No. 1/05

Welcome to the first issue of 2005 of FAO¿s NWFP-Digest-L, a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products.

Back issues of the Digest may be found on FAO's NWFP home page:

1. Forests' contribution to the Millennium Development Goals
2. Megadiverse countries join efforts for strong international law on access and benefit sharing
3. Natural Resource Conflict Management
4. Tsunami affected mangroves
5. Tsunamis and mangrove forests

6. Cameroon: Preserving the Ottotomo Forest Reserve and its NTFPs
7. China: Traditional medicine 'threatens China's biodiversity'
8. Kenya: Sh16 billion for trees
9. India: Biodiversity Hotspot Highlight: Western Ghats
11. Polynesia: Traditional Polynesian cosmetics help save rainforests
12. Uganda: Mabira forest endangered
13. Zimbabwe: Women's role in forestry recognized

14. Ecotourism in a soggy corner of Washington State, USA
15. Wild oak silk; forest health no longer hangs by a thread
16. Bamboo: study tour in China

17. Forestry Officer (Non-Wood Forest Products), FAO Rome
18. World Bank 2005 Summer Internship Program

19. International Conference on Sustainable Development of Medicinal Plants/Herbs in 21st Century
20. Kaziranga Centenary Celebration
21. International Training of Trainers on Wetland Management (ICWM-TOT)
22. A fortune in the forest - A conference on Non-Timber Forest Products
23. Growing markets for non-wood forest products
24. Training Workshop-cum-Seminar on ¿Poverty Alleviation through bamboo-based development: policies, strategies and stakeholders¿
25. MMSEA - Sustainable use of natural resources and poverty dialogue in mainland montane
26. The Association for Temperate Agroforestry Ninth North American Agroforestry Conference ¿ 2005 ¿Moving Agroforestry into the Mainstream¿
27. IVth International Congress of Ethnobotany (ICEB-2005)

28. Gender in the park
29. Herbage Fourth Edition
30. Acacia senegal and the gum arabic trade
31. Other publications of interest
32. Web sites and e-zines

33. Oak Becomes America's National Tree
34. Traditional alert 'saved Andaman tribes'




1. Forests¿ contribution to the Millennium Development Goals

Source: FAO Newsroom, 25 January 2005

Experts emphasize forests' contribution to the MDGs. FAO committed to helping realize development goals.

Forests contribute directly to reducing extreme poverty and hunger and ensuring environmental sustainability, two of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a panel of forestry experts invited to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has concluded.

The panel highlighted the significant contribution of forests and trees outside forests to the MDGs, emphasizing that sustainable forest management and sustainable development are closely linked, as recognized at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002.

Forests' contributions to achieve the MDGs

"Forest products can contribute directly to the goal of reducing poverty and hunger by providing cash income, jobs, and consumption goods for poor families," said Dr. David Kaimowitz, Director-General of the Center for International Forestry Research, who chaired the meeting.

The livelihoods of the approximately 240 million of the world's poor that live in forested areas of developing countries depend on the protection and, in many cases, the rehabilitation of these forests. Poor people's agricultural activities also benefit from the role of forests and trees through contributions to land productivity, enhancing crop and livestock production, and providing genetic resources, among other services.

The panel recognized forests' contribution to environmental sustainability by providing a range of environmental services and by furnishing renewable wood and non-wood products, many substitutes for which are not renewable or as environmentally friendly. Widely recognized environmental functions of forests include mitigating climate change, conserving biological diversity, maintaining clean and reliable water resources, sustaining and enhancing land productivity, protecting coastal and marine resources and enhancing urban environments.

Key roles for FAO

Several roles that FAO can play to assist countries' efforts to achieve the MDGs were identified. And it was recommended that FAO assist countries to carry out analyses of the forest-poverty links in their national context, to increase the visibility of the forest sector in their Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and other sustainable development plans, and to reflect poverty reduction and food security adequately in their national forest programmes.

The panel recognized the key role that FAO can play in raising the profile and increasing awareness of the links between forests and the MDGs and in enhancing regional and sub-regional cooperation in this area.

In promoting the achievement of the MDGs, it was recommended that FAO continue to support countries' efforts to enhance participatory processes in the forest sector as well as to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the private forestry sector.

Sustained international commitment to the MDGs

The panel's views come at a time when international attention and national efforts are focused on efforts to achieve the goals. FAO is currently carrying out a major review of its activities aimed at ensuring maximum support to achieving the MDGs.

The Ministerial Meeting on Forests and FAO's Committee on Forestry, both to be held in Rome in March, are expected to help raise additional international awareness of the role of forests in sustainable development and to identify actions to help realize forests' potential contribution to the realization of the MDGs.

Heads of State and other high level government officials will gather at the United Nations in New York in September in a high level segment of the General Assembly to review progress in implementation of the UN Millennium Declaration and the MDGs.

"Forests not only make significant contributions to sustainable development, but failure to achieve environmental stability - including through sustainable forest management - will undermine social and economic development goals. FAO is fully committed to helping countries realize the potential contributions of forests to their national development goals," said Hosny El Lakany, Assistant Director-General, FAO Forestry Department.

For full story, please see:

2. Megadiverse countries join efforts for strong international law on access and benefit sharing

Source: TWN Biosafety Information Service, 25.1.05 in [BIO-IPR] Resource 31.1.05

The Group of Like Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC), rich in biological diversity and associated traditional knowledge, have agreed to join efforts for effectively negotiating the development of an international regime on access and benefit sharing (ABS), including legally binding instruments in the forthcoming meetings of the Ad-hoc Open ended Working Group under the aegis of Convention on Biological Diversity, so as to safeguard the interests of LMMC countries and peoples.

The 17 members are Bolivia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, and Venezuela. These countries possess 60-70% of the world's biodiversity.

The Group played an important role in obtaining a decision at the 7th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD to start negotiations on an International Regime on ABS. The first negotiation session will be in Bangkok at the 3rd meeting of the CBD Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on ABS, from 14 to 18 February. In preparation for that meeting, the Group met in New Delhi from 17 to 21 January. There was an experts' meeting followed by a ministerial meeting which adopted the "New Delhi Ministerial Declaration of Like Minded Megadiverse Countries on Access and Benefit Sharing".

