No. 10/05

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IN THIS ISSUE :

PRODUCTS

1. Boswellia serrata: A tree of possibilities
2. Bushmeat: Congo River cargo boat brings promise to endangered great apes
3. Gingseng in Korea: exports reinvigorated
4. Ginseng in the USA: export regulations
5. Honey used as an antibiotic
6. Honey's healing qualities stump scientists
7. Honey production in Brazil
8. Honey production in Iran
9. Honey production in Malaysia
10. Medicinal plant: Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica Nees)
11. Moringa oleifera : Zimbabweans living with HIV turn to herbal medicines
12. Mushrooms in the Czech Republic
13. Mushrooms in the UK
14. Mushrooms in the USA
15. Rosewood: A quest to save a tree, and make the world smell sweet
16. Sandalwood flourishing in Australia
17. Sandalwood and mulberry seed dissemination by birds
18. Seabuckthorn: tribes In Himachal, India, to grow wonder plant
19. Shellac project to push modernisation

COUNTRY INFORMATION

20. Ghana: Bamboo, a good substitute for wood timber
21. India: medicinal plants on Uttaranchal hills
22. Kenya launches new poaching crackdown to protect its wildlife
23. Korea: Retailers woo local chestnut producers
24. Nepal: Certification of Non-timber forest products
25. Nigeria to earn $6bn from Neem tree
26. Nigeria: NAFDAC calls for regulation of herbal medicine
27. Viet Nam produces bamboo coal and essence for export

NEWS

28. African Wildlife Foundation (AWF)
29. Bioprospecting: Traditional knowledge a legal and market conundrum
30. Forest Cosmetics: sourcing Brazilian rainforest ingredients
31. Modi: Ethnic and exquisite
32. Research assistantships
33. Selling forest products to improve livelihoods

EVENTS

34. Management of urban forests around large cities
35. National Conference on Growing an Industry¿.Linking Agriculture with Health from the Consumer to the Field
36. Fourth Caribbean Beekeeping Congress
37. Plants to cure man and his environment. 2 nd International Symposium .

LITERATURE REVIEW AND WEB SITES

38. The FAO Yearbook of Forest Products 2003

39. Ethnobotany of Syngonanthus nitens (eriocaulaceae)

40. Other publications of interest
41. Web sites and e-zines

REQUESTS

42. Request for information: Library seeks publications
43. Request for information: endophytic fungi

MISCELLANEOUS

44. Conservation groups want $404 million for frogs
45. Dinosaur-era tree set for first auction sale (UK)
46. High carbon dioxide levels spur southern pines to grow more needles (NC)

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PRODUCTS

1. Boswellia serrata: A tree of possibilities

Source: Calcutta Telegraph - Calcutta,India, 23 August 2005

The Salga tree, or the Boswellia serrata is a part-and-parcel of everyday life in rural Jharkhand. Salga or as the Oraon people call it ¿ ¿Salahi-mann¿ is also known as ¿Salga daru¿ among the Mundas.

The tree is better known for yielding a type of Indian frankincense or the loban . Loban is a golden-yellow, transparent and fragrant resin that oozes out of the tree. People of all religions have used the Salga tree-resin as incense.

Villagers have often planted it because of its numerous uses in daily life.

The most attractive aspect of the Salga is its tenacity. It requires no special care or extra water to survive the often-harsh climes of Jharkhand. This small tree is often used as a fence around the kitchen garden and is popular among farmers to line the fields. It does not cast any shadow over the crops, allowing adequate sunlight. In addition, it grows faster than the rest of the local trees and thus fulfils the rural people's need for fuel.

One of its major characteristics is that it does not require a large quantity of water and is usually planted in mid-summer. And the process of planting is pretty simple; a branch is cut and planted in the soil. The Salga can be grown in any type of soil and wherever there is minimum moisture. People often plant a forked and mature branch near the village well. This fork serves a dual purpose. It can be used as the base for the pulley used to draw water from the well. As time passes the branch grows into a live tree and acts as permanent pillar.

Popular belief is that the Salga is not attacked by termites and insects and the twigs are kept as hooks in cattle houses to act as a repellent for flies and mosquitoes. Experts believe that the presence of a particular chemical, Boswellic acid, is partly responsible for this characteristic.

The Salga also has some medicinal properties. A paste of its bark - Salai guggul ¿ is used to treat ordinary wounds. Many medicine companies are using Salai guggul as one of the ingredient in their medicine for ¿gout¿ or rheumatism and other joint pains. Villagers also use the Salga twig as ¿datun¿ or toothbrush and as a cure for pyorrhea.

In spite of its numerous uses it is disheartening to see that there are no systems, as of yet, in Jharkhand to collect such an important by product from forest.

Had it been given due attention, this plant would have definitely proved as an effective source of employment and revenue

For full story, please see: www.telegraphindia.com/1050823/asp/jamshedpur/story_5145285.asp

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2. Bushmeat: Congo River cargo boat brings promise to endangered great apes

Source: ENN Daily Newsletter, 26 September 2005

African Wildlife Foundation promotes alternatives to illegal ¿bushmeat¿ hunting of bonobos, pygmy chimpanzees facing extinction from impoverished, war-ravaged local communities

Just weeks after 27 nations signed the world's first declaration on protecting Great Apes ¿ the so-called U.N. Kinshasa Declaration ¿ the Washington, D.C.-based African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) is taking proactive steps to ensure the survival of one of the most threatened primate species in Africa ¿ the bonobo, or pygmy chimpanzee ¿ whose numbers have been decimated in the tropical forests of war-ravaged Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The bonobos ¿ genetically our closest relative and known for resolving conflict through sex rather than violence ¿ are being slaughtered for food in post-war Congo, where their numbers are estimated to have fallen from as many as 100,000 in the mid-1990s to some 20,000 or less today. Some experts predict the bonobo could be wiped out in a generation.

Bonobo extinction was very much behind the push for the Kinshasa declaration, which seeks to reconcile the needs of local people with the needs of great apes. Environmental officials from Britain and other nations attending the Kinshasa conference said it was urgent to create situations in great ape range states that can keep the apes alive by alleviating poverty. The two recommended routes: improved, sustainable agricultural commerce and ecotourism.

¿If we want to protect the bonobo, which is urgently needed, we have to do something for the local people,¿ says Jef Dupain, an African Wildlife Foundation primatologist ¿You can't just tell the local people not to eat bushmeat. You're not taken seriously.¿

This month, an AWF-funded cargo barge, the Ferbo I, began travelling up and down the Congo and Maringa Rivers in the Congo to collect agricultural products from local farmers. These locals have been unable to bring their corn, rice, peanuts, cassava and other crops to market due to the total collapse of any remaining regional infrastructure.

Conservationists at AWF concerned with the situation in the central African rainforests are hopeful that these farmers and villagers ¿ who have relocated further and further into the forests and turned to illegal hunting of bonobos and other wildlife for survival ¿ will return to their fields now that their harvests can more easily make it to market.

For full story, please see: http://www.enn.com/aff.html?id=887

Related story: http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/NewsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2005-09-06T124221Z_01_EIC645672_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-CONGO-DEMOCRATIC-BONOBOS-DC.XML

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3. Gingseng in Korea: exports reinvigorated

Source: Chosun Ilbo - Seoul, South Korea, 22 August 2005

Exports of Korean ginseng have been on the rise for the third straight year. If the increase in exports continues, they expect the amount to surpass US$100 million this year, a feat that has not been repeated since 1996.

The Korea Agro-Trade Corporation said that US$33 million worth of ginseng were shipped overseas between January and June this year, up almost 11 percent from the same period last year. Ginseng is widely consumed around the world for its effects in boosting vitality.

For full story, please see: http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200508/200508220006.html

Related story: http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200508/200508220026.html

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4. Ginseng in the USA: export regulations

Source: Southern Standard - McMinnville, TN, USA, 25 September 2005

A new ruling from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service prohibiting the export of young ginseng roots has many foragers in southeast Tennessee upset that the federal regulation could threaten their income.

