No. 08/03

Welcome to FAO's NWFP-Digest-L a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products. A special thank you to all those who have shared information with us.

1. Web site of FAO's NWFP Programme
2. Bhutan: Matsutake export declines
3. Bhutan: Biodiversity Act
4. Vietnam: New Zealand herb company invests in Vietnamese aid project
5. Cameroon: Foundation helps communities protect Cameroon Mountains biodiversity
6. Uganda: Uganda Group of the African Network of Ethnobotany/Ethnoecology
7. Brazil: Cupuaçu - Asahi Foods tries to defuse protest
8. Ecotourism Exchange in the Amazon advances community-based ecotourism
9. Kleinhans Fellowship: New Fellow to Study Amazon
10. GEF to Double Funding Available to NGOs for Community-based Environmental Projects
11. DFID Forestry Research Programme
12. Guidelines on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants
13. Web sites and e-zines
14. Events
15. Publications of interest
16. India: Project Reports on NTFPs/Medicinal Plants
17. Miscellaneous: volunteers sought

    1. Web site of FAO's NWFP Programme

    From: FAO's NWFP Programme

FAO's NWFP Programme has a new URL:

The Web site is available in English, French and Spanish and has been completely updated and revamped. Any comments are welcomed and can be sent to

    2. Bhutan: Matsutake export declines

Source: Kuensel, 24 July 2003

Export of Matsutake mushrooms to Japan has rapidly slumped in the recent years says the National Mushroom Centre (NMC) in Semtokha. "This is basically because of the large production of matsutake in other exporting countries like South Korea, North Korea and China," according to Dawa Penjor of NMC. Matsutake, locally called sangay shamu, fetches about Nu 3 000/kg in Japan and Bhutan has been exporting the mushroom for about a decade.

There are other reasons for the decline. Despite the vigilance of quality control inspectors, Japanese importers found nails inside the mushrooms, seriously tarnishing the quality of Bhutanese export standards. Bad harvesting practices of mushroom collectors have also contributed to the decline. According to Dawa Penjor, Bhutanese over pick, collect very young mushrooms, disturb the soil and damage the host plant, and carry plastic bags instead of baskets which prevented spores from being released in the forest. Collectors say that the productivity of the cultivated areas has declined by at least 10 percent in recent years.

Exporters, farmers, agriculturists, foresters, collectors, quality controllers and marketing experts in the business met at a one-day workshop on 18 June to discuss "sustainable harvesting and marketing of the mushroom". The participants deliberated on various cross cutting issues affecting the mushroom industry in Bhutan.

"Little is known in Bhutan about the Japanese mushroom industry, the place of matsutake in the industry, and the progress and the prospects of Bhutan's export to Japan," said Chhimi Tshering of the agricultural marketing section, who presented a paper during the workshop. He said that Canada, North Korea, South Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the USA, Turkey and China also exported matsutake to Japan, with China and North Korea dominating the market. Bhutan was the smallest supplier. Bhutan also exported matsutake to Thailand, Singapore, India, Malaysia and Hong Kong.

Mushroom exporters said that the "low demands and uneconomic prices offered" because of an economic slump in Japan, coupled with high cargo charges and flight cancellations owing to bad weather, were other reasons for the declining export to Japan. But G Vinning, a marketing expert with the agricultural marketing section, argued that the information Bhutanese exporters had on the Japanese mushroom industry was either very limited or not true and assured that the Japanese matsutake market was steady and export worth continuing.

The programme director of the Renewable Natural Resources-Research Centre (RNR-RC), Bajo, spoke on the possibility of harvesting matsutake based on principles of shared ownership. He explained that mushroom producing areas were a "common pool" for which an effective management strategy needed to be developed.

Meanwhile, NMC has been taking various initiatives to keep the industry running and has been training the matsutake collectors in the sustainable harvest of mushrooms. The beginning of the harvest season is now being set every year and the collection of small size mushrooms is not being allowed so that mushrooms can mature and shed their spores. NMC has also set packaging standards and has been encouraging collectors' group formation to prevent over-picking and mismanagement.

Chhimi Tshering suggested the new initiative of "Bhutan Fresh" to regain Bhutan's market reputation in the export to Japan. "Bhutan Fresh" will be the quality standard brand on matsutake exported to Japan.

For more information, please contact: Gopilal Acharya,
For full story please see:

    3. Bhutan: Biodiversity Act

Source: Kuensel, 12 August 2003

The Biodiversity Act of Bhutan, 2003, which was endorsed by the 81st session of the National Assembly, will implement legal, administrative and policy measures to regulate access to genetic resources of the country. The Act asserts the sovereignty of the country over its genetic resources and the need to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the resources as well as the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of the resources. It will also prevent illegal access to genetic and biochemical resources and associated traditional knowledge, protect farmers' and breeders' rights, make plant varieties subject to property rights and promote access to foreign sources of improved plant varieties for Bhutanese farmers.