The Group agreed to join efforts for effectively negotiating the development of the international regime, including legally binding instruments. The New Delhi Ministerial Declaration also stated that the proposed international regime on ABS should include "mandatory disclosure of the country of origin of biological material and associated traditional knowledge in the IPR (Intellectual Property Right) application, along with an undertaking that the prevalent laws and practices of the country of origin have been respected and mandatory specific consequences in the event of failure to disclose the country of origin in the IPR application".

The Megadiverse countries have also agreed to ensure that the proposed ABS includes prior informed consent of the country of origin and mutually agreed upon terms between the country of origin and user country.

At the inauguration of the New Delhi meeting, India's Minister for Environment and Forests, Thiru A. Raja, emphasized that the loss of biodiversity will be reversed only if the indigenous and local communities that have been its custodians benefit from its conservation and sustainable use.

Thiru Raja, who is also Chairman of the Group, said that a significant part of the pharmaceuticals industry and its products are developed based on traditional and indigenous knowledge, adding that "however, local and indigenous communities rarely get any benefits from the resulting products".

"The megadiverse countries, with home to nearly 60-70% of the global biodiversity, should be in a position to influence the bulk of trade in bio-resources. However, the reality is that most of the megadiverse countries continue to remain impoverished despite the richness of bio-resources that they posses", he added.

Stating that the relationship between genetic resources, traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights is one of the most debated issues in the negotiations of several multilateral agreements, Thiru Raja pointed out that the CBD and the TRIPS ((Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) agreements, both touch on issues relating to genetic resources and intellectual property giving rise to a range of legal and practical issues concerning both their relationship in international law and their implementation at the national level. The Minister stressed the strong need for harmonization of the provisions of these agreements.

3. Natural Resource Conflict Management

From: Antonia Engel, Livelihood Support Programme, FAO

FAO¿s Livelihood Support Programme is specialized in how to respond and deal with conflicts in the context of natural resources management. It has developed training materials and provides tailor made training courses on Community-based Natural Resource Management.

Conflict anticipation and management are from our viewpoint critical ingredients of collaborative natural resources management. The challenge is on managing conflicts and containing them, trying to find constructive ways to bring opponents together, aiming to reach a consensus or possibly win-win situation in which violence may be laid aside.

The aim of conflict management is to:

¿ prevent existing conflict from escalating;

¿ identify latent conflict and address it constructively; and

¿ make use of conflict in promoting positive social change,

The training materials aim at providing practitioners in natural resource management with instruments and skills to facilitate the resolution of conflicts over natural resources in a collaborative manner. The materials are based on alternative conflict resolution (ACR) as a conflict management approach. ACR offers an innovative, multi-disciplinary approach to understanding, analyzing and managing conflicts both before and after they occur (latent and manifest conflicts). The overall goal of ACR is to seek long-term mutual gain for all conflict parties as a basis for local development and empowerment.

More specifically, the objectives of the materials are to:

¿ explain how natural resource conflicts can affect collaborative natural resource management and harm sustainable livelihoods;

¿ introduce the principles of alternative conflict resolution, a methodology to deal constructively with natural resource conflicts based on a collaborative and interest-based negotiations approach;

¿ outline a process map which guide facilitators in alternative conflict resolution processes; and

¿ sensitize facilitators about their role and responsibilities as third party in conflict resolution processes.

The materials are designed as background material for training courses in natural resource conflict management. The targeted audience is:

¿ practitioners in natural resource (conflict) management who want to learn the fundamental concepts and instruments in alternative conflict resolution,

¿ trainers who may use these materials as background for preparing training courses in natural resource conflict management,

¿ trainees in courses on natural resource conflict management who may use this guide for background reading during the training and afterwards.

For more information, please contact:

Antonia Engel
Forestry Officer (Natural Resources Conflict Management)
Livelihood Support Programme
Forest Policy and Institutions Service
FAO, Rome Italy
Fax: + 39 06 570-55514

4. Tsunami affected mangroves

Source: FAO Newsroom, 19 January 2005

Rehabilitation of tsunami affected mangroves needed. Should be part of integrated coastal area management

Rehabilitation of severely affected mangroves would help speed up the recovery process from the tsunami, but large-scale planting should be undertaken with caution, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said today.

"Mangroves contribute directly to rural livelihoods by providing wood and non-wood forest products - including timber, poles, fuelwood and thatch for houses - and indirectly by providing spawning grounds and nutrients for fish and shellfish. Mangroves can also help protect coastal areas from future tidal waves," said Mette Løyche Wilkie, an FAO expert on mangroves.

Restoration of damaged mangroves should be undertaken as part of the post-tsunami rehabilitation process, but FAO does not recommend massive planting of mangroves in areas where they would replace other valuable ecosystems, such as turtle nesting grounds and sea grass beds. According to FAO, rehabilitation and planting efforts should be undertaken within a larger framework of integrated coastal area management.

Damage to mangroves and other coastal forests

Mangroves cover an area of around 15 million hectares (or 150 000 sq km) worldwide with close to 40 percent of this area found in the countries affected by the tsunami. As would be expected, mangroves and other coastal forests and trees were adversely affected by the recent tsunami.

The extent of the damage is still not clear and it may take some time before the final impacts are known, since the deposit of silt may clog the pores of the aerial roots of mangroves, and thus suffocate them. Changes in topography, soil salinity and freshwater in-flow from upstream may also adversely affect the mangroves and other coastal forests in the longer term.

"What we do know is that the demand for fuelwood, for wood to rebuild houses and infrastructure and for constructing fishing boats is substantial," said Jim Carle, an FAO expert on plantations. "This is likely to lead to further pressure on the coastal forests, including mangroves," he said.

FAO is working with several other organizations to gather information on the impacts of the tsunami on mangroves and other coastal forests and to provide advice to countries in their rehabilitation efforts.

Mangroves as barriers to tidal waves

"The role of mangroves in providing coastal protection against the actions of waves, wind and water currents is well known," Mette Løyche Wilkie said. "But the extent to which mangrove green belts contribute to saving lives against large tsunamis, such as the recent one in Asia, depends on several factors."