Ginseng root is common in the region, and much of it is harvested by rural residents and exported to Asia, where it is widely used for medicinal purposes. Extract from the root is also used in energy drinks sold in the United States.

The root generally sells for about $300 a pound and has traditionally been a source of extra income during lean times.

The ruling pertains to an international export treaty that prohibits exporting roots that are younger than 10 years old. Botanists for the service say that the number of mature ginseng plants is dwindling from overharvesting. State officials say Tennessee's yield of ginseng has consistently dropped from an all-time high of 25,166 pounds in 1992. Yields vary by year, said David Lincicome with the state Department of Environment and Conservation.
Lincicome said 8,690 pounds were harvested in 2004; 10,585 pounds in 2003; and 5,816 pounds in 2002. "There is a shift in population structure due to harvest pressure," he said. "Can I say it is threatened? No. Because year after year people are harvesting 8,000 pounds of ginseng."

"We are trying to make decisions that aren't arbitrary and have a basis in science," said Robert Gabel, chief of the Division of Scientific Authority for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "We don't want (the regulations) to have an adverse affect on people, but our job is to protect the plant so people can continue to pick ginseng down the road, even though it hurts some today."

For full story, please see: http://www.southernstandard.net/news.ez?viewStory=21441

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5. Honey used as an antibiotic

Source: NEWS.com.au, Australia, 26 August 2005

Australian researchers have found honey to be effective as an antibiotic cream to prevent infections when applied to catheter sites in kidney dialysis patients. Kidney specialist David Johnson said honey also had an advantage over the commonly used antibiotic ointment, mupirocin, in that hospital "superbugs" such as staphylococcus aureus, commonly known as Golden Staph, had not developed resistance to it. "There are no documented cases of honey-resistant bacteria," Professor Johnson said.

For full story, please see: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,16387979-13762,00.html

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6. Honey's healing qualities stump scientists

Source: ABC Regional Online ¿ Australia, 10 September 2005

A type of honey produced in northern New South Wales has attracted interest from scientists and doctors for its healing properties. Doctors are recommending Jelly Bush Honey to help treat ulcers, burns, and sores. But scientists cannot work out what the honey's active ingredient is.

Dr Craig Davis, from Queensland's Department of Primary Industries, says he has spent years researching the Jelly Bush Honey's anti-bacterial properties. "I can't put a name to it, it's a chemical that the tree makes, it's a floral chemical that the tree makes and secretes into the nectar that the bees collect," he said. "When the bees have collected that nectar they put it into the honey and when the honey is used it seems to have this additional factor.

For full story, please see: http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200509/s1457434.htm

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7. Honey production in Brazil

Source: ANBA - Sao Paulo, Brazil, 24 August 2005

Brazilian exports of honey added up to US$10.8 million between the months of January and July this year. The state of Piauí, in the Northeast of the country, holds the second position for sales in the international market, with US$ 1.6 million. The first place was the state of São Paulo.

Of the honey produced in Piauí, 80% comes from the semi-arid region. According to estimates of the Brazilian Apiculture Confederation, in January 2004 Brazil owned about 4 million beehives producing 33,000 tonnes of honey per year.

For full story, please see: http://www.anba.com.br/ingles/noticia.php?id=8353

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8. Honey production in Iran

Source: IranMania News ¿ Iran, 23 September 2005

Honey exports earn Iran some $4 mln per annum, said a senior Agriculture Jihad Ministry official. Reza Torkashvand, deputy head of the ministry's Honey Bee and Poultry Breeding Improvement Department, said that Iran exports 2,000 tons of honey to European countries, Central Asia and Persian Gulf littoral states.

There are 2.7 mln hives in Iran with each producing an average of 10 kilograms per annum. The official said that honey production last year stood at over 28,000 tons, adding that there are 49,000 beekeepers in Iran.

Honey is produced in 29 provinces with the highest volume recorded in East and West Azarbaijan, Gilan and Ardebil. It sells for 25,000-30,000 rials ($2.8-$3.4) per kilogram on the domestic market. Growing demand for the product is expected to lead to a decline in honey exports.

Iranian honey sells for $4-$5 per kilo on the international market as it is naturally produced, whereas US and Chinese honey sell for below one dollar.

Iranian honey is exported in bulk to Turkey and Persian Gulf Arab states and then packaged under the brand names of other countries. Iranian beekeepers are reportedly authorized to freely export their products.

Shortage of funds has forced honey producers to sell their products in advance at discount rates.

For full story, please see: http://www.iranmania.com/News/ArticleView/Default.asp?NewsCode=35860&NewsKind=Current%20Affairs

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9. Honey production in Malaysia

Source: Daily Express - Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, 20 September 2005

Agriculture and Food Industry Minister, Datuk Abdul Rahim Ismail, said local farmers should consider venturing into honey production to offset imports of related products. He described honey as a lucrative commodity that should be given serious consideration, considering that Malaysia imported some 2,520 metric tonnes of honey worth RM17.6 million last year and Sabah imported 49 metric tonnes worth RM1 million during the same period.

Of last year's overall import volume, Malaysia spent RM5 million on imports from Australia, followed by China (RM4.4 million), New Zealand (RM3.5 million), United States (RM1.6 million) and Vietnam (RM40,000).

These imports reflected insufficient local supply to meet demand, and thus the locals should take advantage of a lucrative market for honey, particularly in Kudat, Kota Marudu and Pitas districts where the environment is suitable for honey bee farming, he added.

Based on the Rural Development Corporation (KPD) experience in honey bee farming, feasible planning had been made to produce some 200 entrepreneurs actively involved in the honey production industry with at least 500 hives by the year 2010, Rahim said. Such consideration was in line with the Government's Halatuju and State Second Agriculture Policy (1999-2010), with an aspiration to make Malaysia one of the major honey producers in the world, he added.

Citing an example, he pointed out that Vietnam's honey industry produces 16,000 metric tonnes worth US$20 million (about RM 75 million) a year.

According to Rahim, the honey bee species apis cerena is unique, thriving on acacia trees, coconut plantations and pristine jungles for its food and nectar, available mainly in Kudat, Kota Marudu and Pitas. In this respect, the people should refrain from indiscriminate felling of trees, an action that could reduce the food resources of these bees, he said.

Rahim pointed out that KPD had been making concerted efforts to generate greater interest among local farmers to venture into this industry that could provide lucrative turnovers of at least RM2,500 a month. He also disclosed that the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industries had allocated RM200,000 this year as starting capital to interested farmers in Sabah towards promoting the honey industry.

For full story, please see: http://www.dailyexpress.com.my/news.cfm?NewsID=37223

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10. Medicinal plant: Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica Nees)

Source: The New Nation ¿ Bangladesh, 3 September 2005

Vasaka ( Adhatoda vasica Nees ) is a well-known drug in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is recommended for a variety of ailments such as bronchitis, asthma, fever, jaundice and consumption. It is small gregarious evergreen shrub occurring throughout the plains of Bangladesh. The timber of the thicker stems is used for gunpowder-charcoal and as a fuel for brick burning.

The leaf is excellent as manure and as is scattered over the fields just before the rainy season commences. It is then worked into the soil with the plough and left to decay with the moisture and thus formed, mould. As fuel it is almost exclusively used in the process of boiling down the cane-juice, and is collected into large heaps some days prior to the cutting down of the sugar-cane. A yellow dye, obtained from the leaves by boiling is used for dyeing coarse cloth. It gives a greenish-blue when combined with indigo.

The pharmacological action and therapeutic properties of A. vasica are attributed to vasicine and the essential oil. The fluid extract of the leaves is a useful remedy in asthma, especially in combination with belladonna. Compound preparations containing A. vasica are now available from pharmaceutical manufacturers.

For full story, please see: http://nation.ittefaq.com/artman/publish/article_21402.shtml

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11. Moringa oleifera : Zimbabweans living with HIV turn to herbal medicines

Source: Mail & Guardian Online - Johannesburg,South Africa, 26 August 2005

Moringa powder is the latest medical craze for Zimbabweans battling one of the world's highest HIV/Aids infection rates.

