9. Area and distance measurement

Kleinn, Christoph; Traub, Berthold & Hoffmann, Christian. 2002. A note on the Slope Correction and the Estimation of the Length of Line Features. In Canadian Jornal of Forest Research / Revue Canadienne de la Recherche Forestière, 32 (4), 751-756. (available at Abstract: http://www.nrc.ca/cgi-bin/cisti/journals/rp/rp2_abst_e?cjfr_x02-004_32_ns_nf_cjfr4-02.)

Length of line features, such as forest border, is among the ecologically interesting attributes estimated from forest inventories. In hilly terrain, observed line lengths must be corrected for slope. Contrary to the correction for standard area-related attributes (like volume per hectare), an overall correction of plot size is not sufficient, but the actual inclination of each individual line segment must be used for slope correction. This topic is discussed, and a mean correction factor is calculated as a function of terrain inclination assuming a uniform angular distribution of lines on the slope. Furthermore, the question is discussed whether the standard slope correction procedure for fixed-area circular field plots may possibly introduce a systematic error into the estimation of line length and also of standard area-related attributes (from Abstract).


Kleinn- C. 2000. Estimating Metrics of Forest Spatial Pattern from Large Area Forest Inventory Cluster Samples. In Forest Science, 46(4), 548-557. (available at Abstract: http://www.safnet.org/pubs/forscience/highlights00.htm#nov00.)

This paper describes a technique for deriving some metrics of forest spatial pattern from non-mapped forest inventory samples. The technique is developed for clusters of subplots, though applicable also for other plot types. It evaluates the area of the three categories: forest, non-forest, and buffer, estimated by the percentage of cluster plots where all, none, or some subplot centers fall into forest. Of particular interest is the buffer area, which is an imagined strip along the forest boundary: the larger this area, the more forest boundaries there are, and the more fragmented the forest pattern is.


LeBlanc, John W. Measuring Distances by Pacing. University of California. USA. (available at http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/departments/espm/extension/PACING.HTM.)

Describe the method of distance measurement using pacing, slope correction