As widely reported, extensive areas of mangroves can reduce the loss of life and damage caused by tsunamis, but narrow mangrove strips can have limited positive effects, and in some cases the effects can even be negative.

During the recent tsunami, the Pichavaram mangrove forest in Tamil Nadu in India slowed down the waves, protecting around 1 700 people living in hamlets built inland between 100 to 1 000 meters from the mangroves. In Malaysia, in areas where the mangrove forests were intact, there was reduced damage. Similar observations were made in Sri Lanka. In Indonesia, the death toll in the island of Simeuleu, located close to the epicentre was relatively low, partly due to mangrove forests that surrounded the island.

On the other hand, narrow strips of mangroves, when uprooted or snapped off at mid-trunk and swept inland, can cause extensive property and life damage. At least in one reported case in Thailand they have also damaged shallow coral reefs.

"The protective effects of mangroves against tsunamis mainly depend on the scale of the tsunami and the width of the forest and, to a lesser extent, the height, density and species composition," Wilkie said.

A mangrove is a tree or shrub which grows in muddy, chiefly tropical, coastal swamps and has tangled roots that grow above ground.

For full story, please see:

5. Tsunamis and mangrove forests

Source: Various

A natural, low-tech solution to tsunamis: mangroves

As nations around the Indian Ocean discuss plans for a tsunami early-warning system, environmental scientists here point to an existent, natural form of disaster minimization: mangrove forests.

Tsunamis leave environmental devastation

Scientists from around the world have expressed grave concerns about the health of local ecosystems and their ability to sustain survivors of the tsunamis that struck parts of Asia and Africa last month.

Mangrove forests 'can reduce impact of tsunamis'

Dense mangrove forests growing along the coasts of tropical and sub-tropical countries can help reduce the devastating impact of tsunamis and coastal storms by absorbing some of the waves' energy, say scientists.

Mangroves better than sea wall: Scientists

It was a dense belt of mangrove that saved the village of Pichavaram, around 40 km from here, from extensive damage by the gushing tidal waves.

Indonesia to Replant Mangroves in Tsunami Defence

Indonesia will replant huge swathes of mangrove forest along its vulnerable coastline to help provide a buffer against possible future tsunamis, the forestry minister said on Friday.

Tsunami-hit nations look to save mangroves

The Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the life-saving benefits of mangroves and reefs, officials and environmentalists say, leading some Asia nations to look at replanting lost or damaged mangrove forests.


6. Cameroon: Preserving the Ottotomo Forest Reserve and its NTFPs

Source: Cameroon Tribune (Yaoundé), 14 January 2005

The Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) has held a training session to sensitise and inform the local population in the forest area of Ngoumou on how to judiciously harness and market non-timber forest products (NTFP) to ensure sustainability. The Ottotomo Forest Reserve comprises fourteen villages on both the northern and southern parts of the reserve. The increasing rate of demographic growth with the pressure exerted on the reserve for a livelihood is a call for concern. It is against this backdrop that CIFOR, working in collaboration with some local groups in the area, is seeking alternative means to diversify activities to reduce pressure on the forest.

Until 2003, the forest was fully controlled by the government and some supporting organs like CIFOR's Adaptive Co-management programme and ATD (Association de terre et de développement), all of which withdrew due to the economic crisis. The absence of these organs led to free access into the reserve by the local population in search of their livelihood.

NTFPs are of socio-economic importance and can be used for both domestic (health) and industrial needs (construction of houses), as well as for their nutritional value and as a source of income. As such, exploitation should be judiciously carried out to ensure availability in the future.

Some of these NTFPs possess a high protein content. CIFOR research found that a kilogramme of Njangsa, a non timber forest product contains more protein than a kilogramme of meat; the same with the bush mango (Irvingia spp).

The marketing of NTFPs should be better organised so as to increase their quality and quantity; production should be in harmony with prices and promotion and advertising should be carried out in both the area and the point of sale. Accordingly, CIFOR intends to merge these groups to form a single body that will market the products.

For full story, please see:

7. China: Traditional medicine 'threatens China's biodiversity'

Source: SciDev Net, 20 December 2004

China's booming traditional medicine industry is threatening biodiversity, according to scientists.

Chen Shilin, deputy director of the Institute of Medicinal Plant Development under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, last week described drug development as a "major factor" threatening the extinction of Chinese species. Speaking at a seminar on traditional medicine in Nanning, the capital of Guangxi province, Chen said between 60 and 70 per cent of China's 3,000 threatened plant species are used in traditional medicine. Of these, he added, 169 are protected species, meaning trade in them is restricted under Chinese law.

Qin Minjian, a professor of traditional medicine at the China Pharmaceutical University, says that as China's population has become more health-conscious, people are turning more and more to traditional medicine.

Demand for such medicines has grown by 300 per cent in the past decade. Last year, the sector's economic value grew by 15 per cent to 94.9 billion yuan (US$11.5 billion). Overseas demand for Chinese medicine has also risen. In 2003, China exported US$712 million worth of herbal remedies, a six per cent increase over the previous year's exports.

But the boost in demand has promoted environmental degradation. For example, large swathes of yew trees have been cut down because they are the raw material for an alcoholic beverage used as a cancer preventive medicine.

Qin told SciDev.Net that many valuable plants are found only in fragile habitats. What's more, says Qin, some of the plants are ecologically important to many other species and their disappearance would increase the risk to the rest. According to Qin, this threat to China's biodiversity has been compounded by multinational drug companies, which have increased investment in research on potential drugs from Chinese plants in recent years.

Measures to make traditional medicine sustainable, says Qin, include cultivating plants used in herbal remedies, restricting the exploitation of valuable species with potential for drug development, and identifying alternatives to medicines based on endangered species. In recent years, China has successfully cultivated or farmed 400 species used to make up traditional medicines. Half of these species account for more than 60 per cent of all natural ingredients used in traditional medicine.

But Xiao Peigen, a retired professor of traditional Chinese medicine and former director of the Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, says current efforts are inadequate.

Comprehensive databases on wild herbal plants and animals should be established to assist regulation of species exploitation, and anyone collecting too much of any wild plant species should be severely punished, Xiao told last week's seminar.

