World Forestry Congress XII
THURSDAY, 25 SEPTEMBER 2003
As reported by International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
Throughout the day, XII World Forestry Congress (WFC) delegates participated in technical visits and side events on: knowledge management; community-based forest management; assessing the science of, and defining priorities for, Canada¿s boreal forest; participation of forest peoples and civil society in national and international forest policy making;Pacific Rim timber trade versus SFM; the construction of social capital for sustainable development in forest areas; theWWF-Lafarge partnership on forest landscape restoration and industry leadership in SFM.
A global conversation of community-based forest management
Presented by the National Forest Foundation - National Network of Forest Practitioners,CCSAFC, and the International Network of Forests and Communities
WendyHinrichs Sanders,Communities Committee of the Seventh American Forest Congress (CCSAFC), explained that the objective of the side event was to establish a dialogue on success stories, lessons learned, challenges to, and recommendations for, community-based forest management (CBFM). Narayan Kaji Shrestha, Regional Community Forestry Training Center for Asia and the Pacific, noted that training played a role in overcoming the adherence to outdated practices and raising awareness among community members and administrators of opportunities provided by new forestry legislation in Nepal.
Martin Kijazi, University of Toronto, provided perspectives on the devolution of forest management rights to communities in Tanzania, stressing that adequate property rights, tangible economic benefits, and institutions that balance the interests of, and establish trust between, various stakeholders are necessary preconditions for successful CBFM. Eleanor Torres,CCSAFC, described projects established in cooperation with urban communities and informal district groups, emphasizing that non-traditional partnerships are necessary to establish CBFM projects in urban areas.
Participants discussed the role of equity, power and continuity in CBFM. One participant noted the need for flexible approaches allowing for gender equity, referring to constraints on women¿s participation in Guatemala. Others noted that funding can impose inadequate timelines on projects. Some participants recommended involving ecologists in CBFM and encouraged foresters to approach CBFM with patience.
Links to more information:
Wendy Hinrichs Sanders: firstname.lastname@example.org
Narayan Kaji Shrestha: email@example.com
Martin Kijazi: firstname.lastname@example.org
Eleanor Torres: email@example.com
Knowledge management workshop
Presented by Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Workshop
Albert Simard, Canadian Forest Service (CFS), explained the goals of and processes used to create knowledge management in the CFS. He defined knowledge management as developing organizational capacity and processes to capture, preserve, share and integrate data, information and knowledge to support organizational goals, learning and adaptation. He noted that committed employees as well as strong leadership are needed to develop and communicate a vision and strategy to, inter alia, managers and external stakeholders, as part of the change process. Simard outlined the goals of knowledge management, including sharing knowledge between different organizations, and preserving knowledge within an organization. He noted that the CFS¿s practice of knowledge management will bring its information to a larger client base and make the CFS a preferred source of knowledge. Caroline Cook, CFS, facilitated a group discussion on the following issues: whether there is a need for a global Community of Practice (COP) on knowledge management; what a COP on knowledge management would accomplish; what hinders and facilitates establishing a COP on forestry knowledge management; and how to realize a COP on forestry knowledge management. In the ensuing discussion, some participants stated that technology transfer is not a prerequisite for knowledge management and said consensus on definitions and objectives of knowledge management would help facilitate a broader understanding of the issues.
Link to more information:
Albert Simard: firstname.lastname@example.org
Caroline Cook: email@example.com
Pacific Rim timber trade versus SFM
Presented by Pacific Environment
Cynthia Josayma, Pacific Environment, noted that timber trade in the Pacific Rim is growing exponentially and drew attention to the resulting threats to indigenous peoples and local communities. Alexander Arbachakov, Taiga Research and Protection Agency, called for environmental impact assessments and public control and monitoring in light of the mismanagement and illegal logging of Russian forests. Irina Bogdan, Ecodal Environmental Law Group, explained that, according to the Russian Constitution, all citizens own the country¿s natural resources and should therefore be directly involved in the public management of forests. She indicated that Russia lacks environmental and biodiversity protection policies and only protects indigenous peoples¿ access to forests in declared traditional-use areas. Damien Ase, Center for Environmental Law and Community Rights, explained that Papua New Guinea¿s rainforest is collectivelyowned by indigenous peoples and that their free prior informed consent is necessary for any development, however, illegal logging is still a problem. Hu Kanping, Friends of Nature, explained how his organization tries to raise awareness about the harmful impact of timber trade on local communities and sustainable consumption, noting that China¿s growing population is a cause of increased wood imports. Toyoyuki Kawakami, Advocacy and Monitoring Network, explained that Japanese family-based forestry operations cannot compete with inexpensive international imports, warning that trade liberalization will further increase these pressures. He proposed monitoring and certification regimes, to indicate legally and illegally harvested timber.
