No. 09/03

Welcome to FAO's NWFP-Digest-L a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products. A special thank you to all those who have shared information with us.

1. XII World Forestry Congress
2. Madagascar: New Working Paper on NWFP
3. Cameroon: Sustainable use and management of non-wood forest products
4. Brazil: Ecology makes a difference to Brazil's cosmetic industry
5. Brazil: Amazonia finds its niche in the market
6. NGOs try to stop cupuacu patent in Europe
7. Peru: Saving Polylepis Forests
8. Indonesia: The Dayak people in the first co-managed protected area
9. Indonesia: Forestry ministry to map forests
10. Thailand: Tourism threat to wild places
11. Request for assistance: Rhinchophorus palmarum
13. Training Course: Participatory Action Research for Community Based Natural Resource Management
14. Web sites and e-zines
15. Events
16. US PNW Floral Greens Policy Report Available
17. Forest dictionary
18. Certifying the little guys
19. Publications of interest
20. Employment Opportunity
21. Miscellaneous: An unusual tree planting scheme

1. XII World Forestry Congress

From: FAO Newsroom,

XII World Forestry Congress calls for harmonizing needs of people and planet. FAO to ensure follow-up and report on implementation

Rome/Québec City, 29 September 2003 -- "By harmonizing the needs of people and the planet for forest services we can progress along the path of sustainable development," the XII World Forestry Congress underlined at the conclusion of a week-long intensive debate on the future of forests.

In a final statement released in Québec City, Canada, on Sunday 28 September, the Congress stated that "forests have enormous potential to make an invaluable contribution to the imperatives of this era: for environmental security, poverty alleviation, social justice, enhancement of human well-being, equity for present and future generations."

"However, harmonization between people and the planet cannot be achieved by forest managers alone. Bridges must be built with other sectors", according to the Congress final statement.

"For the first time, the World Forestry Congress has addressed what humans need from the forest, what the forest can provide sustainably and the harmonization between the two," FAO Assistant Director-General M. Hosny El-Lakany said. Dr. El-Lakany, who heads FAO's Forestry Department, indicated that the Québec gathering helped to bring about more awareness that forest issues should be reinstated on the political agenda at the highest level.

An FAO global forest resources assessment completed in 2000 reveals an annual net reduction of 12.4 million hectares of forest in tropical developing countries over the previous decade. Worldwide, some 1.6 billion people rely on forests for their livelihoods.

The participants in the Congress pledged to work towards reducing deforestation significantly over the next decades, expanding or maintaining forest cover, enhancing forest restoration and strengthening the role of plantations in supplying wood products.

The right of indigenous peoples, forest communities, forest workers and professionals were re-emphasized, and their role in decision-making related to forest management and utilization have been recognized, Dr. El-Lakany indicated. He also said that the balance between economic, environmental and social aspects of forests was reiterated at Québec City.

"We envision a future with social justice, economic benefits from sustainable forest management, participatory governance and responsible use of forest resources," according to the final statement of the Congress. "We also envision a future where healthy forests supply the full spectrum of products and services: soil and water conservation, maintenance of biodiversity, climate regulation, carbon sequestration; where forest cover is increasing, where forest fragmentation is decreasing, and where degradation is halted."

From talk to action
To realize this vision, the Congress called for sustained political commitment, a stronger forest sector, bridges with other partners and sectors, sustained international cooperation, recognition of the knowledge of indigenous people and management of forests and trees at local and regional scales. Above all, the Congress urged countries to move the intergovernmental dialogue on forests from talk to action.

The final statement urged the world community to promote policies, partnerships, education, management and better monitoring, evaluation and reporting on progress in achieving the balance between the needs of people and the planet.

The Congress recognized that forest education and research are essential for sustainable forest management.

Participants in the Congress pledged to exert renewed efforts to ensure that forests make a strong contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other internationally agreed targets.

The Congress requested FAO to monitor, assess and report on progress on the implementation of the conclusions outlined in its final statement. A progress report will be presented to the XIII World Forestry Congress to take place in 2009.

The XII World Forestry Congress held from 21to 28 September 2003 in Québec City, Canada, attracted more than 4 000 participants from more than 140 countries.

A wide spectrum of issues, in context of the Congress theme: Forests, Source of Life, was considered under three programme areas: Forests for People, Forests for the Planet and People and Forests in Harmony.

Participants included various levels of government and international organizations, NGOs, individuals from rural communities, private forest owners, labour, indigenous people, youth, industry, environmental organizations and scientific and academic community.

2. Madagascar: New Working Paper on NWFP

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

The following new working paper has been produced by FAO's Non-Wood Products Programme.
FOPP/03/1: La collecte et l'analyse des données statistiques sur les produits forestièrs non ligneux. Un étude pilote à Madagascar.

In most African countries, non-wood forest products (NWFP) play a significant role in livelihoods by providing key subsistence products and income. In Madagascar, NWFP such as medicinal plants, ornamental plants (e.g. orchids, aquatic plants), xerophytes, essential oils (e.g. Syzygium sp.) and living animals (e.g. birds, mammals, reptiles and insects) represent 40 percent of the export value of the entire forest products sector.