For full story, please see:

8. Kenya: Sh16 billion for trees

Source: The East African Standard (Nairobi), 18 January 2005

A grand plan to plant over 200 million trees in the country was unveiled yesterday. The project to plant trees in the Tana and Athi river basins, a mainly semi-arid region, will cost Sh16 billion and will be carried out over 10 years. It is a joint venture of Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority (Tarda) and GreenPlanet, an international organisation dedicated to environmental care.

The chairman of GreenPlanet, Mr Rino Solberg, said another project to plant 1 billion trees would soon be discussed.

Tarda chairman Alex Mureithi said the project would start with the planting of 5 million trees on 5,000 hectares of land in Kiambere area over the next three years. When completed, the plan, which is the biggest reafforestation project in the country, will have covered 200,000 hectares with trees.

Mureithi said traditional trees with medicinal value, such as the neem, would be planted in Garissa, Bura and Hola.

The Belgium Technical Cooperation will implement the project.

For full story, please see:

9. India: Biodiversity Hotspot Highlight: Western Ghats

Source: Jayanti Ray Mukherjee (in Biological Conservation Newsletter, January 2005)

Kalakad and Mundanthurai, in the southern Western Ghats mountain range of India, were two separate entities until 1988, when owing to their importance for conservation of threatened plants and animals, the province was proclaimed the Kalakad - Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR). These verdant hills lie along the south-western coast of the Indian Peninsula, which is well known as a global biodiversity hotspot. The KMTR harbours five broad forest types ranging from tropical dry to evergreen forests. Its entire stretch of pristine evergreen forests houses a rich repository of rare and endangered species of flora and fauna, which can be attributed to the biogeography and isolation of this region along with its varied climates.

The area has high plant diversity harbouring 1,500 plant species of which 150 are narrow endemics. This domain also provides more than 250 species of medicinal plants and wild relatives of cultivated plants like mango, banana, jackfruit, cardamom, ginger, pepper, tea and coffee. Sixty-six species of orchids have found a home in this region, 8 species with a very narrow distribution. Recently, Paphiopedilum druryi Pfitz., was rediscovered in the wild after having been thought to be extinct for a hundred years.

KMTR has 77 mammal species, 273 bird species, 37 amphibian species, 81 reptile species and 33 fish species. It is the southernmost home for the Indian tiger (Panthera tigris), and also retains several endemic and threatened mammals such as the Nilgiri tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius), lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), the Nilgiri marten (Martes gwatkinsi sub sp.), and others.

Like any other protected area in India, KMTR has threats to its biodiversity. It is bounded by 145 villages along the 5-km stretch of buffer zone, and widespread disturbance processes, such as livestock grazing, fuelwood collection, and sudden outbreaks of fire, occur in parallel with rare instances of poaching, gem stone collection and extraction of minor forest products.

The area was used as a model for World Bank's successful Ecodevelopment Project during which the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, accepted the challenge of conducting a multi-disciplinary research project in KMTR. The major goal of the project was to document various components of biodiversity and to quantify the dependence of the local people on its natural resources for formulating long-term conservation and ecodevelopment goals. Although the project successfully identified a range of important ecological and socio-economic issues facing the KTMR, there remains a long way to go to implement a management strategy based on these findings.

10. India: Orissa villagers revive devastated forest in barren land

Source: New Kerala, Wednesday, 29/12/04 (in Community Forestry E-News 2004.12)

Residents of 17 villages in Orissa have set an example for protecting the environment by reviving a forest spread over 3 500 acres that was devastated by widespread felling of trees a decade ago.

¿When I would go out with a stick and axe to protect the forest, people laughed at me but now things have changed,¿ Raghunath Pradhan, the 80-year-old resident of Magarbandh village who inspired the 10 000 people who joined the campaign. Located 90 km from state capital Bhubaneswar, with a population of about 1 000, Magarbandh now houses the main office of the ¿Sulia Paribesh Parisad¿, a group formed by people from various villages to protect the forest.

Pradhan went from one village to another, organizing meetings and inviting people to join him in this forest protection campaign ¿ and they joined. ¿We jointly stopped all activities like the cutting of trees in the forest in a year,¿ said Pradhan In the second year, people were allowed to enter the forest only to collect twigs for the thatching of houses. In the third year, they were permitted to collect bamboos and the following year, to graze their cattle. For the first six years, the villagers relied on the traditional system of ¿thengapali¿ to rotate patrolling of the forest. Later, this was discontinued and two local youths were appointed as forest guards to collect funds from people visiting the forest.

People are now able to meet their requirements for fuelwood, bamboo, leaves and fibres at very little cost.

For full story, please see:

11. Polynesia: Traditional Polynesian cosmetics help save rainforests

Source: The Star (Malaysia), 6/1/05 (in SciDev.Net Weekly Update: 4-9 January 2005)

Shampoos, moisturising creams and other products based on rain forest plants used by indigenous people in Polynesia are helping to conserve tropical forests in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Botanist Paul Alan Cox spent 30 years researching these and other products, with the aim of bringing them to global markets and ensuring that profits are shared with their originators.

Since moving to Western Samoa in 1973, Cox has been studying the islanders' knowledge and use of the plants around them. He hopes that as well as yielding cosmetic products his research will also identify potential cures for diseases such as HIV/AIDS, cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

One product derived from a Samoan tree is showing promise as an HIV/AIDS drug. Thanks to a royalty agreement between scientist and the government of Samoa, if the drug is successful, the people of Samoa will get half of the profits from its sale (see Digest 10/04).

For full story, please see:

12. Uganda: Mabira forest endangered

Source: The Monitor (Kampala), 22 January 2005

Illegal loggers have resumed felling trees in Mabira Forest following the reduction of forest guards by National Forest Association to minimise costs.

People have started rapid de-forestation for timber. Though it is the National Forest Association and Forestry Department responsible for the forest management, the sub-county has started sensitising locals on the dangers of tree cutting. Collaborative Forest Management has been introduced whereby the residents around the forest participate in protecting it.

For full story, please see:

13. Zimbabwe: Women's role in forestry recognized

Source: The Herald (Harare), 1 February 2005

The last 30 years have seen a paradigm shift in the practice of forestry. In addition to its old traditional roles of protection and management of trees, forestry now has adopted a holistic approach to resource use.