For many like Donance Kangausaru, who tested positive for HIV/Aids in 1990, the cost of taking anti-retrovirals is out of reach and he is not considered sick enough to qualify for free drugs under the government's plan.

"After a friend introduced me to moringa, I compared that with the price of drugs and found it was cheaper," said Kangausaru (39) who has become a familiar face in Zimbawe after he appeared in a series of television ad campaigns encouraging "positive living". "There are many more people in similar circumstances and I would encourage them to take herbs," said Kangausaru, who has been taking moringa for the past two years.

He said the herbs from the baobab-like moringa tree, which grows in Binga in northern Zimbabwe, helped boost his immune system and fight off colds.

But the Zimbabwe Medical Association (Zima) said the hype over moringa was unwarranted and that there was no evidence to support that the herb helped reverse symptoms of HIV infection.

For full story, please see: http://www.mg.co.za/articlepage.aspx?area=/breaking_news/breaking_news__africa/&articleid=249128

Related story: Giving hope and health to households, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/MIRA-6GF3JA?OpenDocument

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12. Mushrooms in the Czech Republic

Source: Bloomberg ¿ USA, 14 September 2005

Millions of Czechs are taking to the countryside after record rainfall in July and August produced a bumper mushroom crop. This year's Czech mushroom season is starting three months earlier than usual and the crop may be more than double the average of 20,000 tons, according to the Prague-based Czech Mycological Society. About 2 billion koruna ($86.5 million) of mushrooms are gathered annually, says the group, which estimates that as many as six million people, or two thirds of the population, are gathering the plants.

The mushroom-picking season in the Czech Republic normally begins in late September and continues through October. This year, gatherers say they are already scooping up as much as 60 kilos of mushrooms in a few hours in the dense forests that cover about a third of the country. In July, rainfall in the Czech Republic was triple the average from 1961 through 1990.

Measures to protect the environment after the 1989 collapse of Communism helped improve the quality of mushrooms. Sulfur dioxide emissions have fallen 90 percent and traces of nitrogen oxide dropped more than 40 percent between 1990 and 2003, according to the Czech Environment Ministry, helping to reduce acid in the soil and allowing types of mushrooms including chanterelle to re-emerge after a 30 year hiatus.

For full story, please see: www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000085&sid=a.FT5nUu7gFI&refer=europe

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13. Mushrooms in the UK

Source: Scotsman - United Kingdom, 16 September 2005

According to Dr Stephan Helfer, a mycologist with the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, there are between 8000 and 10,000 different species of mushroom in Britain, but most people wouldn't consider many of them to be what they call mushrooms. ¿There are about 1000 different species we would actually recognise as mushrooms.¿

He adds: "The normal British public probably only eats one species. On a Continental market you would probably expect about 50 different species for sale, though not all at the same time. There's probably another 50 or so which are edible but which most people don't value."

Stephen says that most people he meets out fungi foraging are Polish. "Picking mushrooms in the wild is still a big pastime in Poland, as it is in the Czech Republic, southern Germany, Italy and particularly France." Over here, we're all a bit more wary about plucking our food straight from the ground. But food scares and the growth of the organic market have led many to be a little more adventurous - and this autumn, the best season for mushroom-hunting, there is a feast of courses being held in Lothian to help would-be pickers.

"There are around 20 different species found regularly around Edinburgh and Lothian and you may find another 20 on occasion. My favourite is the chanterelle, it's a nice yellow colour, it looks beautiful, it tastes wonderful. It occurs in woodlands and most people who love it wouldn't tell you where to find it - it comes back in the same spots again and again."

For full story, including information regarding course, please see: http://news.scotsman.com/features.cfm?id=1948392005

Related story: http://news.scotsman.com/features.cfm?id=1943982005

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14. Mushrooms in the USA

Source: Portland Tribune - Portland, OR, USA, 23 September 2005

Oregon's chanterelle harvest is big ¿ 500,000 pounds were collected in 1999, the year that the Pacific golden chanterelle was made the state's official mushroom. Accurate statistics are hard to come by, because chanterelles grow only in the wild, brought to market by independent foragers and dealers who operate on a cash basis. No one has found a way to cultivate them, even though they sprout up abundantly in many parts of the world. Chanterelle season in the Northwest lasts through the fall and may run into December, depending on the rainfall. Unlike most mushrooms, they are bright in colour. The caps and stems are burnished orange, as if they had been dusted with rust powder, so they match the hue of autumn leaves. Lighter-coloured and slightly meatier white chanterelles also grow in Oregon. Chanterelles are more or less trumpet shaped, with ruffled edges. Sometimes, in keeping with the season, they resemble tiny blown-out umbrellas.

Chefs like the flexibility of the mushrooms, which have a delicate character yet stand up well against stronger flavours.

Chanterelles picked from Oregon's coniferous forests actually are a distinct species from chanterelles that grow in eastern Canada and Europe. Scientists made this discovery only recently, which created the impetus for the official state mushroom designation.

Worthy as the chanterelle is, having an official state mushroom at all may seem silly. It does, however, bring public awareness to the unusual challenges of the foraging economy. Much collecting takes place on federal and state lands that are in the tug-of-war zone over where and how much timber should be harvested. Suffice it to say, fewer trees equals fewer mushrooms.

For full story, please see: http://www.portlandtribune.com/archview.cgi?id=31803

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15. Rosewood: A quest to save a tree

Source: Silves Journal via the New York Times, 30 August 2005

Until the perfume Chanel No. 5 went on the market in 1921, pau rosa, or Brazilian rosewood, was just another tree that grew in abundance in the Amazon. But the enduring popularity of that fragrance, which includes rosewood oil as a main ingredient, began a process that has led to a black-market trade in the oil, and the tree itself being designated an endangered species.

Worldwide, the demand for perfumes, soaps, balms and scented candles has skyrocketed in recent years, helped by rising incomes among women and New Age trends like aromatherapy. Because of rosewood's cachet, demand for the oil far outstrips the legal supply, and some fragrance manufacturers will pay just about anything to get their hands on it.

The European companies, mainly French, that dominate the fragrance industry originally obtained their stocks of rosewood oil from French Guiana, 500 miles northeast of here. But when the exploitation there grew so intense that the tree was virtually wiped out, they turned next to the Brazilian Amazon.

But by the late 1980's, the rosewood population in Brazil's eastern Amazon had also been eradicated. Alarmed, Brazil's environmental protection agency responded by putting rosewood on its list of endangered species. The measure was meant to stop the plunder. But with the agency unable to enforce its prohibition, much of the rosewood trade went underground, pushing prices up and forcing companies like Phebo, Brazil's oldest soap manufacturer, to look for lower-cost synthetic substitutes, which are imported from places like China.

According to academic and industry studies, legal rosewood oil production in Brazil today is barely one-tenth of its peak in the late 1960's, when annual output was 300 tons. The number of registered mills, which turn rosewood tree trunks into oil through an inefficient process that seems to devour trees, has also fallen drastically, from more than 50 in the 1940's to fewer than 8 now.

About six years ago, though, a community group in this small island town in the middle of the Amazon River began an effort to try to revive the industry, this time on a sustainable basis. Rather than simply cut down trees and haul away their trunks, the group, Avive, decided to prune branches and leaves every five years or so, thereby extending the usefulness of individual rosewood trees for decades.

Today the project's members, most of them peasant women, have planted and are tending more than 3,000 rosewood saplings in the heart of the jungle. They also distil rosewood oil and manufacture about 1,000 bars of soap a month at a small plant here. The group has also begun harvesting other exotic fragrances from trees for soaps and salves, always taking care to replace what they take.