Despite its socio-economic importance, the availability of statistical data on social, economic and ecological aspects of NWFP is very limited. Therefore a study on Data collection and analysis related to NWFP - a pilot study in Madagascar was carried out within the context of the European Commission-FAO Partnership Programme Data collection and analysis for sustainable forest management in ACP countries - linking national and international efforts. The main objective of the study was to review available information on NWFP in Madagascar and to propose an appropriate methodology to improve the quality and quantity of statistical data on NWFP in the country. Preliminary results of the study were presented and discussed in a workshop held in Antananarivo in November 2001.

In Madagascar, NWFP statistics are collected and maintained by various institutions such as the Service de la Conservation de la Biodiversité with regard to NWFP listed on the appendixes of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Service de la Valorisation Economique des Ressources Forestières for NWFP not covered by CITES.

The study proposes a methodology to improve the availability of data on the production, the consumption and the marketing of NWFP of major importance in Madagascar. This methodology covers eco-biological, socio-economic, technical and statistical aspects and is divided into four phases: i) preparation; ii) data collection; iii) data analysis; and iv) data storage and dissemination.

The proposed methodology was tested for the frog Mantella aurantica and the medicinal plants Catharanthus roseus and Prunus africana. The case studies analyse quantitative and qualitative information, propose a data collection form for animals and plants and present recommendations for a better use and improved statistical data collection of NWFP.

The study concludes that many gaps, irregularities and challenges still exist with regard to the use of NWFP, including their monitoring and evaluation. The study notes the urgency to implement a plan of action for the entire NWFP sector in order to promote the sustainable use of NWFP and presents a programme of work for the development of an appropriate data collection system with regard to NWFP.

Information and comments can be sent to:
Non-Wood Forest Products Programme
Forest Products Division, Forestry Department, FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: +39-06-570-52746 or -53853; Fax: + 39-0657055618

Hard copies of these publications are available free of charge from Sven Walter at the address above or by sending an e-mail to or An electronic version of this publication is available on the NWFP home page:

3. Cameroon: Sustainable use and management of non-wood forest products

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

FAO was requested to assist the Government of the Republic of Cameroon in the development of their non-wood forest products (NWFP) sector.

FAO's Technical Cooperation Project "Institutional support to promote the sustainable use and management of non-wood forest products in Cameroon" (TCP/CMR/2905(A)) will analyse the NWFP sector, elaborate recommendations for the sustainable management and use of selected products and will contribute to the elaboration and implementation of a national strategy and action plan. The FAO NWFP programme is the lead technical unit responsible for the technical implementation of the project.

Many households in Cameroon depend on NWFP as a source of food, construction material, medicines and income. Fruits (e.g. Irvingia gabonensis), leaves (e.g. Gnetum spp.) and spices (e.g. Ricinodendron heudelotii) are among the most relevant edible NWFP. Other important NWFP include medicinal plants (e.g. Prunus africana) and rattan (e.g. Laccosperma secundiflorum). Despite the actual and potential benefits of using NWFP for both subsistence and trade, various legal and institutional constraints hinder the sustainable use of NWFP, including the inappropriate management of resources providing NWFP and unclear tenure systems.

The Government of the Republic of Cameroon recognizes the important role of NWFP in poverty alleviation, particularly in rural areas. In 1998 the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MINEF) created a Sub-division for the Promotion and Processing of NWFP (Sous-Direction de la Promotion et de la Transformation des Produits Forestiers Non-Ligneux, SDNL) in order to promote the sustainable use of NWFP.

In November 2001, the University of Yaoundé and FAO co-organized a seminar on "NWFP in Cameroon: Potentials, Constraints and Perspectives" (, which was followed by a national workshop organized by MINEF in January 2002 on "The Status of the NWFP Sector in Cameroon". These workshops analysed the NWFP sector and identified key challenges faced by NWFP producers, consumers and traders. Furthermore, the workshops acknowledged the efforts made by governmental organizations and their partners such as CIFOR, DFID and FAO to promote the sustainable use of NWFP.

The Technical Cooperation Project TCP/CMR/2905(A) will build on these and will support MINEF and SDNL in their efforts to promote the sustainable use of NWFP. In this context, the project will collaborate with key stakeholders and organizations, including the Forests and Environment Sector Programme (Programme Sectoriel des Forêts et de l'Environnement, PSFE).

Main activities
1. Analyse the national NWFP sector;

2. Propose recommendations for the sustainable management, consumption and commercialization of two selected NWFP (covering both humid and arid ecosystems);

3. Support MINEF in its efforts to elaborate and implement a national strategy and action plan for NWFP.

Main outputs
1. An assessment of the production and market chain of key NWFP, including economic, ecological, social, technical, legal and institutional aspects.

2. Strategies for the sustainable management, consumption and commercialisation of two selected NWFP.

3. A proposed national strategy for the development of the entire NWFP sector.

Status of activities
Project activities will start with a rapid appraisal of the NWFP sector in Cameroon, followed by the in-depth assessment of two selected NWFP and their production, consumption and trade patterns.