The agriculture secretary, Dasho Sangay Thinley, said that the Biodiversity Act was extremely important in the Bhutanese context since Bhutan still had 72 percent of its forest cover intact. "The large forest coverage that we have contains most of the biodiversity." He added that Bhutan had great resources such as forests, livestock, crops and farmers' traditional knowledge. "This Act will look into how these resources can be utilized for the benefit of the people. It will basically protect our farmers' interests" he said.

The Act will recognize and protect traditional knowledge, innovation and local communities' practices associated with biodiversity; regulate and facilitate the process by which collectors may legally obtain genetic resources; and, promote technology transfer and capacity building at the national and local levels, including the building of a scientific and technological capacity relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

Dasho Sangay Thinley said that protecting farmers' knowledge, referred to in the Act as traditional knowledge, was also very important. "Farmers' knowledge has its own identity," he said. "They are the owners of that knowledge which if they share with other countries will bring them benefits in terms of income."

The Act states that access to genetic resources shall be subject to the prior informed consent of a competent authority of Bhutan, a body representing national interests and the interests of the local communities harbouring, cultivating, developing and maintaining the biodiversity concerned. The authorized agency will process the applications and decide whether to grant or refuse a permit and the applicant will be informed of the decision within 30 days of receipt of the application.

The six-chapter Act also lays down the conditions for the grant of access, benefit sharing, and protection, talks about the various rights, offences, and penalties. "So far we have only been talking about conserving and protecting the biodiversity," said the outgoing agriculture minister, Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji. "Now we are talking about bio-prospecting it."

The minister explained that bio-prospecting was a highly technical and sophisticated process for which Bhutan at present did not have the technical and scientific capacity. "At the same time we have a tremendous wealth of genetic resources which people would like to tap for economic and commercial benefits," he said. "We are hoping to get the expertise and technical know-how from the developed countries and here again the Act becomes very important."

For more information, please contact: Gopilal Acharya,
For full story, please see:

    4. Vietnam: New Zealand herb company invests in Vietnamese aid project

Source: Phytomedica list serve

A Nelson based company that has achieved international success with a range of herbal products derived from the native pepper tree Horopito, is now turning its attention to the indigenous forests of North Vietnam.

Forest Herbs Research Ltd is managing, on a non profit basis, a project supported with $500,000 from NZAID, that seeks to research and market plant products to the benefit of the impoverished hill tribespeople of Northern Vietnam.

Forest Herbs' Director, Peter Butler said that in North Vietnam awareness is growing about the value of their remaining forests, and national parks are being formed. This is good - but it means the hill people who have used the medicinal plants from these forests for generations will no longer be able to harvest from the wild. Mr. Butler believed that conservation values could be served and the hill people helped to make a living if commercial markets were found for the medicinal plants and if the people were helped to cultivate them sustainable.

Forest Herbs is working alongside the British volunteer group Society for Environmental Exploration and has employed a well qualified Vietnamese woman as project coordinator. Mr. Butler said she was currently organizing meetings to introduce the project to the target villages and gather their feedback. "She's being assisted by a leading ethno-botanist who came from a hill tribe before his academic career; and we will be doing a literature search in Hanoi to see what is already verified on the effects of the plants used by the tribespeople."

The first stage of the two year project will be to identify four potentially useful plant species in the Sa Pa District in remote upland Lao Cai province where 85 percent of the population are ethnic minorities and over 60 percent below the poverty line.

International Coordinator for Forest Herbs Research Ltd, Dr Christopher Wheatley, says the dual conservation and poverty alleviation nature of the project is very unusual and will require a delicate balancing act: 'There are a lot of conservation projects seeking to save endangered plants and there are a lot of projects aiming to improve people's lives and income, but it's very unusual to combine the two.'

Dr Wheatley says if plants have their market value enhanced by the project, there will need to be mechanisms to ensure they are not in increased danger of exploitation, and that the added value this creates is returned, in fair measure, to the rural communities themselves. 'We'll have to put the right systems in place, like a certification of sustainability, similar to organic certification, as we switch to more market-oriented farming of these endangered species,' he said, 'otherwise we risk creating a further incentive for wholesale removal of plants from the forest.'

For full story please see:

    5. Cameroon: Foundation helps communities protect Cameroon Mountains biodiversity

Source: Newsfront - 13 August

UNDP is supporting activities by the Cameroon Mountains Conservation Foundation to protect the area's unique biodiversity by helping local communities manage forest resources and improve their livelihoods. UNDP is providing US$300 000 for the initiative.

The Cameroon Mountains, lying in the western part of the country, are the highest range in West Africa. The region's forests have been designated by Conservation International as one of the world's 25 biodiversity "hot spots" that need special attention to safeguard endangered species.

Many villages in the mountains are isolated, and their people are among the one-third of Cameroonians who survive on less than a dollar a day. They depend on the mountains for resources such as firewood, honey, medicinal plants and game for food, and have strong cultural bonds to the forests. The mountains are also a vital source of water for many inhabitants.

Among the animals living in this unique environment are primates, including chimpanzees and gorillas, mountain elephants and a number of rare bird species. Over the years, however, forests have been cleared for farming and grazing, leading to drying up of streams and the disappearance of wildlife.