But Avive's task has not proved easy. Jungle lots the government has placed under the group's care have been razed, with invaders simply cutting down and hauling away trunks from mature trees standing as tall as 100 feet. The concentration of oil in rosewood leaves can be twice as much as that in the trunk. But larger volumes of branches and leaves are needed to produce the same amount of oil, and since that requires extra labour, it is more convenient and profitable for scofflaw lumberjacks and mill operators alike to stick to the old, predatory system.

Higher labour and operating costs also mean a higher price for the finished product. Middlemen have balked at paying that premium so long as illegal supplies are still available, but some users say they would gladly buy the environmentally friendly rosewood oil if only it were made available to them.

"The ideal thing would be to use the natural oil obtained from branches and leaves, because it's good for nature and good for the consumer," said Phebo's manager. "Besides the marketing appeal of having a product that is ecologically correct, if we could get a steady supply of the natural oil, we wouldn't have to import the essence from abroad, which only adds to our costs and brings no benefits to our region."

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/30/international/americas/30rosewood.html

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16. Sandalwood flourishing in Australia

Source: ABC Online ¿ Australia, 5 September 2005

Sweet smelling sandalwood forests are flourishing in the Ord River Irrigation Area in far north-western Australia. It is claimed the Ord now has the world's largest sandalwood plantation, with over 1,300 hectares in the ground and that area is expected to quadruple in the next five years. The Forest Products Commission says the hot Kimberley weather, plenty of water and Kununurra clay soils make it ideal country. "As the industry grows¿there will be more jobs related to the industry, particularly if you are looking for value-adding product with the distillery."

For full story, please see: http://www.abc.net.au/rural/content/2005/s1453433.htm

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17. Sandalwood and mulberry seed dissemination by birds

Source: Deccan Herald - Bangalore, India, 28 August 2005

The flourishing sandalwood oil industry in southern India owes its existence largely to frugivorous birds like koels, barbels and others. It has been found that seeds which pass through the digestive tracts of birds sprout much better than others.

A spectacular instance of the role of birds in this regard was in Punjab. When the desert areas of Punjab were first colonised by the introduction of a vast network of irrigation canals, the mulberry tree was planted along their banks as a fast-growing soil binder. The birds, especially the bulbuls, took to the fruit so avidly that within a short period the mulberry tree had become abundant. It was also found that the wood of the mulberry tree had the same properties as the willows of England, and this paved the way for a flourishing sports-goods industry.

For full story, please see: www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/aug282005/finearts647472005827.asp

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18. Seabuckthorn: tribes In Himachal, India, to grow wonder plant

Source: Rediff ¿ India, 19 September 2005

After years of experiments, the successful plantation of Seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamoides ) in cold deserts of Himachal Pradesh's tribal areas of Kinnaur and Lahaul Spiti opened the doors for prosperity of tribal people who are being encouraged to grow the 'wonder plant'. The cold deserts in Kinnaur district and Lahaul and Spiti district, where minimum temperatures dips to minus 40 degrees during peak winter, are bereft of any vegetation and are perpetually short of fuel wood, food and fodder. The efforts made earlier to provide green cover to the cold deserts under desert development programme resulted in developing green patches only in some isolated pockets but seabuckthorn is an ideal plant for cultivation in such harsh and hostile weather conditions.

Seabuckthorn is a deciduous shrub, widely distributed in cold deserts having extensive root system for soil stabilisation, nitrogen fixing ability for fertility, highest Vitamin C content, best quality fuel wood and fodder and high economic value of fruit and seed oil for variety of cosmetics, medicines and beverages.

The plant can withstand extreme temperatures ranging between minus 60 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius and grow in dry, arid zones with 300 millimeters rainfall.

Except for China and Russia, which had developed seabuckthorn as a major horticultural and agro-industrial crop, this wonder plant has remained neglected.

The cold and dry zones of Himachal are quite rich in resource base but the mountain development policy and other development agencies did not focus on use of this resource base. However, the state council for science, technology and environment initiated work on this plant and the survey conducted by scientists revealed that the cold and dry zones of parts of Kinnaur, Lahaul-Spiti and Pangi area of Chamba had a rich resource base and genetic diversity of seabuckthorn and possibility of more genetic variability within seabuckthorn cannot be ruled out.

So far three species of SBT namely H. rhamnoides , H. tibetana and H. salicifolia and sub species turkestanica had been identified and successfully cultivated in cold dry zones. The major pool areas of seabuckthorn in Himachal are Darcha, Kardang, Sissoo, Gondla and Jahalman in Lahaul, Pin, Shego, Tabo, Kaza, Mane, Kibber, Rangreek and Chichung in Spiti, Baspa valley in Sangla, Chitkul and Pooh. Baspa, Bhaga and Kaza valleys have unique plant species of seabuckthorn with fewer thorns, dense fruiting and large fruits that can be identified and selected for promotion on commercial and industrial scale.

Seabuckthorn is used as fuelwood, fencing around fields and houses and fodder while herbal doctors used the plant for curing lung diseases and headache. It is also used for making wines and jams but these practices have now become almost extinct due to commercialisation of agriculture and availability of other options.

The council has also initiated an action plan for identification of additional species, awareness programmes, extension activities and demonstration experiments and the state departments and other agencies were making efforts to actively involve the people in promotion and cultivation of seabuckthorn.

A series of meetings has been organized with the tribal people to popularise this plant and made cultivation of seabuckthorn compulsory in at least a two-hectare area in each desert development project.

Experts and environmentalists feel that keeping in view the Chinese experience, the potential of seabuckthorn should be fully explored for developing it as an agro-industrial crop which would also help in vegetation rehabilitation and more job opportunities for poor tribal people who had limited options.

For full story, please see: http://in.rediff.com/news/2005/sep/19plant.htm

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19. Shellac project to push modernisation

Source: Times News Network , India, 22 August 2005

The Shellac Export Promotion Council (SEPC), constantly goaded by exporters to take an initiative in increasing lac production at home, has now launched a pilot project at Purulia in West Bengal (India) to propagate lac cultivation and processing with modern technology, in collaboration with the Union commerce ministry and the West Bengal government. In the Rs 47-lakh project, 60% of the project cost will be borne by the Centre. This will be released under the Market Development Assistance scheme. SEPC will chip in with the balance. The fund will be mainly utilised to buy quality broodlac from the market and provide it to willing farmers free of cost.

As one of the participants, the West Bengal government has offered five of its existing lac growing farms, with 30,000 host trees, for the project. It has also been entrusted with the task of identifying self-help groups (SHGs), which will implement the project. ¿The pilot project has been launched in the district to give training to farmers who will be willing to adopt modern farm practices on lac cultivation. However, the thrust of the project is on attracting more women into lac cultivation, providing them an independent source of income. About 10 SHGs will be selected for the purpose,¿ an SEPC official said.

Lac cultivation in Purulia was once a major source of livelihood to tribal people in the drought-prone district but due to lack of adoption of modern farming, its yield fell over the years. This has disinterested many young farmers to pursue their traditional occupation. Ten years ago, it used to produce some 2,000 tonnes of sticlac, which has now dropped to around 1,200 tonnes per annum.

Fall in sticlac production in this major lac growing centre has impacted the overall availability of shellac in the country. Shellac, being processed from sticlac, has good demand from food processing and furniture industries in the US and Europe. The cycle in lac cultivation starts with broodlac, containing the lac insect and it is regarded as the seed for lac cultivation. After it grows for a month or so on host trees, it is known as sticlac.

For full story, please see: http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1206637.cms

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COUNTRY INFORMATION

20. Ghana: Bamboo, a good substitute for wood timber

Source: GhanaWeb - Accra, Ghana, 13 September 2005

Ghanaians should embrace bamboo and rattan as substitutes to timber as the nation's forest resources continue to deplete at an alarming rate.

Mrs Gifty Ohui Allotey, Programme Administrator, Bamboo and Rattan Development Programme said bamboo could effectively replace wood since it had been found to be the fastest growing plant that could be a substitute to timber. "It could be used for almost all the wood needs of the nation including furniture, construction work, furnishings for buildings such as flooring and ceilings as well as handicrafts and household items," she said.