In addition to the FAO NWFP Programme, technical backstopping of the project is provided by the FAO Forestry Policy and Institutions Service (FONP) ( and the FAO Development Law Service (LEGN) (

For more information, please contact:
Ms D. Diallo Ba
FAO Representative
PO Box 281, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Fax: +237-220-4811
Mr S. Walter
NWFP Programme, Forest Products and Economics Division
Forestry Department, FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracolla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: +39-06-570-53853, Fax: +39-06-570-55618

4. Brazil: Ecology makes a difference to Brazil's cosmetic industry

Source: Amazon News, 25/9/

Exotic seeds, plants and flowers open doors to export markets
The exotic names of fruits, seeds, barks and plants from the Amazon region have an ecological appeal which distinguishes Brazilian products in the international cosmetics market. In the last five years, the beauty products industry has grown by 102.7%. In 2002, export sales exceeded imports by US$35 million. It is estimated that more than US$190 million of products will be exported in 2003, representing a growth of 20% in relation to 2002.

Products which are 'Made in Brazil' are becoming increasingly common in Europe, the United States, Africa and the Middle East. Until 2000, 80% of Brazilian exports went to other countries in Latin America. This year, that figure has dropped to 55%.

The use of biodiversity has given the national industry a distinctive personality. "Natural cosmetics, particularly those with active ingredients from Amazonian plants, have a great marketing appeal abroad", said Farmaervas' commercial director, Walmir Paulino. The company has recently launched an Amazonian line using essences of copaiba, pequi and andiroba.

5. Brazil: Amazonia finds its niche in the market

Source: Amazon News, 2/10/

Investing in the appeal of the rainforest, business in the region grows stronger each day
The enchantment of the Amazonian rainforest is a rich vein being tapped by companies in the north of Brazil, helping them to survive the crisis in the Brazilian economy. From flowers to natural stimulants, fish to sweets, "forest products" are increasing in value.

Pharmacist Evando de Araujo Silva, owner of Pronatus, discovered this niche in the market 17 years ago when he began to manufacture cosmetic products in the kitchen of his home. He now owns three factories and employs 48 workers. "Our products have a history of folklore and tradition which differentiates them from the rest of the market", he explained. The company now makes profits of almost R$ 1.2 million per year and has recently begun to export its products.

6. NGOs try to stop cupuacu patent in Europe

Source: Amazon News, 2/10/

The European Patent Office is analysing an application from the Japanese multinational Asahi Foods to patent "the production and use of fat from cupuacu seeds". This would give the company the right to produce and commercialise cupulate, chocolate made from cupuacu, explained Michael Schmidlehner, president of the non-governmental organisation, who have been campaigning against cases of biopiracy involving cupuacu, acai and other native Brazilian products.

Alongside German NGOs, has promised an offensive to stop the patenting process on the grounds that the request does not fulfil the basic legal requirements for a patent to be granted: the processing of cupuacu is not a new technique. It has been used by traditional communities in Amazonia for hundreds of years. Furthermore, cupulate was not invented by Asahi Foods, but by the Brazilian agricultural research agency, EMBRAPA. The NGOs are organising a demonstration in front of the headquarters of the European Patent Office in Munich.

Asahi Foods does not currently hold any patents in relation to cupuacu. It has registered "cupuaçu" and "cupulate" as trademarks in Europe, the USA and Japan, which theoretically prevents Brazilian companies from selling products made from cupuacu in the international market.

For more information, visit the site of the National Campaign Against Biopiracy at

7. Peru: Saving Polylepis Forests

Source: September CEPF E-News, Critical Ecosystem Partnership

The Andean condor usually takes the credit as the flagship species for the mountain range that runs the length of South America. However, several lesser-known Andean species can make similarly impressive claims to fame. One of these is polylepis, a group of tree species in the rose family, which wins the prize for being the highest altitude woody plant in the world. In many ways polylepis is a retiring tree, growing slowly and quietly in sheltered valleys close to the high Andean grasslands called paramo or puna. In a vista that features large open expanses punctuated by towering snow-capped volcanoes, polylepis can easily be overlooked.

However, as a result of a reduction in polylepis throughout its range, it is now receiving significant attention in the Cusco Department of southern Peru. One of the reasons is that the forests in this region contain three of South America's endangered birds. Lucky observers can see royal cinclodes, ash-breasted tit-tyrants and white-browed tit-spinetails flitting among polylepis branches or scratching for worms in the mossy soils below.

Polylepis forests, sometimes called "enchanted forests" because of their low canopy, twisted growth pattern and striking red peely bark, are relicts from pre-Colombian times. Before cattle and sheep were introduced to the Andean highlands, polylepis covered vast areas extending from Venezuela to Argentina, perpetuating productive microhabitats in otherwise exposed and harsh highland conditions. Among other ecological benefits, polylepis protects fragile soils from erosion, replenishes watersheds and harbours plants used by local peoples.

Outside the ancient city of Cusco, where the descendents of the Incas live at altitudes of 4,000 meters and more, polylepis is a mainstay for existence. The trees provide fuelwood, construction materials and medicinal plants to Quechua-speaking peoples who maintain much of their centuries-old lifestyle and tradition. Nevertheless, current consumption patterns, along with burning of surrounding grasslands to create pasture for cattle and sheep, are threatening the resource. While community members are well aware that their survival depends on maintaining these forests, they have had few options until recently.

Building A Partnership Approach
That's where the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and the Peruvian Association for the Conservation of Andean Ecosystems (ECOAN) come in. The two organizations have teamed up with support from the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) to work together with three local villages to protect the forests and develop alternatives for fuelwood and timber.