One of the most important new directions is community or social forestry, which addresses the human and social problems associated with forest and land use. Social forestry stresses the need for the active participation and involvement of local communities in all aspects of project design and implementation.

Largely through this approach, the contribution of women, as a distinct social group in the forestry sub-sector, has been internationally recognised and addressed.

The effective involvement of women in the practice of forestry is not merely a question of equity; it is a democratic imperative.

Eighty percent of the more than 6.4 million women in Zimbabwe live and work in communal and resettlement areas where trees and forests are under threat. As a result of migration by adult men seeking employment in the towns and mines of Zimbabwe and South Africa, 52 percent of farm families living in the communal and resettlement areas are headed by females.

In fact, far more women than men, in the developing world, are farmers, users of firewood, collectors and sellers of minor forestry products, and at times look after domestic animals.

In Zimbabwe, women are responsible for the majority of household chores, including the time consuming tasks of collecting firewood, water and child rearing, as well as all the physical labour associated with field crop production. Therefore, women bear the brunt and impacts of diminishing natural resources to a greater extent than their male counterparts. This is compounded by the fact that with steadily increasing enrolment in schools as a result Zimbabwe's policy of "primary education for all," children are unable to contribute as much towards household chores.

Overall, Zimbabwean women farmers produce about 70 percent of the crops and virtually all of the household chores.

The collection and utilisation of a wide variety of forestry products commonly found in the communal and resettlement areas of Zimbabwe demand a great deal on women in time and space. Shortages caused by diminishing forest resources have a severe impact on the lives of women and their children. Under these circumstances, trips to forested areas or the harvesting patterns of local vegetation become frequent. Increasing distances or comparative local scarcity means that more hours are spent carrying out these activities. This leaves less time for income generating activities such as agriculture.

In recent years, Zimbabwe has been experiencing a growing number of households that are headed by women.

Besides their dual roles of being farmers and homemakers, women make up a growing proportion of the paid labour force serving the forest industry and informal sector enterprises such as cottage industries in Binga and charcoal making in Nkayi.

In order for Zimbabwean women to realise their full potential as agents in social forestry, they need some control over the natural resources they use.

Women's participation is considered a prerequisite for the success of any rural development project be it forestry or pottery because of their crucial and critical role in the implementation process. The involvement of women in social forestry should also be seen in the light of their importance in promoting tree planting in the communal and resettlement areas.

The current provision by the government of Zimbabwe that women should own and manage their land is expected to significantly contribute to their motivation and effective involvement in forestry.

For full story, please see:


14. Ecotourism in a soggy corner of Washington State, USA

Source: Washington Post, 23.1.05 in CFRC Weekly Summary 1/27/05

Quinault, WA is the rainiest place in the rainiest forest in the Lower 48. Annual rainfall averages 140 inches, nearly 12 feet a year, which dumps almost 2 billion gallons of water on each square mile of the encircling rain forest, which may well be the most efficient moisture blotter on Earth. Researchers have found that this temperate rain forest -- a uniquely lush matrix of ferns, moss and some of the world's tallest spruce, cedar and Douglas fir trees -- has more living biomass per acre than any tropical rain forest, even those that get twice as much annual rain. A single Douglas fir here can hold 5,000 gallons of water; an acre of forest can slurp up 250,000 gallons.

The National Park Service owns most of the land along the north shore of Lake Quinault and, as a matter of policy, is working to reduce the year-round local population of fewer than 2 000 people by buying houses from willing sellers and demolishing them.

On the south shore of the lake, where the U.S. Forest Service owns most of the land, efforts to protect the endangered northern spotted owl in the past two decades have all but ended logging on federal land.

Loggers -- long the mainstay of the economy, with jobs that often paid $25 or more an hour -- have fled the area, taken lower-paid jobs or are unemployed. Two out of three households in the school district are at or below the federal poverty level, according to a recent survey.

The hope for the future is tourism. Besides being wet, the rain forest is fantastically beautiful, with great glistening swoops of deep green moss hanging from big-leaf maples, herds of Roosevelt elk gnawing on ferns, and pristine air that is cool but hardly ever cold. On a short hike, one can easily see scores of waterfalls.

Roger Blain, a retired park ranger turned fishing and hiking guide, says the potential here for converting rain into tourism dollars is unlimited.

For full story, please see:

15. Wild oak silk; forest health no longer hangs by a thread

Source: World Bank Weekly Update, 20.12.04 (in Community Forestry E-News 2004.12)

At the foot of the Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttaranchal, forests of regal, old oak form a natural watershed for two major rivers that feed the plain below. However, when the Indian government closed off the area to preserve this ecologically vital area, a major source of daily supplies for the region¿s poorest people was closed off as well.

A local non-governmental organization, Appropriate Technology, India (ATI), saw the situation as both a challenge and an opportunity to create market-based incentives for the locals to conserve the region's biodiversity.

As Sharmila Ribeirio from ATI explains, "As commercial sericulture depends on silkworms feeding on mulberry trees, our idea was to commercialize wild oak silk."

Among the 2003 Development Marketplace winners, ATI successfully found a way for the locals--more than 50% of whom live below the poverty line--to live off forest products and resources without destroying the trees. It developed wild oak silk harvesting and forest preservation techniques in the area.

Some 750 people, primarily women, are benefiting from this enterprise in silk worm rearing, cocoon production and silk production. Working in silk production, or even as part time spinners, women can earn up to US$300 per year. India's national GDP is $400 per year.

The project started in 1996 with the planting of 10 kg of wild oak seed. Last year 162 kg of seed was planted, which amounts to about 1 million saplings. This year alone, more than 500,000 saplings were raised, while more than 5,000 mature oak trees were protected through the project.

Using sustainable harvesting norms, only 30% of the allocated forest area is used for silkworm harvesting and then is left alone for three years. The project has established nurseries and plantations to regenerate the forest. "It's a challenge to educate people and build their capacity in conservation," says Ribeirio. "There are also a lot of misconceptions, such as thinking that setting forest fire helps regenerate forests."

