Final Report

Expert Consultation on
Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000

Kotka, Finland, 10-14 June 1996

(Extracted from: Proceedings of FAO Expert Consultation on Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 in Cooperation with ECE and UNEP with the support of the Government of Finland (Kotka III). Kotka, Finland, 10-14 June 1996. The Finnish Forest Research Institute. Research Papers 620, Helsinki 1996. pp 36-49)






Table of contents

Background

Global framework for FRA 2000

Wood supply

Biological diversity

Forest degradation

Climate change

Contribution of remote sensing

Adjustment of national data

Global Framework

Cooperation between international organisations

Annex 1: Indicators for Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 Recommendations of the Group on Criteria and Indicators

Annex 2: Global Framework for the FRA 2000




List of Tables

FRA Table 1: Area of forest and other wooded land

FRA Table 2: Protection status

FRA Table 3: Ownership

FRA Table 4: Ecofloristic zones

FRA Table 5: Wood supply potential

FRA Table 6: Changes over time

FRA Table 7: Growing stock and biomass

FRA Table 8: Fellings and removals

FRA Table 9: Fires on forest and other wooded land

FRA Table 10: Non-Wood Goods and Services





Final Report Expert Consultation onGlobal Forest Resources Assessment 2000



Background

  1. The Expert Consultation on Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 (Kotka Ill) was convened by FAO, in cooperation with UN/ ECE and UNEP and with the support of the Government of Finland, in Kotka from 10 to 14 June 1996. Its main objective was to propose a framework for the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 (FRA 2000) which is to provide the international community with an objective evaluation of the situation and trends of the world's forests and other wooded lands by the year 2000.


  2. The meeting took place in the context of an increasing interest worldwide on the state of the forests in all regions, as demonstrated by the importance given to the subject of forest conservation and development at UNCED and in its follow-up. It followed the publication in 1995 of the last reports of the Forest Resources Assessment 1990 coordinated by FAO and ECE and the holding in the same town of Kotka in May 1993 of the FAO/ECE Meeting of Experts on Global Forest Resources Assessment (''Kotka II'). It was held between the second and third sessions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) set up by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, which includes in its programme of work the review of the subject of periodic assessment of forests at the global level.


  3. The meeting took note of the importance given worldwide to the subject of global forest resources assessment. It therefore urged all governments as well as the international organizations concerned, including donor agencies, to give it the necessary priority by allocating sufficient means and funds, to provide the world community with the information it needs on the situation and evolution of the world's forests , in particular to ensure that the high level debate on forests is based on the best possible information.


  4. The meeting noted the importance of working in partnership with all interested parties to achieve major goals, such as the FRA 2000. Some of the important partners are the secretariats for the Conventions resulting from UNCED. The Kotka III meeting itself was an excellent example of constructive partnership between countries and between organisations. In this context the generous offer of the remote sensing community, articulated at the Washington meeting on remote sensing support to FRA 2000 in March 1996 was particularly welcomed, alongside the continuing cooperation between FAO and the EU TREES project. (Among the important partners are the secretariat for the conventions resulting from UNCED.)


  5. The meeting expressed concern that the Forest Resources Assessment 1990 had perhaps not had the influence it deserved in policy circles, possibly because of shortcomings in presentation, public relations and marketing. It urged the secretariat to raise the political and media profile of the FRA process by making the publication (and its supporting documentation and data bases) as attractive and user friendly as possible and by devoting time to the public relations aspect when presenting and disseminating its results.


  6. The meeting considered it was important for Global FRA 2000 to capture as many as possible of the indicators of sustainable forest management (SFM) identified by the on-going international processes on the formulation and application of criteria and indicators of SFM. It identified 15 indicators (out of a total of 80 indicators of the various regional processes) relevant at the global level which could be estimated by FRA 2000 and a few others which could be assessed in part (Annex 1). The meeting noted that there was already good agreement in different sets of criteria and indicators, but recommended further harmonization.