Their Polylepis Project fits perfectly into CEPF's strategic approach in the Tropical Andes to encourage community-based biodiversity conservation and natural resource management to offset threats and ensure durable change.

The key to successful conservation of these endangered birds and their habitats is solving the problem of unsustainable wood consumption. The Polylepis Project aims to develop a local nongovernmental organization (NGO) presence in the communities, provide data on and monitor biodiversity, include indigenous people in conservation, engage villagers and policymakers in biodiversity conservation, raise community awareness of conservation, make rural development more compatible with biodiversity conservation and build a constituency for conservation.

Planting for the Future
As part of the CEPF-supported part of the project, in the village of Abra Malanga, 86 community members, together with 13 young British volunteers and members of ECOAN, expanded polylepis forest by replanting 5,000 saplings. At an altitude of 4,200 meters above sea level, it was no easy task.

In nearby Cancha Cancha, where 3,000 polylepis saplings were planted, residents had to trek more than 11 km uphill with an elevation gain of 1,000 meters to reach their planting site.

In another of the communities, Huacahuasi, the closest polylepis forest is more than 12 km away from the village. ECOAN has determined that if the 170 families continue their annual pilgrimage to harvest trees for firewood and construction, the entire resource will be gone within 30 years. Other sources of fuel are needed. Through the Polylepis Project residents have planted 10 000 eucalyptus trees on degraded lands far from native forests and close to the community. "Using eucalyptus in place of native species has often been looked upon as an emergency measure, but gradually the people's eyes are being opened to see that these alternatives are necessary," says Constantino Aucca Chutas, president of ECOAN and local ornithologist.

In fact, one of the major positive outcomes of the project is that the villagers are becoming aware of the need to manage their lands in order to ensure its productivity into the future. Previously, some simply cut whatever they could find, without heed to where the polylepis were coming from or the long-term impacts.

ECOAN is also working to help these communities gain title to their traditional lands, an important move to provide incentive for sustainable management. One of the steps in the process is the development of conservation action plans. Through a series of meetings, ECOAN and community members will discuss and put down on paper the steps they will take to protect existing polylepis forests and to supplement their needs for wood. Some of these include limited harvesting, reforestation and fencing replanted forests to protect them from grazing animals. And, they've found that a source of cash might also be helpful.

That brings us back to the birds and their conservation. Birdwatchers will travel far to see such endangered species as the royal cinclodes or the tit-spinetail. If these birds are provided with the necessary habitat and active measures are taken to ensure their survival, villagers may eventually be able to host visitors, taking them to see the fruits of their conservation labours and gaining some income at the same time.

In the meantime, a survey and monitoring program for polylepis forest species is underway. It has already paid off with unexpected and happy news. Recently ECOAN discovered a 6.5-hectare polylepis forest fragment with eight pairs of previously unrecorded royal cinclodes.

Extracted from an article by Abigail Rome:
Other interesting web sites:

8. Indonesia: The Dayak people in the first co-managed
protected area

Source: Community Forestry E-News 2003.14,

The Kayan Mentarang National Park situated in the interior of East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, lies at the border with Sarawak to the west and Sabah to the north. With its gazetted 1.4 million hectares, it is the largest protected area of rainforest in Borneo and one of the largest in Southeast Asia.

The history of the natural landscape of the park is inexorably intertwined with the history of its people. About 16 000 Dayak people live inside or in close proximity of this National Park. The communities living in and around the park are still largely regulated by customary law or "adat" in the conduct of their daily affairs and the management of natural resources in their customary territory. The customary chief (kepala adat) administers the customary law with the help of the customary council (lembaga adat). All elected officials at village level and prominent leaders of the community sit on a customary council. Traditional forest areas with protection status or strict management regime exist. "Tana ulen", for example, is land whose access is restricted, limited. It is an expanse of primary forest rich in natural resources such as rattan (Calamus spp), sang leaves (Licuala sp.), hardwood for construction (e.g., Dipterocarpus spp, Shorea spp, Quercus sp), fish and game, all of which have high use value for the local community.

The Nature Reserve established in 1980 had a strict protection status, meaning that no human activities are allowed inside the protected area. WWF together with LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Research) and local people ran a long-term social science research program ("Culture and Conservation", 1991-1997) and conducted experimental community mapping to show that the communities were dependent on forest resources and had rightful claims to the land. The results provided the necessary evidence to recommend a change of status from Nature Reserve to National Park in 1994 (where traditional activities are allowed).

The issue of social entitlements, and particularly lack of tenure security, was identified by the WWF team as a key issue and priority area for intervention in the period 1996-2000. Although Dayak people had been living in the area and made use of forest resources for centuries, the forest they inhabited and managed was "state forest" with a situation of open access, whereby the state could decide to allocate exploitation rights or decide to establish a conservation area without prior consent of the local communities. Local communities had very little power in trying to defend the forest or secure the source of their economic livelihood against the interests of logging companies, mining exploration, or outside collectors of forest products.

Under these circumstances, the WWF Kayan Mentarang project developed a strategy and program of field activities that would lead to the legal recognition of "adat" claims and "adat" rights so that indigenous communities could continue to use and manage forest resources in the conservation area. Activities included: community mapping; qualitative assessments of the use and availability of forest resources with economic value; workshop for the recognition of "tana ulen" or forest under traditional customary management; participatory planning for zonation recommendations and the redrawing of the external boundaries of the park; drafting of "adat" or customary regulations for the management of the national park; strengthening of local organizations and institutional development.