Many local and international partners and donors are providing ATI additional support to grow its program. ATI has developed close working relationships with key government agencies, such as the Central Silk Board. In addition, ATI is working to leverage the initial DM grant to secure funding from respected international donors, including the Ford Foundation, IFAD, and USAID others.

This enterprise has even gained the government's permission for sericulture in forbidden parts of the forest.

For full story, please see:

16. Bamboo: study tour in China

From: Fu Jinhe:

INBAR is planning one or two bamboo tours in China in April/ May. The study programme includes visits to.

¿ Anji county, the No. 1 place for bamboo plantation and utilization in the world. Visiting: Anji Bamboo Botanic Garden, the No. 1 bamboo garden in the world with 300 bamboo species and a bamboo museum; China bamboo sea, a bamboo plantation of more than 10 000 ha area; bamboo factories making bamboo curtains, handicrafts, flooring, concrete form etc.; and bamboo products markets.

¿ Linan county, the No. 1 place for bamboo shoot production in China. Visiting bamboo plantations for shoot production; bamboo shoot processing factories; and Zhejiang Forestry College and its research on bamboo.

¿ Sechang county, the No.1 place for bamboo charcoal production. Visiting: bamboo charcoal production site; bamboo charcoal museum; Dasso bamboo flooring company, the No. 1 bamboo flooring producer in the world.

Those interested in participating should contact:

Fu Jinhe Ph. D.
Program Officer and Coordinator of IUFRO
5.11.05 Bamboo and Rattan International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR)
Mailing Address:
Beijing 100102-86,
Beijing 100102,
P. R. China
Fax: +86-10-6470 2166
Email: or


17. Forestry Officer (Non-Wood Forest Products), FAO Rome

From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

Forestry Officer (Non-Wood Forest Products)

P4, Fixed-term: Not to exceed 31.12.2006

Deadline for applications: 1 March 2005

Under the general supervision of the Chief, Forest Products Service (FOPP), the Forestry Officer (Non-Wood Forest Products) is coordinating a team implementing the FAO programme on Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFP). Specifically to:

¿ develop a mid-term FAO strategy for the promotion and development of NWFPs with a view to contributing to the Millennium Development Goals;

¿ identify priority issues for the Forestry Department to address and prepare annual activity plans;

¿ produce technical papers on selected NWFPs with assistance of external expertise as necessary;

¿ keep abreast with latest developments in policies, research, technologies and relevant to NWFPs, and write articles for FAO publications such as Unasylva and SOFO;

¿ ensure focus of NWFP activities on the enhancement of socio-economic opportunities an benefits accruing to the local populations;

¿ collect and disseminate information and facilitate exchange of technical experience and knowledge of NWFP;

¿ prepare appraisal and feasibility studies in the subject area upon request of member countries;

¿ liaise with the private sector and non-government organizations; and particularly provide support for the further development of the Global Alliance on NWFPs;

¿ collaborate with the IUFRO Task Force on NWFPs and other international organizations concerned with NWFPs;

¿ identify and prepare new projects, including identification of potential donors;

¿ provide technical backstopping to field projects;

¿ perform other related duties as required.

Minimum requirements

¿ Advanced university degree in Forestry, Biology, Economics or related field

¿ Seven years of relevant work experience related to non-wood forest products, including experience in the development, management and evaluation of projects, including some experience in developing countries

¿ Working knowledge of English, French or Spanish and limited knowledge of one of the other two

For complete Terms of Reference, please see:

18. World Bank 2005 Summer Internship Program

Source: World Bank Web site

Applications are being accepted for the 2005 Summer Internship Program, which is open to students who are nationals of the Bank¿s member countries. The goal is to offer successful candidates an opportunity to improve their skills, as well as offer the experience of working in an international environment. To be eligible, candidates must possess an undergraduate degree and already be enrolled in a full-time graduate study program (pursuing a master¿s degree or PhD), with plans to return to school in a full-time capacity. This program typically seeks candidates in the fields of Economics, Finance, Human Development, Social Sciences, agriculture, Environment and Private-Sector Development, as well as related fields. Fluency in English is required. Prior relevant work experience computing skills are helpful, as is knowledge of languages such as French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Portuguese or Chinese. The Bank pays an hourly salary and most positions are located in Washington for a minimum of four weeks in duration.

For more information see


From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

19. International Conference on Sustainable Development of Medicinal Plants/Herbs in 21st Century

5-8 February 2005
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

For more information, please contact:

Mr. D.P. Mathur
Organizing Secretary
1982 Subhash Nagar, Chandkheda
Ahmedabad 382 424
Fax: +91-79-23292458
E-mail: or

20. Kaziranga Centenary Celebration

11-17 February 2005
Kaziranga National Park, India

Kaziranga is an outstanding example of the ongoing eco biological processes in the evolution and development of the flood plain ecosystem and its rich plant and animal community.

For more information, please contact:

Kaziranga Centenary Celebration
Assam State Zoo, R.G. Baruah Road
Guwahati - 781 005, Assam
Fax: +91 361 2454560

21. International Training of Trainers on Wetland Management

4-22 April 2005
Wageningen, The Netherlands

Wetlands are hugely diverse. But whether they are ponds, marshes, coral reefs, peat lands, lakes or mangroves, they all share one fundamental feature: the complex interaction of their basic components - soil, water, animals and plants. Wetlands fulfill many functions and provide many products that have sustained humans over the centuries. Using wetlands wisely will maintain these functions and the provision of products. However, unsustainable exploitation of wetlands still occurs on a large scale. The degradation and loss of wetlands and their biodiversity imposes major economic and social losses and costs.

The ICWM-TOT aims to provide participants with the knowledge and skills necessary for curriculum development in the field of wetland management in their own region. The course will be relevant to all climatic zones.

For more information, please contact:

Esther Koopmanschap
River Basin Management
International Agricultural Centre (IAC)
Department: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources (DBN)
WUR building 425
P.O. Box 88 (Lawickse Allee 11)
6700 AB Wageningen
The Netherlands
Fax: +31 (0)317 49 53 95
E-mail: or

22. A fortune in the forest - A conference on Non-Timber Forest Products

9 April 2005
Rhinelander, WI, USA

Whether it¿s balsam bough harvesting, maple syrup collecting, or the gathering of some other kind of forest product, a growing number of people are taking advantage of opportunities that exist within Wisconsin¿s forests for enjoyment and personal income.