She said irrespective of the Government's reforestation programmes, bamboo held more prospects since it had a lesser gestation period of five years compared to timber, which had a gestation period of at least 20 years.

Mrs Allotey called for a collaborative effort by all stakeholders in the formulation of appropriate strategies of bamboo preservation as an alternative to timber, which was now in high demand and could no longer solely satisfy the growing market demand. She noted that much education and awareness on benefits of the bamboo had yielded fruits.

Mrs Allotey said efforts were being made to ensure that bamboo and rattan production and development became a viable venture to ensure wealth creation for the youth. She called for the formulation of an appropriate policy on bamboo preservation to regulate activities of the industry and ensure its growth.

For full story, please see: http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=90044

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21. India: medicinal plants on Uttaranchal hills

Source: Business Standard ¿ India, 17 August 2005

Kalihari (Gloriosa superba) is a reputed medicinal plant found in parts of Uttaranchal. And now, the government wants to see the growth of this plant, which contains colchicin considered to be an important herb, on a commercial basis. For this purpose, the government has included kalihari in the 26 exclusive clubs of medicinal plants, for which it has given permission for commercial exploitation on a larger scale.

In a new government order, Gopeshwar-based Herbal Research Medicinal Institute (HRMI) has been made the nodal agency to register all those farmers, who had been growing medicinal plants in their fields. ¿In our new approach, only those farmers will be registered as growers of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) who are actually into cultivation and registration will be done by the nominated agencies after monitoring,¿ said S K Singh director, HRMI.

In yet another step, the government has come out with an order regarding the subsidy provisions to the MAP growers in order to motivate them to grow these plants commercially. A total of 26 species have been identified, to be entitled for a 50 per cent subsidy.

In this regard, the economics of cultivation of these 26 species has been prepared, which would be distributed to farmers. To start with, the HRMI has come out with a plan to grow three species--sarpgandha, kalihari and chamomile--in the Dehra Dun and Haldwani areas as a pilot project. For example, in the case of kalihari, farmers will be told that it grows on sandy loam with little water-holding capacity in warm and humid weather conditions.

The economics worked out in this regard is that farmers would get net returns of Rs 1,500 per nali in five years (50 nalis = one hectare) with an average return of Rs 3,000 per nali per year. Separate training sessions are also being held to educate farmers about the cultivation practices of the focused species, Singh said.

For full story, please see: www.business-standard.com/common/storypage.php?storyflag=y&leftnm=lmnu2&leftindx=2&lselect=1&chklogin=N&autono=197501

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22. Kenya launches new poaching crackdown to protect its wildlife

Source: Independent - London, England, UK, 23 September 2005

The Kenya Wildlife Service is launching a $1.25m (£700,000) scheme to bolster its wardens' fight against poachers in the savannah land of Tsavo, where lions, elephants, rhino and deer are still falling to hunters. Some killers are ivory traders, seeking a quick profit selling elephant tusks, but others are poor villagers, searching for meat to add to the cooking pot.

For full story, please see: http://news.independent.co.uk/world/africa/article314483.ece

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23. Korea: Retailers woo local chestnut producers

Source: JoongAng Daily Korea, 4 September 2005

The tiny county of Jeongan, located near the town of Gongju, South Chungcheong province, is known as the "Chestnut Village" for its massive chestnut production. It is now looking forward to an unusually prosperous Chuseok holiday season, as a Seoul-based department store has agreed to take all 10 tons of its annual chestnut production and promote the town's signature product.

The Galleria Department Store approached Jeongan county in June 2004 to ask for exclusive distribution rights for the popular chestnuts. After much insistence, in August 2005 Jeongan county residents agreed to supply all of their chestnuts exclusively to Galleria. "After the deal, the store helped us market our products," said Lee Sang-eun, head of the county.

With the approach of Chuseok weekend, when close to 30 percent of annual sales occurs for Korean retailers, domestic department and discount stores alike are battling to secure popular gift items ahead of their competitors by making exclusive deals with well-known towns that produce special products.

For full story, please see: http://joongangdaily.joins.com/200509/04/200509042154061539900090509051.html

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24. Nepal: Certification of Non-timber forest products

Source: Gorkhapatra - Kathmandu, Nepal, 16 September 2005

The demand for environmentally friendly products in Europe and America and awareness among the consumers there to buy such products have created an opportunity for Nepali non-timber forests products to find a foothold in the international markets through the certification of forests.

About 602,865 kg of raw and processed non-timber forest products worth Rs.35.1 million (about US$ 500,000) were exported in 2004, said Dr. Bhisma P. Subedi, executive director of Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources (ANSAB). ¿There is increased demand for certified products in America and European countries, but we are in the initial phase of production.¿

Non-timber forest products worth Rs.2 billion are exported every year from Nepal and about 70 to 80 percent of goods are exported directly from Nepal, said Dr. Subedi ¿The major exports are hand-made paper and herbal and cosmetic oil.¿

Forest certification is carried out by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Federation of Community Forestry Users Nepal (FECOFUN) is given the responsibility of certification. FECOFUN is conducting the programme in Bajhang and Dolakha district covering 10,016 hectare of forest area.

According to Navaraj Dahal, programme officer at FECOFUN, 23 species of non-timber forest products have been certified by FSC and Nepal is the first country in Asia and fifth in the world to obtain FSC certificate.

¿This programme is based on a chain of custody where the producers of the raw materials to the manufacturer, to marketing persons to the consumer level should be able to identify the product,¿ said Dahal.

But lack of proper management and manufacturing companies in the country are the major drawbacks. However, in one-year period 10 Nepalese companies and Aveda Corporation, a US-based manufacturer of non-forest timber product, have joined ANSAB to manufacture the certified products, said Subedi.

Deputy Director General, Dr. Keshav Kadel at Community Forest Division said the concept of certification of forests is evolving ¿ an outcome of the decline of the tropical rainforests.

After the report of the Nepal Forest Association on certification further steps towards certification will be taken to speed up the process, said Kadel. ¿Certified products have a growing demand in the international market, and we need not worry about the depletion of forest resources because of the export of forest products.¿

For full story, please see: www.gorkhapatra.org.np/pageloader.php?file=2005/09/17/nation/nation2

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25. Nigeria to earn $6bn from Neem tree

Source: Vanguard - Apapa, Lagos, Nigeria, 16 September 2005

Nigeria may earn $6 billion from Neem tree, popularly called ¿dogonrayo¿ in a fresh push of the federal government to expand the nation's foreign exchange earnings through a consistent diversification of the economy.

The Director-General of the National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT) Zaria, Dr. Ebenezer Okonkwo said that the production of a wide range of products from Neem tree has commenced under a public-private partnership.

India exports, as much as, $2 billion worth of neem tree products, ranging from pharmaceuticals, fertilizer, germicidal bathing soaps, anti-fungal creams, tooth-pastes and oil, annually. Nigeria's neem potential has been put at three times above India's capacity.

Okonkwo disclosed that the Presidential Committee charged with the responsibility of developing a national bio-enterprises on neem for wealth creation, poverty alleviation and health enhancement, has gone beyond the initial stages of its works as two plants are being established in Kastina and Kebbi to mass produce a range of products from the tree.

¿The committee's immediate task is the development of a bio-pesticide plant from the neem and implementation of the establishment of bio-pesticide manufacturing plants in Kastina and Kebbi States by NARICT¿, he said.

According to Dr. Okonkwo, who is also the Chairman of the Sub-Committee for Information and Publicity, said that in addition to bio-pesticide, three other products including, neem oil would be produced for exports: for the production of soap, as an alternative to palm kernel oil; fertilisers; and powdered grade azadiracgtin.

Okonkwo said that each of the two plants would be fabricated at the cost of N50 million in India and that with a successful model projects in the two states, the plants would be extended to other states of the federation.