Following several meetings and discussions among the ten "adat" leaders from the customary lands around the park area, the Alliance of the Indigenous People of Kayan Mentarang National Park (FoMMA) was formed and formally established on 7 October 2000. The main objectives were to create a forum for conveying the aspirations of the indigenous communities and debating issues concerning the management of the National Park and natural resources in the customary lands of the park. FoMMA is concerned with guaranteeing protection of the forest and the sustainable use of natural resources as well as protection of the rights of indigenous people, and also concerned with increasing their economic prosperity. FoMMA now legally represents the indigenous people on the Policy Board of the park, a new institution set up to preside over the park's management. The Policy Board includes representatives of the central government (agency for Forest Protection and Nature Conservation), the provincial and district governments, and FoMMA. The operating principles of the board emphasize the importance of coordination, competence, shared responsibilities, and equal partnership among all stakeholders. The board was formally established in April 2002 with a Decree of the Ministry of Forestry, which also spells out that the park is to be managed through collaborative management (a first in Indonesia).

After decades of marginalisation and dispossession, recent developments in the Kayan Mentarang National Parks offer hope to the indigenous communities of Kalimantan. It is becoming increasingly evident that conservation objectives can rarely be obtained or sustained by imposing policies and projects that produce negative impacts on indigenous peoples and local communities. Alternative and progressive approaches that genuinely take into consideration local peoples' needs and rights and secure their full involvement in biodiversity management and decision making can provide a more solid basis for ecological protection and improvement of people's livelihoods. There is hope that the co-management arrangement being developed in Kayan Mentarang will fulfil these objectives.

Source: Cristina Eghenter, WWF Indonesia Kayan Mentarang Project,; Martin Labo, Alliance of the Indigenous People of Kayan Mentarang National Park (FoMMA), and Maurizio Farhan Ferrari, Forest Peoples Programme,

9. Indonesia: Forestry ministry to map forests

Source: Jakarta Post, 12 September 2003 cited in Community Forestry E-News 2003.15

The forestry ministry and the National Coordinating Agency for Surveying and Mapping signed a memorandum of understanding on Thursday for a joint project to map out the country's forests.

The head of the ministry's forestry planning body, Boen M. Purnama, said the move was needed to provide accurate data and information on forests in the country. The cooperation, which will last five years, will start with pilot projects in South Kalimantan and West Kalimantan. Boen earlier said the ministry did not have accurate data on 60 million hectares of forest in the country, including the rate of deforestation.

Indonesia has lost more than 75 percent of its forest over the past few decades. Over the past five years, some 43 million hectares of Indonesia's forest, the equivalent of half of Kalimantan Island, has been destroyed.

10. Thailand: Tourism threat to wild places

Source: Community Forestry E-News 2003.13,

The government's "asset capitalization'' policy to promote tourism in protected forests may prove a commercial success but would lead to destruction of natural resources, senators and environmentalists warned.

It was tantamount to "selling our resources, especially national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, for tourism purposes,'' said Panat Tasneeyanond, senator from Tak province and chairman of the senate environment committee. "I'm worried about the impact on the natural environment. Tourism would lead to over-use and deterioration of the forests. There would be construction. They would all become holiday resorts.''

Mr Panat's remarks come as the government is speeding up implementation of its policy to convert assets into capital, a scheme that allows people to use land, inventions and other rights as collateral for loans. A pilot phase includes registering vendors at several national parks so they could use their vending rights to seek loans from state banks.

Vanchai Tantiwittayapitak, a director of the environmental group Seub Nakhasathien Foundation, said the pilot project was only a first step toward full exploitation of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries for tourism. He pointed to the recent construction of lodgings at Khao Nang Ram, a pristine spot in Huay Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, as an apparent attempt to introduce tourism into the conservation forest, which is a World Heritage site. The money came from the Tourism Authority of Thailand, Mr Vanchai said at a seminar organized by the Thai Society of Environmental Journalists. The buildings were purportedly to accommodate researchers and forestry staff but were in fact meant for VIP guests, he said.

The National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department was under pressure from the government to generate income.

"I'm looking for an assurance that valuable resources will not be destroyed,'' said Nikom Putta, an activist for the Ping Watershed Management Project. He was speaking at the same seminar at Mae Fang National Park in Chiang Mai's Fang district, which is expected to attract more tourists once hot spring facilities are completely installed. While park officials and villagers saw the development as a chance to earn income for the locals and the country, environmentalists pointed to the impact of past tourism development on the country's natural resources.

Mr Nikom said forestry officials were destroying Khao Yai National Park with over-construction of roads and buildings, and would also destroy the scenic Chiang Dao Mountain in Chiang Mai by building a cable car to the top.

However, Vichit Phattanagosai, deputy director of the national park department, said there was nothing to worry about. "We've zoned protected forests, dividing them into five segments such as strict preservation and service areas.'' Only the service area was open to tourists so any adverse impact on the environment would be minimal, he said, but admitted it was difficult to limit the number of visitors.