The conference will provide participants with information on a wide variety of ways to utilize forest resources for the production of a number of different products. Additionally, participants will have an opportunity to learn how they can market their products and make their business a success.

For more information, please contact:

Bill Klase, UW-Extension Basin Educator

Fortune In The Forest
Oneida County UW-Extension
3375 Airport Road
Rhinelander, WI 54501

23. Growing markets for non-wood forest products

15 April 2005
Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland

Recent years have seen a move towards multifunctional forest management. Operating at a regional, local or forest level, the approach is to cater not only for wood production, but also a range of non-wood products, such as foliage and fruit, and the provision of services such as biodiversity, carbon sequestration, recreation and amenity.

In many parts of the world, particularly in the Nordic countries, there is a well established tradition of berry picking and mushroom collection in and around forest areas. Foliage collection is also practised in many parts of the world, for a variety of uses, from the purely decorative, to feed for livestock.

Ireland¿s forests are mainly managed for wood production, but with the approach now being focused more on multifunctional use, there is an increasing provision for services such as biodiversity, carbon sequestration and recreation. At the same time, non-wood forest products, particularly foliage, are attracting more attention and interest from the business sector. While specialized crops are filling part of this demand, many products can be sourced from commercially managed forests, a resource that is rapidly growing in extent and diversity in Ireland.

In response to these trends, COFORD¿s recently published report Markets for Non-Wood Forest Products addresses market potential for a range of products, from foliage to hunting, to recreation provision. It shows there is significant potential to capture income from products, particularly foliage and hunting. Services such as recreation also have potential, though in some cases they overlap as both product and service.

The seminar will deal with both international and national aspects of non-wood forest products, with a strong focus on products that have market potential. It will be of interest to foresters and forest owners, and indeed all those with an interest in commercializing non-wood forest products and services.

For more information, please contact:

Arena House, Arena Road
Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland
Fax: 01-2130611

24. Training Workshop-cum-Seminar on ¿Poverty Alleviation through bamboo-based development: policies, strategies and stakeholders¿

18-28 April 2005
Zhejiang, China

Bamboo is a fast-growing and regenerating species. Shortly after planting, annual profits occur without negative environmental effects. It is an ideal non-timber forest product for sustainable development. Bamboo's physical properties are similar or superior to wood. Over the recent 15 years, China has achieved great progress in the development of bamboo sector. A series of bamboo panel products superior to timber were developed. Bamboo curtains, mats and carpets appear in the international markets. New products based on bamboo charcoal, vinegar and extracts of bamboo leaves, including medicinal products, natural pesticides, beverages, daily toiletries etc., have great development potential. Bamboo shoots have huge market potential as natural, high-fiber food. Beyond traditional handicrafts and practical daily products, China's bamboo sector has become a fast emerging rural industry. It plays an important role in reducing timber consumption, protecting natural forests, poverty alleviation, employment/income generation, environmental improvement and rural socio-economic development. Many developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America have rich bamboo resources, but poor utilization, especially in terms of industrial processing. This training workshop provides an opportunity for policy makers, rural development practitioners, and entrepreneurs in bamboo producing countries to learn about the potential of bamboo in sustainable development, and to study the Chinese experiences elaborating development strategies and sustainable management of enterprises.

Course contents and learning objectives

The course will be jointly carried out by INBAR and the Bamboo Industry Associations of Lin'an and Anji counties in Zhejiang province, China. It focuses on policies and case studies from the two counties, where impressive developments have taken place over the recent years. While classroom lectures will be kept to a minimum, the course will provide ample opportunities to interact with the players, i.e., local administrators, support staff, entrepreneurs and communities through field visits to villages and production sites. Beyond an eye-opening effect, this will facilitate an understanding of the potential for poverty alleviation, the evolution of the policy environment, private sector and community partnerships, organization and market linkages, and the need to maintain a competitive edge through the development of new products. Course modules specifically would include: bamboo development policies and strategies; Bamboo in rural development and poverty alleviation/income generation; private sector and community partnership models; community organization; household/micro-enterprise development; farmer-market linkages; backward linkages/supply industries development; multi-stakeholder participation; supply chain development; efficiency of raw material utilization; product development, etc.

Workshop Structure

Lectures by bamboo development experts (2 days)
Field studies in villages, households, factories, markets (5 days)
Group discussion with local government officials, entrepreneurs, technicians (1 day)

For more information, please contact:

Ms Jin Wei
Publications and Training Officer
International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), Beijing 100101-80, China.
Fax: +86 10 6470 2166;
e-mail: ,

25. MMSEA - Sustainable use of natural resources and poverty dialogue in mainland montane

16-19 May 2005
Sa Pa, Vietnam

The Centre for Sustainable Development in the Mountains announces the 4th Mainland Montane South-East Asia Conference. The conference is organized in collaboration with the Centre for Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, the Ethnic Minorities Working Group in Vietnam, and the Indigenous Knowledge and People¿s Network from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

For more information, please contact:

Ms Trinh Thi Khanh Chi,
Fax: 84-4-5656211; ;

26. The Association for Temperate Agroforestry Ninth North American Agroforestry Conference ¿ 2005 ¿Moving Agroforestry into the Mainstream¿

12-15 June 2005
Rochester, Minnesota, USA

For more information, please contact:

Dean Current
Organizing committee
Center for Integrated Natural Resource and
Agricultural Management Department of Forest Resources
University of Minnesota
115 Green Hall 1530
Cleveland Avenue North
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Fax: 612-625-5212

27. IVth International Congress of Ethnobotany (ICEB-2005)

21-26 August 2005
Istanbul, Turkey

The Istanbul Congress will be the fourth of a series of meetings aimed to share the recent developments and challenges in the discipline of ethnobotany. The First Congress of Ethnobotany was held at Cordoba in 1992, the second in Mexico in 1997 and the third at Naples in 2001. During this time, while the scope, focus and methods of ethnobotany are diversifying, the biological and cultural heritage is in the process of rapid erosion.

The deadline for sending abstracts is 1 March 2005.

