Asia model forests project
PAUKKHAUNG MODEL FOREST, MYANMAR
Paukkhaung Township, Pyay District, Bago Division (West), Union of Myanmar.
Area: 129,965 ha Population: 117,350 (2001) Per capita income: USD 180/year Forest resources: Mixed deciduous forest (50, 622 ha), moist forest with bamboo (21, 907 ha) and forest plantations (15, 204 ha). Infrastructure: 206 villages, 2 irrigation dams, electricity power station, hospital, 16 village health care centres, 1 high school, 6 middle schools and 130 primary schools, sawmills.
Paukkhaung MF (PKMF) is located in the midst of Myanmar's natural teak forests and has been managed for production of timber and NWFPs for almost a century and a half. The area contains important genetic resources and old-growth teak stands. Approximately 22% of the MF is occupied by shifting cultivation and 4% by permanent agriculture.
The MF offers an opportunity to implement sound and practical forest/land use practices through the development of partnerships among all stakeholders, to address problems of shifting cultivation, forest use conflicts and over-intensive/illegal logging. The PKMF field office is located in the Forest Department sub-division office in Pyay, with a sub-office at the township Forest Department office in Paukkhaung.
PKMF has made good progress in the development of partnerships, agro-forestry and livelihood support. A pilot implementation of the National Code of Forest Harvesting Practice (COHP) has been initiated by the Forest Department and Myanmar Timber Enterprise and related training workshops organised. A distinctive feature of forest harvesting in Paukkhaung is the continued use of elephants for skidding logs, which makes it a relatively low-impact activity.
A variety of NWFPs are used for both domestic consumption and cash income, including bamboo, mushrooms, various medicinal plants and Thanakha (Limonia acidissima), the bark of which is used to produce a cosmetic.
The PKMF Partnership Group was formed in August 1999. However, regular Partnership Group meetings were held only after the National Inception Workshop in July 2000, jointly sponsored by the Forest Department, RMFP and Japan International Forestry Promotion and Cooperation Center (JIFPRO).
The PKMF partnership group is composed of government agencies, private sector, local communities and individuals. Two community- level partnership groups have been formed with a new group to be formed in 2002. The partnership structure of PKMF is shown in Fig. 2. As of end-June 2002, seven PKMF partnership group meetings and three community-level partnership meetings had been convened.
ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED
- Shifting cultivation, migration, resettlement.
- Land use conflicts.
- Firewood cutting and excessive logging.
- Inadequate livelihood opportunities.
- Access to up-dated technical information, facilities and funds.
- National Inception Workshop, July 2000.
- PKMF Partnership Committee formation and meetings (quarterly) and community-level partners meetings (as needed).
- Organisation of training workshops for MF members.
- Establishment of village-level self-reliance nurseries.
- Upgrading of 2 nurseries and distribution of 40,000 seedlings.
- Mushroom demonstration farm, model village to demonstrate efficient wood fuel use, and 2 ha demonstration bamboo plantation.
- Establishment of 6 ha Village Agroforestry Demonstration Plot.
- Construction of 5 village wells, and distribution of 10 manual sewing machines and 250 energy-efficient stoves to selected villages.
- Training workshops on nursery practices; woodfuel utilization; construction of energy-efficient woodfuel stoves; agro-forestry; community forestry; bamboo cultivation and production of value-added bamboo products; mushroom cultivation; pilot implementation of national COHP; forest road opening, maintenance and decommissioning; and field-level C&I for PKMF.
- Printing of landuse maps of PKMF.
- Rehabilitation of degraded Dipterocarp forest on 43 ha in Kyatkon R.F.
- Review of forest and related policies, legislation and regulations, and their implications on SFM and the MF approach.
- Guidelines for “best practices” in silviculture and management of natural teak forests; COHP implementation; Thanakha and mushroom cultivation.
- Socio-economic survey of the North Nawin catchment.
- Translation and distribution of IMFNS Model Forest Development Guide and RMFP Guidelines for Field-Level C&I for Model Forests.
- Signboards erected at RMFP-supported activity sites.
- Publication and dissemination of PKMF newsletter (in Myanma), video, pamphlets, posters, cartoon, etc.
- Summer camp for students.