11. Request for assistance: Rhinchophorus palmarum

From: victor acosta

I write from Peru. I am looking for information on Rhinchophorus palmarum. The larvae of this insect are cooked with their own oil, these cooked larvae are consumed since it says that it has antibronchial properties. The larvae are known locally like suri. Oil is also obtained from these larvae. I am also looking for cooperation to investigate the possibility of its industrial use.

For more information, please contact:
Victor Acosta Avila
Romulo Espinar 117
Iquitos, Loreto,

12. Request for assistance: best practices for the sustainable sourcing of medicinal and aromatic plants

Source: Susanne Honnef on, 8 October 2003

WWF Germany / TRAFFIC Europe-Germany: "Sustainable Use of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants"
Within the framework of this project, we are looking for descriptions and material concerning 'best-practices' for the sustainable sourcing of medicinal and aromatic plants, especially harvested from the wild. These programmes may be part of a development co-operation, of commercial enterprises, or research projects in any country or region world-wide. We would be pleased to receive any information on interesting projects including contact addresses, geographic localization and (if possible) a short description of the project.

Please send any information to:
WWF Germany / TRAFFIC-Europe Germany
Rainer Schliep
Rebstoecker Str. 55
60326 Frankfurt
Tel: +49 69 79144 122
Fax: +49 69 617221

13. Training Course: Participatory Action Research for Community Based Natural Resource Management

Source: Community Forestry E-News 2003.15

Participatory Action Research for Community Based Natural Resource Management
8-10 December 2003
Training base: IIRR, Cavite, Philippines
Organized by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) and RECOFTC, the course is targeted at senior decision makers working on community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). It will allow sharing of experiences, analysis of principles and approaches of participatory action research, and experimentation with a range of tools for examining different perspectives relevant to CBNRM with stakeholders. The course will focus on exploring relevant "people" issues, aiming to provide a stimulating learning environment for sharing of ideas among participants, facilitators and others.

For further information, send a message or visit

14. Web sites and e-zines

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

EarthwireUK is a new UK environment and sustainable development news portal from IIED and UNEP GRID Arendal. Every working day a team from IIED reviews national, regional and local media sources for environment and sustainable development-related news stories. Relevant stories are included in EarthwireUK where they can be viewed by country, topic, or time period. A search engine allows users to search for issues and keywords in the archive. Press releases and news from research organizations, the public sector, and environmental organizations are included as well.

Megadiverse - "The biologically richest countries in the world"
The Link-Minded Group of Megadiverse Countries - Bolivia, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Malaysia, Peru, Philippines, South Africa and Venezuela - operate a website about the Group's work.

The site is available In Spanish and English.

15. Events

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Congress on Globalization, Localization and Tropical Forest Management in the 21st Century
22-23 October 2003
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
This congress will seek to bring together current knowledge on and experience with new market initiatives and international partnerships and their effects on tropical forest conservation, management and poverty alleviation and define recommendations for policy and research on tropical forest management in a globalizing environment.

For more information, please contact: Mirjam A.F. Ros-Tonen, AGIDS/University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

World Herbo Expo 2004
12-14 January 2004
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
The World Herbo Expo 2004 is the first of its kind and is an attempt towards the eradication of poverty from India through the utilization of the US$ 62 billion market for botanical medicines. The World Herbo Expo 2004 is sponsored by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and Forests & the Ministry of ISMH (Medicinal Plants Board), Government of India.

The World Herbo Expo 2004 is aiming at the development of commercial and novelty products that will have high value added, so that we can set rural communities on a path of sustainable economic growth through market development. It will promote long term solutions by assembling the World's most enlightened thinking on innovative themes for sustainable development of the rich biodiversity of India.

These biodiversity products have a high potential to offer realistic gains and the World Herbo Expo 2004 will explore new investment and trade opportunities for biodiversity-friendly products to benefit the rural poor in India.

During this event a business-to-business meeting, a series of conferences, a round table on commercially valued natural and novelty products and a World Herbo Expo with International Bio-Trade fair will be organized. Particular importance will be given to commercially valued natural and herbal products, since the region possesses a natural wealth of enormous potential and will be focused on the small and medium companies.

For more information, please contact:
Dr. R. Sugandhi
President, People For Animals,
"Vasundhara Bhawan"
E-4 Patel Nagar, Bhopal - 462021 M.P. (INDIA)
Tel: +91-0755-275 2727, 275 4941, 271 3713

Bioresources Towards Drug Discovery and Development (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Satellite Symposium)

3-4 February 2004.
Réduit, Mauritius
The symposium is being organized by the University of Mauritius in collaboration with the University of Delhi, India.
Deadline for Abstract Submission: November 1, 2003
Last Call for Abstract Submission: November 1, 2003
Deadline for Registration: November 15, 2003
Deadline for Hotel Accommodation: November 15, 2003
Invited lecturers

Dr Gordon G Cragg (National Cancer Institute, Maryland, USA): Bioprospecting/Biodiversity
Prof Maurice M Iwu (BDCP, ICBG, Nsukka, Nigeria): Ethnobiology/Drug Discovery
Prof Lene Lange (Novozymes Inc., Copenhagen, Denmark): Industry/Drug Discovery
Prof Atta-ur-Rahman (HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, Karachi, Pakistan): Biomolecules
Prof Peter G Waterman (Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia):
Prof Arthur C Watterson (INSET, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA): Biopolymers/Industrial Applications
Prof V S Parmar (Chemistry Department, University of Delhi, India): Traditional Medicine/Biomolecules
For more information, please contact:
Prof. Ameenah Gurib-Fakim,
Chair in Organic Chemistry,
Chemistry Department,
University of Mauritius,
Tel: (230) 454 10 41
Fax: (230) 465 6928; (230) 454 9642

16. US PNW Floral Greens Policy Report Available

From: Eric T

Publication Announcement: Access, labor, and wild floral greens management in western Washington's forests by Kathryn A. Lynch, Ph.D. and Rebecca J. McLain, Ph.D.