Okonkwo also said that the committee was charged with the responsibility of popularising the neem oil as an alternative to palm kernel oil for soap production, since, ¿the soap made from neem oil has an added advantage of being germicidal.¿

¿It is evident that neem has the potential to contribute significantly to local health care and bio-enterprises development in Nigeria. Its effectiveness is enhanced on account of its easy and plentiful availability and low cost along with the advantage¿a huge and critical advantage- of creating income and employment for the poor,¿ Dr. Okonkwo added.

Dr. Okonkwo said that already 2,000 youths have found gainful employment in the collection of neem seeds for the institute and that given the fact that neem was readily available throughout Nigeria, the income generating benefits of the values of the tree would soon spread across the nation.

Neem, which is found throughout Nigeria and known for its potency in the treatment of malaria, was said to have been introduced to the country's flora in 1928 when it was established in the Borno Province.

Until the Presidential Committee was set up by President Olusegun Obasanjo, the economic uses of neem seeds was not known to Nigerians and had therefore been left to waste, until the initiative which the committee said would turn neem into huge foreign exchange earner for the nation.

For full story, please see: http://www.vanguardngr.com/articles/2002/north/nt316092005.html

Related story: http://allafrica.com/stories/200509160093.html

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26. Nigeria: NAFDAC calls for regulation of herbal medicine

Source: The Tide - Port Harcourt, Niger Delta, Nigeria, 2 September 2005

The National Agency for Food, Drugs, Administration and Control (NAFDAC) has urged herbal/traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria to register their phytomedicinal products in order to ensure safety in the use of traditional medicine. The World Health Organisation (WHO) resolutions of 1989 urged member states to introduce measures for the regulation and control of medicinal plant products as well as for the establishment of suitable standards.

According to the Head, Inspectorate Establishment Unit of NAFDAC, Rivers State Esther Aburime, the growing interest and application of medicinal plants have created need for government to ensure safety in the use of traditional medicines. Aburime further said that the only way to ensure that their products are of good standard was to register and get it listed with NAFDAC.

On the issue of losing patent rights, she said, ¿the fear of losing their patent right prevents many herbal medicine practitioners from coming forth to standardize their herbal medicines¿. During a sensitization workshop, she said NAFDAC educated them on the need to list and register the products as a way to establish their ownership, ensure safety and quality of their products, Aburime stated. She added that there was need to standardize the conservation, nomenclature, extraction process as well as quality safety dosage indication for various phyto medicinal products in Nigeria.

However, the Director General of NAFDAC, Professor Dora Akunyili said during the grassroots consumer education programme at Emohua that the inability of herbal practitioners to register their products had invariably caused the country great loss in the areas of health and socio economy which she said, should not be overlooked.

She estimated that about 25 percent of medicines sold in pharmacies worldwide are directly derived from plants.

For full story, please see: http://www.thetidenews.com/article.aspx?qrDate=09/02/2005&qrTitle=NAFDAC%20calls%20for%20regulation%20of%20herbal%20medicine&qrColumn=HEALTH

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27. V iet Nam produces bamboo coal and essence for export

Source: Vietnam Economic Times - Hanoi, Vietnam, 20 September 2005

The Da Lat Urban Management Company has succeeded in producing bamboo coal and essence for export after over one year of experiments with Japanese experts' guidance. The products are made from locally available materials like bamboo with Japan's technology.

Bamboo coal is used as activated charcoal for the medical sector and to grow clean vegetables in the greenhouses while bamboo essence is a biological product used in organic vegetable and pesticide production.

This September, the company will ship the first 8-tonne container of bamboo coal and essence to Japan. The company has signed a 15-year contract with Japanese partners to sell all its products, the company's director Nguyen The Binh said.

Currently, the company will export one container per month to Japan and next year, it will gradually increase its exports based on the Japanese partners' demand

For full story, please see: http://www.vneconomy.com.vn/eng/index.php?param=article&catid=07&id=c707c76d954db9

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NEWS

28. African Wildlife Foundation

Source: Environmental Newsletter (ENN)

Founded in 1961, the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) is the leading conservation organization focused solely on the African continent. AWF's programs and conservation strategies are based on sound science and designed to protect both the wild lands and wildlife of Africa and ensure a more sustainable future for Africa's people.

Since its inception AWF has protected endangered species and land, promoted partnerships with the private sector for ecotourism to benefit local African communities as a means to improve livelihoods, and trained hundreds of African nationals in conservation ¿ all to ensure the survival of Africa's unparalleled wildlife heritage. AWF is a non-profit organization with offices in Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia and is a registered 501(c)(3) in the United States. Visit www. awf.org .

For more information, please contact:

Elodie Sampéré
Director of Communications
African Wildlife Foundation
(202) 939-3338

e-mail: esampere@awf.org

www.awf.org

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29. Bioprospecting: Traditional knowledge a legal and market conundrum

Source: The Financial Express, Mumbai, 7 September 2005

Protecting biological or genetic diversity is an investment into the future of any society. Genetic diversity is useful for development of new products and processes: crops, pharmas, etc.

Genetic information is contained in a seed and it is what is required for tracing the genome of a species. Significant quantities of biological material are not required. A ¿few seeds' from a location can give all the information about the genome, thus making bio-piracy very simple.

For full story, please see: http://www.financialexpress.com/fe_full_story.php?content_id=101728

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30. Forest Cosmetics: sourcing Brazilian rainforest ingredients

Source: Cosmetics Design - Montpellier, France 22 September 2005

Brazilian personal care ingredients specialists Beraca Ingredients has been involved in a government-led expedition to search Amazonian rain forests for ingredients that can be used in cosmetic formulations. The expedition headed to the Sustainable Reserve of Cujubin, in the northern Brazilian municipality of Jutai, last July, and included officials from the government's environmental offices, local government and a representative from the organization Conservation International.

Beraca says that, in conjunction with the government and conservation bodies, it is hoping to explore the rain forests for cosmetic ingr e dients in a way that is sustainable to the environment, while combining local resources in an effort to benefit the region. ¿The production of the copaíba oil and of other forest products for the cosmetics industry has a great potential to provide sustainable and economic means for this region.¿

Copaíba oil is an oily resin that is extracted from the Amazonian tree, Copaifera officinalis . These dense trees grow from 15 to 30 meters high and the resin is extracted from the tree trunks. It is commonly used as a fragrance component in perfumes, as well as a preparation in soaps, creams and lotions, and as an emollient.

A seminar that focused on the participative planning within the region was held during the first stage of the project and included 100 members of the local population from Jutai. The discussions centered on forming social structures whereby the farming of the land for ingredients could be better managed.

The aim is to maximize on the utilization of the land, while supporting a sustainable economic and ecologically-balanced future. In turn this should allow for improvements to education and health services, which will be supplied by the government. The next step will be for the community to organize themselves in a local association, with the aim of providing reliable supplies of copaíba oil and rubber to various industries, including that for cosmetics. The handling plan for the project is expected to be unveiled in December this year.

For full story, please see: www.cosmeticsdesign.com/news/ng.asp?n=62737-beraca-rainforest-ingredients-copaiba-oil

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31. Modi: Ethnic and exquisite

Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer, 19 August 2005

Modi or ¿modern indigenous is a fashion and home designer collection of indigenous, handmade crafts infused with a stylish contemporary twist. The line was initiated by the Non-Timber Forest Products Task Force (NTFP-TF), a network of organizations that work with upland and rural communities on issues of land tenure, resource management and livelihood based on non-timber forest products, with the hopes of establishing a regular demand for these crafts therefore ensuring a stable source of income for the artisans. It was also established to preserve and promote the continuation of traditional arts and lifestyles of craft makers and to elevate the perceived value of handmade and cultural bound products.

It all started in September 2003 due to a chance meeting between NTFP-TF Crafts coordinator Nola Andaya and fashion and graphic artist (now Modi creative director) Tracie Anglo-Dizon. The brief encounter served as a catalyst for the realization of NTFP-TF's plans of coming up with a designer line of indigenous crafts with the above-mentioned objectives.