Links to more information:
Cynthia Josayma: firstname.lastname@example.org
Alexander Arbachakov: email@example.com
Irina Bogdan: firstname.lastname@example.org
Damien Ase: email@example.com
Hu Kanping: firstname.lastname@example.org
Toyoyuki Kawakami: email@example.com
Participation of forest peoples and civil society in national and international forest policy making
Presented by the Forest Peoples Programme
Tom Griffiths, Forest Peoples Programme, said the side event aims to highlight the experiences of indigenous peoples¿ and civil society organizations¿in participating in policy making, noting that, despite relevant standards, this involvement it is often too late and ineffective. Miguel Lovera, Global Forest Coalition, said civil society participation in international fora is often confined to ¿damage control¿ and results in an inadvertent legitimizing of policy making processes, rather than delivers positive policy outcomes. Russell Diabo, Algonquins of Barriere Lake, said poverty and the lack of information and technical expertise hamper participation, and noted that court appeals and blockades are often more successful than negotiations with government.
Jutta Kill, Forests and the European Union Resource Network (FERN), said the key to a successful participatory process is a clear understanding of its goals at the outset and equal opportunity for all stakeholders to have their issues addressed and documented. Noting that larger NGOs often have greater influence over consultation processes than community groups, Alison Dyke, Reforesting Scotland, recommended persistent lobbying efforts and the creation of community advocacy groups. Participants described their experiences at local and national levels, including court appeals, protests, ultimatums, alliances between indigenous peoples and peasants, and regional roundtables.
Participants highlighted the low mobility of indigenous peoples and their lack of lobbying skills, and called for dedicated funds and a change of attitude within the donor community to support indigenous peoples¿ participation in UN processes. They discussed, inter alia: whether there is a need for selective participation of, or an overall increase in, indigenous peoples¿ participation in global processes; how to change the modalities of international fora; the effectiveness of boycotts versus participation in policy making; the importance of ensuring direct links between lobbyists and local communities; and the need for greater use of internet and media campaigns.
Links to more information:
Construction of social capital for sustainable development in forest areas
Presented by CODERSA: the Secretariat for "the Participatory Forestry Network in Latin America and the Caribbean"
Luis Astorga, Astorga Consultants, presented on sustainable development and poverty in rural Latin America, noting that as the productivity of natural resources decreases, production and income decline while unemployment and migration rise. Astorga said poverty alleviation efforts frequently fail because they do not build social capital, which he defined as the combination of social relations and the decision-making capacity of a community. He said the necessary elements for building social capital include: ownership of land and natural resources; local and technical knowledge; market access; financing; and management capacity.He stated that the construction of social capital has been limited by the structure of power, the paternalistic approach of NGOs and governments, and the differences in the objectives and interests among stakeholders. He called for strengthening local capacities and organizations, self-management, capacity building, institutionalization of participation and transparent communication.Ingrid Schreuel, Consultants for Rural Sustainable Development SA (CODERSA), explained that CODERSA, a network operating in Latin America and the Caribbean, aims to facilitate the exchange of experiences, spread knowledge of SFM, monitor the development of participation processes, and facilitate initiatives that constuct social capital. Schreuel described CODERSA¿s future actions, which include: forming national networks; creating negotiating fora; facilitating inter-community exchange; and promoting capacity building.