In Spring 2002, the Institute of Culture and Ecology conducted research on floral greens policy on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, USA. This study was commissioned by the US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station and the full General Technical Report PNW-GTR-585 is now available free to the public online at:

You can order hard copies at:

Lynch, Kathryn A. and Rebecca J. McLain. 2003. Access, labor, and wild floral greens management in western Washington's forests. GTR-585. This report compares the changes that took place between 1994 and 2002 in the non-timber forest product (NTFP) management regime that governed access to floral greens and other NTFPs in western coastal Washington. The study has several key implications for forest managers, including the need for managers and policymakers to recognize the heterogeneity of the harvester and buyer populations and to consider the possibility that interventions in domains seemingly unrelated to forest management, such as labor policy, might constitute key elements of a sustainable forest management strategy. The report ends with a list of steps managers and researchers can take to support sustainable floral greens management. Key words: Non-timber forest products, forest policy, labor policy, resource tenure, sustainability, floral greens, salal, Olympic Peninsula.

17. Forest dictionary

Source: Forest Harvesting Bulletin, Vol.13

The forestry dictionary is a common product of the members of the Forestry Demo Fairs. The need to find the right forestry and timber trade word in different languages is increasing in our increasingly globalized world. The more than 2 000 words are translated into English, German, French, Swedish, Finnish, Spanish and Portuguese and, on the Internet, even Latin for botanical species.

The forestry dictionary will never be complete or perfect. But we hope it will be of use for everyone working in the international world of forestry and timber trade.

18. Certifying the little guys

Source: CIFOR-Polex Listserve, 7/10/

This year marks the tenth anniversary of the Forest Steward Council (FSC). During these ten years certification has become a major factor influencing commercial forestry. Over 30 million hectares of forest have been certified under the FSC standards and 70 million hectares more under other schemes.

Certification initially focused on large-scale industrial logging. However, the movement now realizes it must also address community-owned forest enterprises and smallholders. These groups own or manage about one quarter of the forest in developing countries and are important in some developed countries as well.

According to "Forest Certification and Communities: Looking Forward to the Next Decade" by August Molnar from Forest Trends, about 50 communities managing 1.1 million hectares of forest had been certified under the FSC system as of August 2002. Most were in Mexico and Guatemala, with scattered cases elsewhere. The Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) and the Pan-European Forest Certification (PEFC) systems have certified forests owned by individual smallholders, but not forests owned by communities.

Molnar says getting certified has helped communities in several ways, if not always with higher prices. These include greater recognition, more secure tenure, financial and technical support from governments and donors and access to new markets. In addition, some large companies have improved workers' safety and relations with their neighbours. The certification process has also given indigenous people and other traditionally marginalized groups a seat at the table.

Still, most community enterprises and smallholders find certification costly and difficult. Experience from Southern Mexico suggests that on average it costs community forestry enterprises $60,000 to be certified for five years. That is a lot, particularly considering most don't get higher prices for their products. So far donors have picked up most of the tab, but that won't last forever. Most communities and smallholders lack the necessary administrative capacity, volume and quality of products, technical assistance, and legal recognition to even think about getting certified.

The FSC has approved new rules for "Small and Low Intensity Managed Forests (SLIMFs)", which make it easier and cheaper for communities to get their forests certified. Even so, Molnar predicts that only a tiny percentage of communities and small forest owners will ever find it feasible and useful to do so.

Helping the rest will require different strategies. Marketing can promote the fact that indigenous people and small farmers made the products. Governments need to remove the legal barriers to smallholder forestry activities. Forestry departments, donor projects, and NGOs should focus more on providing business support services. Special care must also be taken to ensure certification efforts do not prevent low-income families from accessing resources and markets.

To request a free electronic copy of this paper in English or Spanish in pdf format you can write Megumi Hiromitso at To send comments or queries to the author write Augusta Molner at:

19. Publications of interest

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Bengwayan, Michael. 2003. Intellectual and Cultural Property Rights of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Asia. Minority Rights Group International, London, May 2003, 40 pp. or download from

Bunyard, B.A. 2003. A survey of fungal diversity in northeast Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 103(2):29-32.

Bystriakova, N., Kapos, V., Lysenko, I., and Stapleton, C.M.A. 2003. Distribution and conservation status of forest bamboo biodiversity in the Asia-Pacific Region. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1833-1841.

Carter, Jane,; Steenhof, Brieke,; Haldimann, Ester & Akenshaev, Nurlan. 2003. Collaborative Forest Management in Krygyzstan: Moving from Top-Down to Bottom up Decision Making. Gatekeeper Series No. 108, IIED

This paper describes one of the first attempts to introduce a collaborative approach to forest management in a former Soviet-governed country. It highlights some of the challenges raised in developing a more participatory approach in a country accustomed to top-down, centralised decision-making and outlines some lessons for similar efforts in other nations in transition.