NTFP-TF's vision is preserving and elevating indigenous people's crafts to a much higher level where more value is placed in the traditions and culture of the people who make them.

Modi will be featuring new designers yearly to present fresh design concepts and an interesting product line. And through design clinics organized by the NTFP-TF, the featured designers will all have the chance to interact and consult with the artisans, who are considered creative partners in this worthy endeavour.

Simply put, the NTFP-TF through Modi aims to spark a renewed interest and appreciation for all indigenous crafts.

For full story, please see: http://news.inq7.net/lifestyle/index.php?index=2&story_id=47340&col=7

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32. Research assistantships

Source: Forest Information Update (FIU) 19 September 2005 [gyde@comcast.net]

The School of Forestry & Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Alabama, USA has graduate research assistantships in forest resource and environmental economics/policy with immediate availability. The annual salary is $17,100 for a PhD candidate and $14,630 for a MS candidate. Assistantships are awarded for a period of 36 months for a PhD and 24 months for a MS candidate. Extensions depend upon the needs of the project and availability of funds in the contract or grant.

The applicant with research and/or field experience in forest, natural resources, or environmental management/economics/ policy is preferred but not necessary. A degree in economics, statistics, mathematics, forestry, ecology, agriculture, management, political science, law, economic geography, economic history, or other related discipline is required.

Please direct enquiries to: Dr. Yaoqi Zhang, School of Forestry & Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849-5418 USA. tel: +1-334 844-1041; fax: +1-334 844-1084. Email: yaoqi.zhang@auburn.edu .

For information regarding applications for admission and assistantship, please visit: http://www.sfws.auburn.edu/graduate/ProspectiveStudents/ApplicationProcess.htm and http://www.grad.auburn.edu/

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33. Selling forest products to improve livelihoods

Source: FAO Newsroom, 7 September 2005

Poor communities in the Gambia are now earning regular income by selling forest products, thanks to an FAO programme that helps communities to build up markets for local products. In a pilot area of 26 villages suffering extreme poverty, people learned about the potential value of forest products and how they could be marketed more successfully.

Villagers interested in marketing forest products have set up their own businesses and organized themselves in producer associations to sell honey, logs, fuelwood, mahogany posts, handicrafts and palm oil on nearby markets. They are also making additional income from tree nurseries and ecotourism.

"Before the start of the project, villagers had not explored the market potentials of handicrafts made of Rhun palm leaves, because they did not have the practical skills or market knowledge. Now they are selling products such as chairs, tables, lampshades, baskets and beds made of these leaves," said Sophie Grouwels, an FAO community forestry expert.

In the Gambia, forests were deteriorating at an alarming rate partly due to the state-controlled forest management approach, which ignored the local population. Therefore, in the 1990s, the Gambian government introduced community forestry, giving ownership to the communities, in an attempt to improve forest management. Despite this change, the communities still did not have many incentives to conserve the forests until the programme was introduced.

"People who used to shun managing forests or exploited them, are now asking for more forests to own and manage in order to earn more income," said Grouwels. "Given the success of this project, FAO hopes its methodology will be applied in other parts of the Gambia and other countries.¿

The project is funded by the Government of Norway.

For full story, please see: http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2005/107439/index.html

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EVENTS

Management of urban forests around large cities

3-6 October 2005

Prague, Czech Republic

For more information, please contact:

FLE ÈZU Praha

Dìkanát - pracovi¿tì Kostelec nad Èernými lesy
Ing. Pavla Neuhöferová, CSc.

Nám. Smiøických 1 - zámek
281 63 Kostelec na Èernými lesy
Fax: +420 321 679 087

e-mail: p.neuhoferova@kostelec.czu.cz

http://www.fle.czu.cz/predmety/uf/index.html

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National Conference on Growing an Industry¿.Linking Agriculture with Health from the Consumer to the Field

St. John's Newfoundland, Canada

27-29 October 2005

Canada's place in the herb, spice and natural health products industry.

The scope of this conference is well past herbs and spices. Its range in topics will help any one in the value chain from field to shelf for natural health products, non timber products, functional foods, herbs, spices and life science areas.

For more information, please contact:

Canadian Herb, Spice and Natural Health Products Coalition

c/o SHSA

Box 19 Phippen,

Sask.

Phone 306.694.4622 FAX 306.694.2182

e-mail: shsa@imagewireless.ca

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Fourth Caribbean Beekeeping Congress

14-18 November 2005

Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago

For more information, please contact:

Congress Secretariat

Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources

County St, George West

Harris Street, Curepe

Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago

Fax: +868-662-3898

E-mail: bees@agriculture.gov.tt

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Plants to cure man and his environment. 2 nd International Symposium

6-7 December 2005.

Yaoundé, Cameroon.

For more information, please contact:

Pr. Bernard-Aloys Nkongmeneck, BP: 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Tel :(237) 223 02 02 (H) (237) 999 54 08.

Email : nkongme@uycdc.uninet.cm or cenrce@yahoo.fr

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LITERATURE REVIEW AND WEB SITES

38. The FAO Yearbook of Forest Products 2003

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

The FAO Yearbook of Forest Products 2003 is a multilingual compilation of statistical data on basic forest products for all countries and territories of the world. It contains series of annual data on the volume of production and the volume and value of trade in forest products. It includes tables showing direction of trade and average unit values of trade for certain products. Statistical information in the yearbook is based primarily on data provided to the FAO Forestry Department by the countries through questionnaires or official publications. In the absence of official data, FAO makes an estimate based on the best information available.

http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/y5985m/y5985m00.htm

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39. Ethnobotany of Syngonanthus nitens (eriocaulaceae)

Source: Mongabay.com ¿ USA,

Medicine, health, and genetic resources were discussed at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology on 26 July 2005. Nearly 2,000 of the world's leading environmental scientists of various disciplines met in Brasilia to present papers at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology . The conference featured more than 750 oral presentations and 965 scientific abstracts.

One of the extracts from the meeting's official "Book of Abstracts" covered the Ethnobotany of Syngonanthus nitens (eriocaulaceae): a non-timber forest product from the Brazilian cerrado, at Jalapão region, Tocantins

¿The handcrafts made from coils of ¿capim dourado¿ (golden grass) scapes that are sewn tightly together with buriti palm ( Mauritia flexuosa ) strips represent important source of income in Jalapão. Recently, the traditional handcrafts made by women from the Mumbuca Community started being commercialized in large Brazilian cities and European countries, increasing extraction rates. This study is aimed at characterizing the plant scapes extraction methods and the management techniques of humid grasslands areas, where the species occur. Harvest and handcraft activities occupy women, men and children from almost all rural communities in Jalapão. Scapes are collected from July to October. Harvesters believe that the humid grasslands should be burned every other year to stimulate production. The ideal period to harvest is variable among harvesters; knowledgeable harvesters tend to collect scapes later in the year. This practice allows seed maturation (early September) before the harvest, decreases plant mortality by uprooting plants with immature scapes and increases the brightness of the handcrafts. This information has been applied in experiments which were designed and fulfilled with harvester participation, to assess the effects of capim dourado's harvest in the region. The intention is to propose harvesting rules based on both scientific and traditional knowledge.¿

SCHMIDT, ISABEL B.; Figueiredo, Isabel B.; Scariot, Aldicir. Diretoria de Florestas, Ibama, Brasília, DF, 70.818-900, Brazil & PEQUI - Pesquisa e Conservação do Cerrado, Brasília, DF, 70763-520, Brazil, isabelbs((AT))pequi.org.br (IBS). Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, 70.919 Brazil (IBF). Embrapa/ Cenargen, Brasília, DF, 70770 Brazil & Programa das Nações para o Desenvolvimento, PNUD Brasil, Brasília, DF, 70712-901, Brazil (AS), scariot((AT)) cenargen.embrapa.br.
For full story, please see: http://news.mongabay.com/2005/0726-cbc_health.html

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40. Other publications of interest

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Bermingham, E., Dick, C.W., and Moritz, C. (eds.). 2005. Tropical Rainforests: Past, Present, and Future . University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 672 pp

Cunningham, Anthony; Campbell, Bruce and Belcher, Brian. 2005. Carving out a future. Forests, livelihoods and the international woodcarving trade . CIFOR, Indonesia. Paperback 1-84407-045-X

Very little has yet been written about the cultural or economic contributions of woodcarving to people's livelihoods or the effects of felling hardwood and softwood trees for the woodcarving trade. This is the first examination of the international woodcarving trade and its critical links to rural livelihoods, deforestation, biodiversity and conservation, forestry and forest policy and the international trade regime. A range of case studies from Australia, India, Africa and Mexico provide a lens for examining the critical issues relating to the significant impacts of woodcarving on forests, conservation efforts, the need to promote sustainable rural livelihoods and efforts to promote trade so that skilled artisans in developing countries get a fair economic return.