  7. The objectives of the meeting were to agree on ways in which the quality of information already included in FRA 90 could be improved and on how to respond to new information needs. Parameters to be included should meet the following conditions: (i) relevant and useful at international level and (ii) possible to assess with the available data acquisition tools at acceptable cost.

Global framework for FRA 2000

  1. The meeting reviewed the global framework on the basis of a draft prepared by Mr. T. Peck, papers prepared by Mr. P. Mengin-Lecreulx and by WCMC (presented by Ms. S. Iremonger) as well as a voluntary contribution by WWF (prepared by Mr. N. Dudley and Mr. C.Elliott), and work in groups during the meeting. The proposed Global Framework for the FRA 2000 is presented in this report (Annex 2).


  2. The conclusions of the meeting on the major topics discussed by the working groups are set out briefly below.


Wood supply

  1. The meeting identified the information needed to address the issue of sustainable management of forests for the supply of industrial wood and other wood, notably fuelwood. It identified suitable data acquisition methods and rated the feasibility and the importance of including each new parameter. Some of the new parameters proposed require special studies to be made. Such studies need to be specified and suitable actors and sponsors found.


Biological diversity

  1. The meeting recognised the conceptual and practical difficulties of directly measuring biological diversity, but noted that considerable progress in understanding the situation and trends for biological diversity in the world's forests could be made by including in the global framework questions on the following:


    • "naturalness" (breakdown into natural forest, semi-natural managed and used forest and plantations)


    • protection status (using lUCN categories to improve comparability and reduce duplication)


    • fragmentation (using remote sensing)


    • better information on forests by ecofloristic zone, as well as protected status by ecofloristic zone (by remote sensing)


Forest degradation

  1. The meeting identified the main factors of forest degradation, as distinct from deforestation, (burning, overexploitation for wood, overgrazing, air pollution) and its various forms (fragmentation, reduction in crown cover, changes in species composition and stand structure) and proposed that an attempt be made to estimate burned areas and fragmentation provided additional means could be secured. The meeting also proposed that other indicators of forest degradation, such as changes in crown conditions, spectral reflectances, etc, be considered for the subsequent international FRA.

Climate change

  1. The meeting identified some important indicators to be included in FRA 2000, as well as the information sources, shortcomings and acquisition methods. While some of the relevant information needed for assessing the forest aspects of climate change may not be available, the meeting strongly recommended the inclusion in future assessments of enquiries on these parameters. A general agreement was reached on the need to support research on assessments of volume/ biomass and volume/biomass change for vegetation both above and below ground. The on-going processes of FCCC and its subsidiary bodies, especially bodies on technical advice and IPCC, as well as activities on the "greenhouse gas inventory" should be reviewed and taken into consideration by the FAO/ECE. While remote sensing techniques alone may not be adequate for the global assessment of carbon sequestration, FAO's methodology on multi-date remote sensing techniques and field studies (applied in the FRA 1990) could nevertheless be used in FRA 2000. It was recommended that links be established to activities related to assessment of other components of total biomass, e.g. soils.


Non-wood goods and services

  1. The meeting recognised the enormous difficulties of collecting global comparable information on goods and services which were often site specific and highly diverse in their characteristics. It was proposed to combine the non-wood goods and services into 6 major groups (food and medicine, fodder and forage, industrial extracts, protection, social and economic, aesthetic, cultural and spiritual) and to request for each major group a short description, an indication of their relative and absolute importance, changes in supply and demand, and indications of quantity and value supplied. The meeting asked the FAO/ECE team of specialists on non-wood goods and services to address this topic and make suggestions drawing on its own experience of the area.