As a result of the country's Soviet past, there are strong reservations about group or community based work. Instead, the most acceptable mechanism for collaborating with local people in forest management has been through long-term leases taken by households or small household groups. Recognised weaknesses of the project are a lack of orientation to poverty alleviation and to gender issues; these are beginning to be addressed.

Introducing the concept of collaborative forest management to a country in transition poses many fundamental challenges. Particular issues likely to be shared are the difficulty of promoting participation; a possible resistance to group work; a context in which forests are becoming more important to rural livelihoods than they were; a potentially growing disparity between rich and poor; and a possible need for new forest management techniques.

The report is now available at

Dachang, Liu (ed.). 2003. Rehabilitation of Degraded Forests to Improve Livelihoods of Poor Farmers in South China. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Degradation of forests and forest lands is a problem in many parts of the world and is particularly serious in south China. Chinese forest policy reforms in recent years have enabled rural households to generate income from forests, to own the trees they have planted, and have offered new opportunities to manage forests sustainably. Rehabilitation of degraded forests and forest lands is one of the possible pathways to improve livelihoods of poor farmers and others in the rural communities.

Griffiths, A.D., Philips, A., and Godjuwa, C. 2003. Harvest of Bombax ceiba for the Aboriginal arts industry, central Arnhem Land, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):295-305

International Institute for Sustainable Development. 2003. Traditional Knowledge and Patentability. IISD Trade and Development Brief, No. 7, IISD, Winnipeg, Summer 2003, 4 pp. or download from

Jiang, Y., Kang, M.Y., Gao, Q.Z., He, L.H., Xiong, M., Jia, Z.B., and Jin, Z.P. 2003. Impact of land use on plant biodiversity and measures for biodiversity conservation in the Loess Plateau in China - a case study in a hilly-gully region of the Northern Loess Plateau. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2121-2133.

Mayers, James & Vermeulen, Sonja. 2003. Power from the Trees: How good forest governance can reduce poverty. (two-page version); (full text version)

Mayers, James & Bass, Stephen. Forthcoming, January 2004. Policy that Works for Forest and People: Real prospects for governance and livelihoods. Earthscan/IIED ISBN 1 84407 096 4, 336pp, US$59.95, Order No.9276IIED

Reddy, M.S. and Parthasarathy, N. 2003. Liana diversity and distribution in four tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel coast of south India. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1609-1627

Sherpa, L.N., Peniston, B. & Hands Lama, W. 2003. Around Everest: Transboundary Cooperation for Conservation and Sustainable Livelihoods. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Snider, A.G., Pattanayak, S.K., Sills, E.O., and Schuler, J.L. 2003. Policy innovations for private forest management and conservation in Costa Rica. J. Forestry 101(5):18-23.

20. Employment Opportunity

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Position Title: Forestry Officer (Statistics)

Duty Station:
Grade Level
Fixed term, 3 years
Organizational Unit
Forest Economics Service, FOPE Forest Products and Economics Division Forestry Department
Deadline for Application:
29 October 2003
Duties and Responsibilities:

Under the direct supervision of the Chief, FOPE, will assist in the development and maintenance of information on forests and forest products. Specifically, to:

* assist with the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of statistical data on production, consumption and trade of wood and non-wood forest products;

* assist with the preparation of the FAO Yearbook of Forest Products and other statistical publications;
* assist with the maintenance of statistical databases;
* assist in advising member countries on approaches and methodologies for improving their collection and analysis of statistical data, especially in the provision of data for the preparation of the FAO Yearbook of Forest Products;

* perform other related duties as assigned.
Minimum Requirements:

* University degree in forestry or statistics.
* At least one year of professional experience in the collection, compilation and analysis of statistical data with some exposure to the preparation of publications for dissemination of forest products statistics.

* Working knowledge of English, French or Spanish and limited knowledge of one of the other two.
Selection Criteria:

* Relevance of experience in collecting, compiling and analysing statistics, preferably on international forestry matters.

* Extent of knowledge of statistical analysis techniques and software.
* Analytical skills, including ability to analyze information and present findings in a clear manner.
* Communication skills, including ability to speak and write clearly and concisely.
* Fluency in more than one language.
For details, go to:

21. Miscellaneous: An unusual tree planting scheme

Source: Community Forestry E-News 2003.13 (August 15, 2003)

The Philippines: DENR sets aside Cagayan Valley planting sites for probationers - "Lawbreakers are now nature's "new heroes."

In line with a Supreme Court order, starting last July, people under court-approved probation are now required to plant trees to make amends to society. Probationers are those sentenced to imprisonment of six years or less. However, they do not serve the jail term but instead are placed under the custody of a probation officer and required to render community service.

Early this year, Chief Justice Hilario Davide signed Administrative Order No. 17-2003 directing all trial judges to include tree planting as one of the conditions in granting probation. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), the Supreme Court's partner in this criminal rehabilitation scheme, has set aside 500 hectares of open public forest lands in Cagayan Valley as planting sites.

Environment and Natural Resources Secretary Elisea Gozun also urged other DENR regional offices to start identifying planting sites for the program.


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last updated:  Friday, August 28, 2009