Canada¿s boreal forest: Taking stock, accessing the science and defining priorities
Presented by Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
Gordon Miller, Canadian Forest Service (CFS), outlined that the side event¿s objectives were to set boreal forest science research priorities and forge partnerships. Valery Roshchupkin, Ministry of Natural Resources in the Russian Federation, provided an overview of the geography of the Russian boreal forest, noting that climate change and biodiversity are important areas of policy development in Russia. John Spence, University of Alberta, took stock of boreal forest science in Canada, stressing the importance ofdifferentiating between science and values in the area of forestry research. He argued that protecting biodiversity implies protecting all species, not simply those with popular appeal. He also said that managing biodiversity at the landscape level is important, but should not come at the expense of mezzo- and micro-level research. Joseph Anawati, CFS, presented the results of a workshop that enabled researchers from the CFS, the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), the Sustainable Forest Management Network, Ducks Unlimited and the Canadian Boreal Initiative to set a boreal forest science-based research agenda. Anawati said workshop participants emphasized the need for more research on, inter alia, human dimensions of forests, riparian zones, and biodiversity,concluding that boreal forest science offers stakeholders a forum for identifying common ground. Samantha Song, CWS, described the work of a new CWS programme called the Western Boreal Conservation Initiative. Song identified numerous human activities in the boreal, including oil and gas extraction, peat mining, hydroelectric development and agricultural conversion, noting that some activities threaten boreal biodiversity. She stressed the need for a better understanding of climate change, and more efforts to prevent species from becoming endangered. Eric Butterworth, Ducks Unlimited, said partnerships with the Canadian Model Forest Program and the National Hydrology Research Centre have played an important role in Ducks Unlimited¿s efforts to conserve critical boreal wetland habitat, and stressed that the donor community places great emphasis on partnerships. Anatoly Shvidenko, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, described the International Boreal Forest Research Alliance, and said social interaction at scientific conferences is an important aspect of scientific research.
Links to more information:
Gordon Miller: firstname.lastname@example.org
Chris Lee: email@example.com
WWF-Lafarge partnership of forest landscapes restoration: A model of successful collaboration in forestry between business and environmental NGOs
Presented by WWF International and Lafarge
Jeff Sayer, WWF International, presented the Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration between WWF and Lafarge, a manufacturer of building materials, as a good example of a public-private partnership. He stressed the importance of forest landscape restoration as an emerging approach in conservation.
Michel Picard, Lafarge, described the history of the company¿s partnership with WWF, which arose from WWF and Lafarge¿s mutual interest in restoring landscapes. He underlined Lafarge¿s commitment to the partnership as well as to improving the company¿s environmental performance.
Jill Bowling, WWF, presented her vision of the partnership, noting that collaboration, rather than conflict, can help advance the conservation agenda. She stated that although dialogue with business partners is sometimes difficult, it can bring tangible, positive results, and noted that the partnership with Lafarge extends to areas of toxic substances and carbon emission reductions.
Steve Price, WWF Canada, described WWF and Lafarge¿s work in the sensitive Bow River Valley in Alberta, to map known and potential wildlife habitats and identify conservation actions. He said the partnership enables the sharing of knowledge and expertise between partners.
Links to more information:
Jeff Sayer: firstname.lastname@example.org
Michel Picard: email@example.com
Jill Bowling: firstname.lastname@example.org
Steve Price: email@example.com
Industry leadership in SFM
Presented by the Forest Products Association of Canada
Wulf Killmann, Forest Products and Economics Division of the FAO, presented an overview of forest production, international trade, food from forests and market mechanisms to mitigate climate chag e effects. He said forecasts predict half of the world¿s timber consumption will come from forest plantations by 2050. In closing, he stressed the need for cooperation between NGOs and the private sector to promote SFM. Carlos Aguiar, Aracruz Celulose SA, noted the favorable conditions for the forest industry in Brazil, which include land availability, favorable climate and advanced forestry technology. He underscored his company¿s focus on sustained investment in local education and water projects. Thomas Jorling, International Paper, stressed the benefits of wood products, discussed social and economic aspects of SFM and said SFMs greatest challenge is to extend to privately-owned forests. Avrim Lazar, Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC), described FPAC's efforts to ensure SFM and underscored the need to integrate social, environmental and economic considerations into forest management. He concluded by challenging all national forest products associations to urge third-party certification as an international industry standard.