Contribution of remote sensing

  1. The meeting noted that existing and soon to be completed digital data sets on a global scale derived from remote sensing and GIS analyses and generated by institutions other than the FAO and ECE could be used for satisfying some of the information needs of the Global FRA 2000. Some of these data sets could be made available to the FAO and ECE at no cost. The meeting also recommended that the FAO and ECE work closely with other institutions in the development of specific new digital data sets and in the design and implementation of remote sensing programmes for estimating forest resources for FRA 2000. Specific recommendations concerning possible collaborators and parameters to be sampled by remote sensing were made (see the report of the corresponding Working Group in the proceedings).

Adjustment of national data

  1. Adjustment of national data to a common agreed set of definitions and to a common reference year is needed within the framework of the Global Forest Resource Assessment 2000 in order to secure an acceptable degree of comparability. However, adjusting data to common definitions and a common point of time is difficult and needs further research and development of methodology.


  2. The meeting made the following recommendations for FRA 2000:


    • The secretariat should provide guidelines and definitions so that countries can adapt their data to fit the requirements.


    • Countries should be encouraged to adjust their data as far as possible to the common definitions and common reference years, describing precisely both how the data were collected and how they were adjusted.


    • Countries should submit adjusted data for a specified reference period, as well as the sources data from which they are derived. The most recent data should preferably not be older than 10 years.


    • The secretariat should present national data as provided by individual countries. However, when necessary, and after consultation and consent with the national correspondent, it may present its own adjusted estimates, provided they are identified as such, and the adjustment/estimation method is specified.


    • The secretariat aggregates the national data collected as described above. In addition it should add an indication of the reliability of the regional and global totals, by quantifying an interval which is likely to include the "true" value. This interval should take into account all deviations from common definitions, assessment periods and methods.


    • Countries should provide an indication of the conformity of their data to the common agreed standards, which will be used in estimating the interval which is likely to include the "true" value.


    • Countries should be encouraged to develop or modify their inventory methods so that they can provide results according to the common standards. This requires that these common standards and definitions remain constant over time.




Methods of work

  1. In order to cope with new information requirements it is necessary to use new data acquisition mechanisms or to use established mechanisms more intensively. The following new needs were identified:


    1. In the developed countries data must be made more consistent, comparable and comprehensive. Compared with FRA 1990 (TZ) this implies considerably more analysis and validation by the secretariat of data received from countries and an intensified follow up dialogue with country correspondents.


    2. It should be evaluated whether the sampling of high resolution satellite data which was applied in the tropical countries in FRA 1990 should be extended to cover all regions.


    3. For developing countries a network of regional and national correspondents should be established to associate countries in the assessment process and to collect data that are available in countries (e.g. areas available for wood supply).


    4. Organizing existing information from various sources using GIS should be extended to the developed countries, e.g. to assign forest areas to ecofloristic zones.

Global Framework

  1. After reconciliation of the recommendations of the groups, the meeting approved the global framework for the FRA 2000, which is reproduced in the Annex 2 (definitions to be added later).


Cooperation between international organisations

  1. The meeting made the following recommendations concerning cooperation between UNEP, FAO and ECE:
    • UNEP should participate in the FRA 2000


    • UNEP and FAO should collaborate with other agencies in developing improved methodologies for estimating state and change with regard to forest biomass


    • UNEP and FAO should cooperate in the preparation of global forest vegetation database and global ecoregion database using Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) being developed at the EROS Data Centre Sioux Falls


    • UNEP and FAO should devote special attention to harmonisation of the numerous remote sensing and GIS databases concerning forests


    • UNEP and FAO should work together in facilitating access to forest resource data to a wide variety of users around the world.


  1. The meeting recommended that its conclusions and recommendations be brought to the attention of the intergovernmental bodies and mechanisms concerned particularly those of FAO, ECE and UNEP, -and in particular the FAO Committee on Forestry - in order that they be informed and advise on the formulation and implementation of the Global FRA 2000.


