11. Equipments, tools and methods for measurements

Anon. 1998. How Much Lumber in That Tree?. Extension Bulletin 461, Natural Resource Series, Michigan State University Upper Peninsula Forestry Extension office.

Uses of Baltimore Stick to estimate diameter and height of a tree and determination of tree volume based on the measurement obtained from Baltimore stick.


Baillie, M.G. 1982. Tree Ring Dating and Archaeology. 274pp, London, Croom Helm.

It covers with brief outline of the Dendrochronology and relative dating of the tree ring to find out the age of the tree.


Banyard, S.G. 1983. Relascope Sampling in Tectona Grandis (with special reference to stands in Java). Proceeding of BIOTROP Symposium on �Mensurational Problems of Forest Inventory in Southeast Asia�, 26-28 June 1980. BIOTROP Special Publication No. 19, BIOTROP.

Relascope sampling is appropriate in stands of strongly fluted species like Teak, but due consideration has to be given. Correcting factors are developed and their application is discussed.


Bitterlich, Walter. 1984. The Relascope Idea: Relative Measurements in Forestry. Anon..

Basic principle of the Angle Count Sampling or point sampling, Use of Relascope, relative measurements obtained by Relascope, and the computer applications in Relascope


Carlson, Russell E. 1998. The Biltmore Stick: A tree measurement tool. 5pp, Tree Tech Consulting. Delaware, USA. (available at http://www.tree-tech.com/techrpt/frames1_techrpt.html.)

Uses of Baltimore stick for measuring tree diameter and height, and fundamental construction of Baltimore stick


Condit, Richard. 1998. Tropical Forest Census Plots. 211pp, Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag.

It includes the methodology and field methods for large forest plots. Simple procedures from delineation on map to measurements of tree and data analysis are described.


Davis, Trevor J., Klinkenberg, Brian, & Keller, C. P. 2002. Updating Inventory Using Oblique Videogrammetry and Fusion. In Journal of Forestry, Vol. 100, No. 2, Society of American Foresters, USA, 45-50.

A system of fusing GIS data with oblique video can help keep inventories far more current than is presently possible. This system is particularly suited to mapping forest opening and updating changes on a regular basis. Aerial video, data fusion, system.


Fuller, J. 1998. Participatory Monitoring of Forest Resources: Current Methodologies Being Developed in Thailand. Network Paper 23e, Rural Development Forestry Network. Overseas Development Institute. London. (available at http://www2.mtnforum.org/mtnforum/archives/reportspubs/library/fullj98a.htm.)
Grosengaugh, L. R. 1954. New tree-measurement Concepts: height accumulation, giant tree, taper and shape. Occasional paper /Southern Forest Experiment Station (New Orleans, La.), 38pp, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, USA.

Indirect method of measurement of height, taper and shape of a tree


Harry, J., Smith, G. & Worrall, J. edited. 1970. Tree-Ring Analysis with Special Reference to Northwest America. Proceeding of a conference on biology of tree-ring formation, methods of measurement of tree rings, methods of analysis, and uses of tree ring data, February 19 and 20, 1970. Bulletin no. 7. 125pp, The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry.

Included papers cover growth-ring analysis methods and measurement methods. Use of tree ring to estimate age and periodic volume increment, and impact of insect defoliation


Husch, B. 1971. Planning a Forest Inventory. FAO Forestry and Forest Products Studies No. 17. FAO, Rome. 121pp, FAO.

This study in intended to be of service in the planning of forest inventories. This study has stressed combined use of aerial and ground survey methods. This also covers one chapter on field measurement procedures.


Jonsson, Bengt. 1991. Electronic Instruments and Computerized Devices in Forest Management Planning. Report 23, 20pp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biometry and Forest Management, Sweden.

Electronic instruments and computerized devices are making great strides into the forest management planning sector. It describes about the uses of a data caliper, an automatic distance-meter, an electronic hypsometer, annual ring scanner, bark measurer, and bore supporter and extractor. With these instruments, great amounts of forest inventory data quickly, cheaply and securely with an accuracy and resolution. Section of Forest Mensuration and Management of the Faculty of Forestry within the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences these devices are used.


Kleinn, C. 2002. New Technologies and Methodologies for National Forest Inventories. Forest Assessment and Monitoring. In Unasylva - No. 210, 53 2002/3,

Advancement of technology may improve efficiency of forest assessments, leading to cost savings and/or improving accuracy and precision - but revolutionary changes are not expected.


Moran L.A.; Williams R.A. 2002. Field Note-Comparison of Three Dendrometers in Measuring Diameter at Breast Height Field. In Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 19(1), 28-33. (available at Abstract: http://www.ingenta.com/isis/searching/ExpandTOC/ingenta?issue=infobike://saf/njaf/2002/00000019/00000001&index=5&WebLogicSession=PN6X4Z0us49WrBIWg5EQ|-6583967751972381362/-1052814329/6/7051/7051/7052/7052/7051/-1.)

Three dendrometers: d-tape, calipers, and Biltmore stick, are used to measure diameter at breast height (dbh), and discrepancies that occurred among these instruments were compared. Three methods of dbh estimation with caliper�the quadratic, arithmetic, and geometric mean of the major and minor axis diameter are compared.


Myint- Moe; Pradhan- Pramod. 1999. Integration of GIS- Remote Sensing and Ecological Methods for Biodiversity Inventory and Assessment. Issues in Mountain Development (1999/4). ISSN: 1608-2125 (Online). (available at http://www.icimod.org/publications/imd/imd99-4.htm.)

The significance of Geographic Information Systems is in assessing the relative values; richness of species, dominance, fragmentation, porosity, and so on. Methods and parameters are described briefly with the use of tables to define some of the parameters. Useful reference material is given for those interested in pursuing this topic in depth.


Schweingruber, F.H. 1993. Trees and Wood in Dendrochronology: Morphological, Anatomical, and Tree-Ring Analytical Characteristics of Trees Frequently Used in Dendrochronology. 402pp, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, Springer-Verlag.

This book about Dendrochronology describes the macroscopic and microscopic wood and tree ring features with the development and form of stem cross section. It presented monographic features of few tree species from Eurasia, North America and Southern Hemisphere.


Stahl, Göran; Ringvall, Anna & Lämas. 2000. Guided Transect Sampling for Assessing Sparse Populations. In Forest Science, the Society of American Foresters, 31 (3), 108-115.

In this paper, guided transect sampling is compared with a traditional strip survey under different simulated forest conditions. The comparisons indicated that the proposed method can improve the efficiency of transect based inventories of sparse population


Stumpf, K.A. 1993. The Estimation of Forest Vegetation Cover Descriptions Using a Vertical Densitometer. (available at http://www.grsgis.com/publications/saf_93.html.)

The utilization of a vertical sampling tool, such as a canopy densitometer, along linear transects provides a reasonable means of generating reliable cover estimates. Estimates represent both the horizontal and vertical diversity of sample areas and may represent descriptions of species composition, size, and canopy structure as well as non-tree characteristics, such as ground surface conditions and shrub or herbaceous cover


Uebelhör, K. 1988. Praktische Erfahrungen Mit Winkelzählprbe und Breitbandrelaskot im Tropischen Regenwald. In Forstarchiv., 59, 47-52.

Uses of Relascope in Tropical rain forest of Philippines. It describes the possibility in improving errors due to reading and illustrated one example from the field also.