For more information, please visit: http://shop.earthscan.co.uk/ProductDetails/mcs/productID/591/

This book is part of the People and Plants Conservation Series. Click here for information about all the books in this series: http://shop.earthscan.co.uk/ProductDetails/mcs/ProductID/581/

Glavonjic, Branko et al . 2005. Forest and Forest Products Country Profile: Serbia and Montenegro. UNECE Geneva Timber and Forest Discussion Paper 40. 106 p. http://www.unece.org/forests/docs/dp/dp-40.pdf

Gordon, Elizabeth A. et al . 2005. Protecting Biodiversity: A Guide to Criteria Used by Global Conservation Organizations. Global Institute of Sustainable Forestry. Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Report Number 5. See: http://www.yale.edu/environment/publications/index.html

Higgins, J.V., et al . 2004. Beyond Noah: saving species is not enough. Conserv. Biol. 18(6):1672-1673. (Abstract) http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.0421b.x/abs/

Hiremath, A.J. 2004. The ecological consequences of managing forests for non-timber products. Conserv. Soc. [Online] 2(2):211-216. (Paper) http://www.conservationandsociety.org/c_s_2-2-3-shahabuddin-new.pdf

Homewood, K. et al . 2005. Community- and State-based natural resource management and local livelihoods in Maasailand . 27 p. (Paper) http://www.kcl.ac.uk/pobrst/Homewood2.pdf

Kengni. E, Mbofung C.M.F., Tchouanguep M.F., Tchoundjeu Z ., The nutritional role of indigenous foods in mitigation the HIV/AIDS crisis in West and Central Africa , International Forestry Review 6(2); 149-160 (2004)

This paper examines the responsive capacity of the forest foods through domestication and commercialisation for resource-poor vulnerable and affected rural families to the negative socioeconomic impacts and livelihood threats from the HIV / AIDS pandemic. It elaborates the role of local food-based approaches in a context where the goals are the immediate as well as of long-term maintenance, resistance and resilience of rural people to the disease while meeting their food security needs, maintaining their natural resources base, and the long-term conservation of indigenous fruit and vegetable species in particular and biodiversity in general. From investigation the figures indicate that wild foods may be cheap, nutritious, economically beneficial and their production less labour-intensive. Moreover, wild foods may constitute an alternative to food shortages and incomes problems caused by HIV / AIDS if existing added value technologies are improved and appropriate ones developed and made available to farmers for use at low cost.

http://www.extenza-eps.com/CFA/doi/pdf/10.1505/ifor.6.2.149.38392

Khumbongmayum, A.D., Khan, M.L., and Tripathi, R.S. 2005. Sacred groves of Manipur, northeast India: biodiversity value, status and strategies for their conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 14(7):1541-1582.

Merlo, M. and Croitoru, L 2005. Valuing Mediterranean Forests: Towards Total Economic Value. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the economic value of Mediterranean forests, including not only the more obvious benefits (e.g. timber), but also the less commonly-measured public goods (e.g. tourism and conservation) that these forests provide. It brings together forest valuations at the national level from eighteen Mediterranean countries, based on extensive local data collection, and thus allows comprehensive analyses within countries as well as comparative analyses across countries. The book describes the valuation techniques used and examines ways to overcome the problems encountered. It explores the research findings in the context of the institutions and policies that affect Mediterranean forests and proposes new policy approaches for improving forest policies and management at the national, regional and local levels. It is also shown how the methodologies used can be applied to other regions. CABI Publishing HB ISBN 0 85199 997 2 £75.00 (US$140.00) 448 p. See: http://www.cabi-publishing.org/bookshop/BookDisplay.asp?SubjectArea=&Subject=&PID=1859

Rowcliffe, J.M., Milner-Gulland, E., and Cowlishaw, G. 2005. Do bushmeat consumers have other fish to fry? TREE 20(6):274-276.

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41. Web sites and e-zines

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Bees for Development launches NEW website

www.beesfordevelopment.org

"Eco Earth"

The environmental sustainability source.

http://www.ecoearth.info/

FAO's Participation Website

This website is a place for studying and discussing participation in development. It is available in Arabic, English, French and Spanish.

www.fao.org/participation/default.htm

Northern Nut Growers Association (NNGA)

http://icserv.com/nnga/

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REQUESTS

42. Request for information: Library seeks publications

Source: Arun Dhakal, Nepal (in FIU, 5 September 2005)

The Kathmandu Forestry College (KFC) is going to upgrade its Library. Therefore KFC seeks support from all foresters and cordially request you all to provide (If possible and interested too) forestry related books, journals, thesis of your own (Master, Ph D) as a donation (whatever you have and whenever you can provide). Hard copies of your thesis would be fine. Even a very small help of yours in this regards means a lot to KFC and will be valued high.¿

Send any material you can spare to Nepal Agroforestry Foundation (NAF), Kathmandu Forestry College (KFC), PO BOX 9594, Kathmandu, Nepal or contact Arun Dhakal on arun_dhakal2004@yahoo.com

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43. Request for information: endophytic fungi

Source: Vinson Doyle, USA (in FIU, 19 September 2005)

I am a new doctoral student at the City University of New York and the New York Botanical Garden. I am edging into research into the association between plants and endophytic fungi in medicinal plant species. I am presently conducting a literature review. If anyone knows any research groups presently conducting research in this area or any applicable publications, the information would be much appreciated.¿

You may contact Vinson at sonofvin@yahoo.com

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MISCELLANEOUS

44. Conservation Groups Want $404 Million for Frogs

Source: AP in Environmental News Network, 20 September 2005

International conservation groups proposed a $404 million effort Monday to preserve frogs and other amphibians whose sensitive, porous skins often make them the first indicator of when nature goes awry.

For full story, please see: http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=8841

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45. Dinosaur-era tree set for first auction sale (UK)

Source: CFRC Weekly Summary 25 August 2005

Saplings of a giant tree that was a snack for dinosaurs and was believed to also be extinct until a chance discovery in Australia will be offered for sale to the public next month for the first time. Less than 300 of the trees -- which can grow to at least 40 metres tall and live for 1,000 years -- will be offered for sale through auction house Sotheby's individually and in lots.

For full story, please see:

http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=8544 OR

http://www.forestrycenter.org/headlines.cfm?refid=76365

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46. High carbon dioxide levels spur southern pines to grow more needles (NC)

Source: CFRC Weekly Summary 25 August 2005

A Duke University study has found that maturing stands of pines exposed to the higher levels of carbon dioxide expected by mid-century produce more needles than those absorbing today's levels of the gas, even under drought conditions. However, the study also found that lack of soil nutrients may impose limitations in many forests. At the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE), experiment some stands of fast-growing loblolly lines are being exposed to the higher levels of CO2 expected by 2050 due to human activities such as fossil fuel burning. Other stands are left as untreated controls for comparison. The elevated carbon dioxide is delivered from rings of towers in the open air setting of a Southern forest ecosystem.

http://www.yubanet.com/artman/publish/article_23772.shtml OR

http://www.forestrycenter.org/headlines.cfm?refid=76366

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last updated:  Monday, August 24, 2009