  2. Likewise the meeting requested FAO, as lead agency for item III. 1 on forest resources assessment of the programme of work of the IPF, to convey the meeting results to the third session of this latter body which is to be held in Geneva from 9 to 20 September 1996.
































































Annex 1 : Indicators for Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 Recommendations of the Group on Criteria and Indicators

Indicators of sustainable forest management at the national level which are most pertinent at regional and global levels and are recommended for assessment by FRA 2000:

  1. Area of forest (1)


  2. Area of other wooded land (2)


  3. Area of forest by naturalness (7)


  4. Area of forest plantations by categories of species (4 - partially)


  5. Forest areas converted to other uses (9)


  6. Total forest biomass above ground (10)


  7. Total carbon stock in forests (13 -derived from above)


  8. Total volume of growing stock (14)


  9. Changes over time of total volume of growing stock (20)


  10. Changes over time of total forest biomass (16 - derived from above)


  11. Changes over time of total carbon stock (17 - derived from above)


  12. Area of forest and other wooded land available for wood production(57)


  13. Area of forest by ownership (6)


  14. Area of forest in protected areas (according to IUCN classes - 26)


  15. Area of forest and other wooded land burned annually (38)

(numbers in parentheses are the ranking number of the indicator in the consolidated list of 80 indicators of the four international processes - Helsinki, Montreal, Tarapoto and DryZone Africa - shown in table I of the consultant report of Mr. Mengin Lecieulx's)

Additional indicators for which "attempts" at assessment should be made or which may be assessed partially by FRA 2000:

  1. Fragmentation of forests


  2. Biomass of forest types (broadleaf and coniferous, partially covered in FRA table 5)


  3. Change in defoliation over past 5 years (if not FRA 2000, then later)


  4. Quantity and/or total value of harvested non-wood goods and services (to be confirmed)


  5. Area of forest and other wooded lands managed primarily for soil protection (to be confirmed)


  6. Area of forest and other wooded lands managed primarily for water


  7. Area of forest and other wooded lands managed primarily for tourism and amenity (to be confirmed)


  8. Maintenance of cultural, social and spiritual values (to be confirmed)
































































Annex 2 : Global Framework for the FRA 2000

FRA Table 1: Area of forest and other wooded land

FRA Table 2: Protection status

FRA Table 3: Ownership

FRA Table 4: Ecofloristic zones

FRA Table 5: Wood supply potential

FRA Table 6: Changes over time

FRA Table 7: Growing stock and biomass

FRA Table 8: Fellings and removals

FRA Table 9: Fires on forest and other wooded land

FRA Table 10: Non-Wood Goods and Services









































































FRA Table 1 : Area of forest and other wooded land ( 1000 ha)

  • Total area
    • Inland water
    • Land
      • Forest and other wooded land
        • Forest
          • Natural forest
          • Semi-natural managed and used forests
          • Plantations
        • Other wooded land
          • Natural wooded land
          • Semi-natural managed and used wooded land
        • Land other than forest and wooded land







































































FRA Table 2 : Protection status (1000 ha)

  • Forest
    • in IUCN categories 1 and 2
    • in IUCN categories 3, 4 and 5
    • other
  • Other wooded land
    • in IUCN categories 1 and 2
    • in IUCN categories 3, 4 and 5
    • other







































































FRA Table 3 : Ownership (1000 ha)

  • Forest
    • In public ownership
      • Available for wood supply
      • Not available for wood supply
    • In traditional ownership
      • Available for wood supply
      • Not available for wood supply
    • In private ownership
      • Available for wood supply
      • Not available for wood supply







































































FRA Table 4 : Ecofloristic zones (1000 ha)

Total land
Of which:

Forest and Other Wooded Land
Tropical rainforest zone
Tropical moist deciduous forest zone
Tropical dry deciduous forest zone
Tropical very dry deciduous forest zone
Tropical desert zone
Other tropical and sub-tropical forest land
Hill and montane zone
Dry (Mediterranean type) temperate forest zone
Temperate forest zone
Boreal zone

