Environmental applications of poplars and willows
1. Willows beyond wetlands: uses of Salix L. species for environmental projects This paper provides an overview of the increasing number of environmental uses to whihc willow are being put.
2. Willow silage – an alternative to winter fodder. A publication from the South Asia Pro Poor Livestock Policy Programme
3. Examples of agroforestry in India – some photographs showing different crops grown with poplar plantations
1. Phytoremediation Resource Guide - USEPA (1999)
2. Phytoremediation of TCE in Groundwater by Populus J.Chappell (1997) status report prepared for US EPA. Briefly summarizes the current state of phytoremediation technology, and then focus on the use of poplar trees (Populus sp.) to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater
3. Phytoremediation technologies using trees - a chapter by I.D. Pulford and N.M. Dickinson in the following publication: Trace Elements in the Environment 2005 (Eds. Prassad, M.N.V., and Naidu, R.), CRC Press, New York, pp. 375-395. [ISBN 15 6670 6858]
4. Cadmium uptake in willow and spring wheat in relation to plant growth and Cd concentration in soil solution MSc thesis by Eva Nylund, SLU 2003
5. Growth and trace metal accumulation of two Salix clones on sediment-derived soils with increasing contamination levels. The growth and metal uptake of two willow clones (Salix fragilis 'Belgisch Rood' and Salix viminalis 'Aage') was evaluated in a greenhouse pot experiment with six sediment-derived soils with increasing field Cd levels (0.9–41.4mgkg-1). Metal concentrations of eight elements were measured in roots, stems and leaves and correlated to total and soil water metal concentrations. Willow foliar Cd concentrations were strongly correlated with soil and soil water Cd concentrations. Both clones exhibited high accumulation levels of Cd and Zn in aboveground plant parts, making them suitable subjects for phytoextraction research. Cu, Cr, Pb, Fe, Mn and Ni were found mainly in the roots.
6. Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination. This report from the International Atomic Energy Authority examines a variety of technological options for dealing with dispersed low level contamination. The approaches are broadly grouped into the three categories of: (1) Non-intervention; (2) Containment; (3) Removal. The use of willow is discussed in relation tovalorisation and prevention of vertical and horizontal movement of radionuclides.
7. The concept of controlled afforestation of dredged sediment landfills polluted with heavy metals. This paper explores a range of land uses for their suitability for managment of polluted dredged sediments including poplar.
8. Phytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document April 2001. Prepared by the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group in the USA, the purpose of this document is to provide technical and regulatory guidance to help regulators understand, evaluate, and make informed decisions on phytotechnology proposals. This document includes a description of phytotechnologies, regulatory and policy issues, technical requirements for phytotechnologies, stakeholder concerns, case studies, and technical references.
9. Phytoremediation Decision Tree. The intent of this document is to provide a tool that can be used to determine if phytoremediation has the ability to be effective at a given site. It allows the user to take basic information from a specific site and, through a flowchart layout, decide if phytoremediation is feasible at that site.
10. Comparison of trichloroethylene toxicity, removal, and degradation by varieties of Populus and Salix for improved phytoremediation applications Miller, R. S., Khan, Z., and Doty, S. L. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation S7:001. Doi:10.4172/2155-6199.S7-001
11. Phytoremediation: using green plants to clean up contaminated soil, groundwater, and wastewater - Looks at Zn uptake in poplar. http://www.treemediation.com/Technical/Phytoremediation_1998.pdf
12. Phytoextraction of Cadmium from Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge, Andrew Maxted, 2002 (PhD Thesis), University of Nottingham http://etheses.nottingham.ac.uk/1887/1/273184.pdf
13. The art and science of phytoremediation using poplar – an overview of a range of projects using poplar to remediate wastewaters and contaminated land
1. Soil properties of a widely spaced, planted poplar(Populus deltoides)-pasture system in a hill environment Guevara-Escobar A.; Kemp P.D.; Mackay A.D.; Hodgson J. (2002), Australian Journal of Soil Research, 29 July 2002, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 873-886(14). Abstract available
2. Collins, A.J., Simon, A., Greaves M.P., and Thorne C.R.T. (2001). The role of willow root architecture and character in root reinforcement. RGS-IBG Annual Conference Proceedings
3. Thorne C.R.T., Collins A.J., Collison A., Simon A., and Wood A. (2001). Effects of vegetation on riverbank erosion and stability. RGS-IBG Annual Conference Proceedings
1. Effect of sewage sludge fertilization in short rotation willow plantations http://www.jeelm.vgtu.lt/upload/environ_zurn/105-111-jeelm-2007-2-lazd.pdf
1. Recycling of wastewater and sludge in willow plantations
2. Short rotation willow biomass plantations irrigated and fertilised with wastewaters 2003. This document is the final report of a four year field project conducted in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece which dealt with a number of different wastewater types
3. Performance and sustainability of short-rotation energy crops treated with municipal and industrial residues. This is a Doctoral dissertation by Ioannis Dimitriou at the Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences which looks at the management of municipal wastewater, landfill leachate and log-yard run off using short rotation willow
4. An alternative approach to nitrogen management in sewage treatment works. This is a conference paper which discusses the use of short rotation willow for tertiary polishing of sewage effluent, offers several examples of such systems and briefly considers the capital and operational costs
5. Phytoaccumulation of Sodium & Chloride Into Leaf, Woody, & Root Tissue of Populus Irrigated with Landfill Leachate Jalesny, J. (2007)
6. A description of three wastewater treatment schemes using willow in Estonia (in Estonian and English) http://www.zbi.ee/life/?kat=6
7. Twenty abstracts, posters and presentations dealing with willow and polar growing in Estonia with particular reference to environmental uses http://www.zbi.ee/life/?kat=10
8. Zero discharge of nutrients and water in a willow dominated constructed wetland http://mit.biology.au.dk/~biohbn/hansbrix/pdf_files/Wat_Sci_Tech_44%20(2001)%20407-412.pdf
9.Assessment of Microbial Health Hazards Associated With Wastewater Application to Willow Coppice, Coniferous Forest and Wetland Systems http://diss-epsilon.slu.se/archive/00001081/01/Kappa_Carlander.pdf
Capturing the Snow with Fast Growing Willow Living Snowfences. Presentation Available
1. Zalesney, R. (2007)Ecological Sustainability of Alternative Biomass Feedstock Production for Bioenergy & Environmental Benefits. Presentation Available