For more information, please contact:

Dr. Fusun Ertug,
Congress Secretary
Yeditepe University,
Anthropology Department
ICEB-2005-IFSSH Congress Center,
26 Agustos Yerlesimi
Kayisdagi Caddesi, 34755 Kayisdagi
Istanbul TURKEY
Fax: +90-216-578 0899
E-mail: or


28. Gender in the park

Source: CIFOR-Polex Listserve, 21.12.04

National parks are good for animals, but not always for people, particularly women. Parks restrict people's activities. Since women typically have fewer resources than men and have a harder time shifting to new activities, sometimes they find it difficult to adapt to the restrictions park authorities impose.

Bifa and Ebianomeyong in Cameroon are good illustrations of that. The two villages caught researchers' attention because the women there were unusually vocal in their opinions about a nearby national park called Campo-Ma'an. "Women in Campo Ma'an National Park" by A.M. Tiani, G. Akwah, and J. Nguiebouri tells these women's story.

Until recently, Bifa's women earned most of their cash selling meat from wild animals in a nearby town and rubber plantation. The men did most of the hunting, but trading was largely women's work, so the money went to them.

Then the government established the park, and ecoguards started to harass the women and confiscate their meat. They even went into the women's kitchens to see what they were cooking. No one ever clearly explained the new rules to the women or told them exactly where the park boundaries were.

The ecoguards didn't manage to stop the hunting, but now people have to sneak into the forest and buy their meat directly from the hunters. The women traders are out of work.

In Ebianemeyong the government has stopped people from using the road to town because it runs through the park and they want to keep out poachers. Actually, the poachers rarely use the road because they could easily get caught. The real losers have been female farmers who can no longer send their crops to the market or take their sick children to the doctor.

In both villages the women realize they can't get rid of the park. All the women of Bifa are really demanding is that park managers clearly define where no hunting is allowed and stop bothering them when the meat comes from other places. Ebianemeyong's women are even ready to help the authorities keep out poachers and loggers, as long as they get some jobs and help with local services. That doesn't seem too much to ask. National Parks cannot always reduce poverty, but at least they should not increase it.

29. Herbage Fourth Edition

Source: Herbage

Herbage Fourth Edition is a nexus of useful plant information. It provides hyperlinked access to the data underlying the use of plants worldwide and is an information resource, both for researchers and general public.

Herbage Fourth Edition contains 30,523 Plant Species, 18,200 Common Names, and 312,079 links to current internet resources, including 9,341 links to scientific abstracts on PubMed. All of the internet resources, which are new in this edition, were compiled in April of 2004. Herbage was first initiated in 1992.

Herbage may be previewed online at

30. Acacia senegal and the gum arabic trade

From: J.R. Palmer, DFID¿s Forestry Research Programme,

Fagg, C.W. & Allison, G.E. 2004. Acacia senegal and the gum arabic trade: monograph and annotated bibliography. Tropical Forestry Papers 42. Oxford: Oxford Forestry Institute. ISBN 0850741572

Acacia senegal and the gum arabic trade: monograph and annotated bibliography is the last of four monographs and annotated bibliographies on African acacia species that are of major importance for human survival and development. This volume covers Acacia Senegal and also summarizes its biological and economic links to several related species that are significant producers of gum.

This book is presented in three sections, including a synthesis of the literature on the species, followed by historical and modern accounts of the gum arabic trade.

This publication (and the other three monographs) is a result of a number of research projects financed by the UK Government¿s Department for International Development (DFID), undertaken by the Oxford Forestry Institute.

Copies can be obtained from the library at the Oxford Forestry Institute or from

31. Other publications of interest

From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

Adams, W.M., Aveling, R., Brockington, D., Dickson, B., Elliott, J., Hutton, J., Roe, D., Vira, B., and Wolmer, W. 2004. Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty. Science 306(5699):1146-1149

Brashares, J.S., Arcese, P., Sam, M.K., Coppolillo, P.B., Sinclair, A.R.E., and Balmford, A. 2004. Bushmeat hunting, wildlife declines, and fish supply in West Africa. Science 306(5699):1180-1183

Fashing, P.J. 2004. Mortality trends in the African cherry (Prunus africana) and the implications for colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 120(4):449-459.

Kowarik, Ingo; Körner, Stefan (eds). 2005. Wild Urban Woodlands, New Perspectives for Urban Forestry, ISBN: 3-540-23912-X

Li, W.H. 2004. Degradation and restoration of forest ecosystems in China. Forest Ecol. Manag. 201(1):33-41.

Ricketts, T.H. 2004. Tropical forest fragments enhance pollinator activity in nearby coffee crops. Conserv. Biol. 18(5):1262-1271.

32. Web sites and e-zines

From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

Social Sciences in Forestry Database

This bibliographic database contains citations and abstracts for over 40,000 publications in a broad range of areas where the social sciences intersect with forestry. Relevant articles from over 250 journals are indexed here. Coverage extends from 1982-present.

The Traditional Tree Initiative

Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry


Information on 460 North American mushrooms.


33. Oak Becomes America's National Tree

Source: CFRC Weekly Summary 6 January 2005

America has the grandest trees on earth ¿ the largest, the oldest, and some of the most magnificent. Now, after Congressional passage of historic legislation in November and presidential signing on Dec. 8, America has an official National Tree-the oak.

For full story, please see:

34. Traditional alert 'saved Andaman tribes'

Source: Central Chronicle (SciDev.Net Weekly Update: 4-9 January 2005)

Indigenous people on the Andaman and Nicobar islands are thought to have escaped the 26 December tsunami thanks to traditional warning systems that interpret bird and marine animal behaviour.

According to the director of the Anthropological Survey of India, V. R. Rao, no casualties have been reported among five tribes ¿ the Jarwas, Onges, Shompens, Sentenelese and Great Andamanese. He believes this is because the tribal people fled for safety at the first indications ¿ such as changes in bird calls ¿ that something was wrong.

According to a related BBC Online news story, wildlife officials in Sri Lanka reported that despite the large loss of human life, there were no reported animal deaths. It is thought that animals moved to safer ground having sensed vibrations or changes in air pressure in advance of the waves' arrival.


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last updated:  Monday, August 24, 2009