Notes: classification to be finalised in cooperation with agency carrying out remote sensing, notably as regards the last 4 zones. (The first 6 zones are those used in FRA I 990.)




































































FRA Table 5 : Wood supply potential ( 1000 ha)

  • Forest
    • Available for wood supply
      • Predominantly coniferous
      • Predominantly broadleaved
      • Predominantly bamboos, palms etc.
      • Mixed
    • Not available for wood supply





































































FRA Table 6 : Changes over time (1000 ha)

  Late 1980s Late 1990s Av. annual change
Forest  
A. BREAKDOWN BY NATURALNESS  
  • Natural forest
  •  
  • Semi-natural managed or used forest
  •  
  • Plantations
  •  
    B. BREAKDOWN BY WOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL  
  • Available for wood supply
  •  
  • Not available for wood supply
  •  
    C. BREAKDOWN BY PROTECTION STATUS  
  • legally protected (IUCN categories 1-5)
  •  
  • Other
  •  
    D. CHANGE MATRIX      
      Forest, 1980s Other wooded land, 1980s Other land, 1980s
    Forest, 1990s  
    Other wooded land, 1990s  
    Other land, 1990s  


    E. CHANGE IN VOLUME OF GROWING STOCK
    (Total growing stock on forest 1000 m3, over bark)








































































    FRA Table 7 : Growing stock and biomass

    1. TREE VOLUME (GROWING STOCK, ABOVE GROUND) ON FOREST (1000 m3, over bark)
      • Coniferous
      • Broadleaved
      • Other (bamboos, palms, etc)

      Total on forest of which:

      • on land available for wood supply
        • Coniferous
        • Broadleaved
        • Other (bamboos, palms, etc.)


    2. ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS ON FOREST AND OTHER WOODED LAND AND TREES OUTSIDE THE FOREST ( 1000 tons, oven-dry)
    3. Total above ground tree and other woody biomass

      • Above ground tree biomass (growing stock only) on forest
        • Coniferous
        • Broadleaved
        • Other (bamboos, palms, etc.)
      • Other above ground tree biomass
      • Other above ground woody biomass





































































      FRA Table 8 Fellings and removals

      ( 1000 m3 annual average over assessment period)

        Fellings Removals
      (over bark) (under bark)

      Total

      • On forest available for wood supply
        • Coniferous
        • Broadleaved
        • Other (bamboos, palms, etc.)
      • Other fellings Ion other wooded land and from trees outside the forest)
        

      (questions as in draft)






































































      Table FRA 9 Fires on forest and other wooded land (annual average over assessment period)

      Number

      Area burned (1000 ha)






































































      FRA Table 10 Non-Wood Goods and Services

      Element

      Short
      description

      RI

      AI

      Supply
      change

      Demand
      change

      Quantity

      Value

      Food and medicines              
      Fodder and forage              
      Industrial extracts              
      Protection              
      Social and economic              
      Aesthetic, cultural              
      land spiritual              

      (NB Insert extra column before "Quantity" entitled "Specify good/service")

      Short description = a 5-line description of the details and importance of each NWGS

      RI = relative importance: ranked from 1 (most important) to 6. If two NWGS elements are of equal importance, they should both be given the some score. This evaluation should take account of both economic and non-economic values.

      AI = absolute importance of each NWGS, measured on a scale of 1-3

      • 1 = vitally important - ie plays on irreplaceable role


      • 2 = of medium importance (ie a brood category that is neither 1 nor 3)


      • 3 = virtually or completely unimportant

      Supply change = changes in supply of the goods or services, scored:

      • + = increasing


      • 0 = static


      • - =decreasing

      Demand change = changes in demand for the goods and services, scored:

      • + = increasing


      • 0 = static


      • - =decreasing

      Quantity = quantitative figures if available (eg production levels, volume, area,, visitor numbers, etc)

      Value = quantitative figures if available.

































































    last updated:  Sunday, July 21, 2002