA Division serves as the focal point for cooperation by channelling information, supporting efforts and providing its services.

The FAO Commission for controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region (CLCPRO) strengthens national capacities of locust-affected countries in West and Northwest Africa in planning, training, research and effective and timely response to Desert Locust invasions in order to prevent upsurges and plagues. The Commission contributes significantly to food and livelihoods security in northern Africa through its regional approach in preventing serious damage that locusts can inflict on pastures and agricultural production in the concerned member countries.

The ability of diagnostic laboratories to detect and characterize infectious agents, and therefore to support the prevention and management of health threats, is frequently constrained by lack of skilled personnel, accurate and consistent laboratory methods and quick data exchange systems.To address these gaps, FAO, in 2010, developed the Laboratory Mapping Tool (LMT) to aid laboratory assessment, and in particular to assess the functionality and capacities of veterinary laboratories.

TRANSBOUNDARY AQUATIC ANIMAL DISEASES (TAADS) are a primary constraint to sustainable aquaculture production, and have a significant socio-economic and environmental impact in several aquaculture countries and regions of the world. The impact of TAADs are particularly hard-felt by small-scale farmers, who represent the backbone of many rural communities in developing as well as developed countries.

MONITORING, providing EARLY WARNING, and acting promptly to control outbreaks of locust and other migratory pests are crucial to ensure that timely and appropriate action can be taken when an emergency arises. The Desert Locust Information Service (DLIS) at FAO Headquarters continuously monitors global weather, ecological conditions and the locust situation. Geo-referenced data in the field are collected and analysed on a daily basis. This analysis, carried out by the national control locust centres and by FAO DLIS, relies on a range of computer-based software tools which were developed by FAO and several partners for early warning purposes. The handheld device called eLocust is a striking example of these tools. These components constitute the oldest migratory pest monitoring and early warning system in the world.

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