The Cameroon Mountains Conservation Foundation is applying to the Global Environment Facility for $6 million in funding and UNDP is working to mobilize an equal amount from donors and partners. To aid this effort, UNDP hosted a round table in June 2003 for representatives of donor and government agencies in Yaoundé, the capital, and is following up to marshal support for the Foundation.

Tanyi Mbianyor Clarkson, Minister of the Environment, urged support for the Foundation's mission, noting that its work is carried out within the framework of the Government's Forest Environment Sectoral Programme, supported by the World Bank. Donors to date include German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) which has allocated $2.1 million, the UK Department for International Development $740 000, and the Forest Environment Sectoral Programme $620 000.

The Foundation is cooperating with communities to improve forest management to conserve resources, protect endangered species and improve livelihoods by promoting eco-tourism and marketing of local products. The foundation also works with villagers to monitor the ecology and social and economic conditions in the area.

These activities contribute to Cameroon's efforts to reach two of the targets of the <Millennium Development Goals for 2015: halving severe poverty and ensuring environmental sustainability.

For further information please contact Peter Ngu Tayong, UNDP Cameroon, or Nicholas Gouede, UNDP Communications Office,

    6. Uganda: Uganda Group of the African Network of Ethnobotany/Ethnoecology

Source: Phytomedica List serve

The Uganda Group of the African Network of Ethnobotany/Ethnoecology (UGANEB) is a non-profit NGO. It is part of the Africa-wide ethnobotany network that was formed in 1997 at the 15th conference of the Association for the Taxonomic Study of the Flora of Tropical Africa (AETFAT), which was held in Harare, Zimbabwe. UGANEB's mission is to coordinate ethnobotanical activities in Uganda, to explore knowledge and practices in this field, and to promote the sustainable use of plant resources.

UGANEB's objectives are to:
¿ establish national linkages between the individuals and institutions who are carrying out ethnobotanical activities; ·

¿ develop linkages between UGANEB and comparable networks in other countries for purposes of collaborative research; ·

¿ forge collaborative partnerships in ethnobotany/ethnoecology with international organizations; ·
¿ document ethnobotanical information and make it available to stakeholders through a resource centre; ·
¿ contribute to international forums on ethnoscience; and
¿ organize workshops that raise public awareness, and to lobby for the sustainable utilization and conservation of plants.

To date, UGANEB has organized a seminar for a strategic assessment of needs for ethnobotanical research and training, has helped members to obtain three research grants, and has created a database of publications reporting on ethnobotanical and ethnoecological research in Uganda. UGANEB has linkages with UNESCO and the association for the taxonomic study of the flora of tropical Africa (AETFAT).

The following are examples of research projects that have been completed:
¿ The use of forest products by local communities around the Budongo Forest; ·
¿ Climbers of the Budongo Forest and their use by local people; ·
¿ Evaluation of some plant extracts for trypanocidal activities using culture-adapted trypanosomes.

For more information, please contact:
UGANEB, c/o Makerere University, Department of Botany, P.O.Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. E-mail:

    7. Brazil: Cupuaçu - Asahi Foods tries to defuse protest

Source: Amazon News, 14 August 2003,

The president of Cupuaçu International Inc., a subsidiary of the multinational Asahi Foods, Mark Nagasawa, met with the State Secretary for Trade and Industry, Ramiro Bentes this Wednesday. The meeting was arranged by the Tome-Acu Producers Cooperative and the Japanese-Brazilian Chamber of Commerce in Para. Nagasawa said that he had been perplexed by the repercussions of his company registering the name of the fruit cupuaçu as a trademark and added that he had not intended to damage the interests of small-scale producers in Amazonia. He stated that he will not object to the Brazilian government's request to 'repatriate' the trademark. In return, the state government invited the company to construct a factory in Tome-Acu to manufacture chocolate from the fruit.

The Amazonian Working Group had launched an international campaign against the actions of Asahi Foods. The annulment of the trademark could mark the beginning of a new era in which the rights of traditional and indigenous communities in Amazonia are recognised.

(See Digest 7/03 for more information.)

    8. Ecotourism Exchange in the Amazon advances community-based ecotourism

Source: July CEPF E-News, Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund,

In the midst of the Amazon a unique ecotourism exchange program is giving community-based ecotourism stakeholders the boost they need to better conserve local cultures and environments, improve local economies and potentially reach tourist markets around the world.

At a series of workshops held earlier this year, members of indigenous communities, private industry and conservation organizations gathered as representatives of three of the world's pioneering community-based ecotourism lodges. The purpose: to examine the benefits and challenges of the ecotourism partnerships they are engaged in.

The meetings took place in each of the three participating lodges, located deep in the rain forests of their respective countries: Posada Amazonas in Peru, Chalalan Ecolodge in Bolivia and Kapawi Ecolodge in Ecuador.

Members of the Ese'eja, Quechua-Tacana and Achuar indigenous groups, representatives from Conservation International and two tourism businesses-Rainforest Expeditions from Peru and Canodros from Ecuador-assembled to see for themselves how others are developing their lodges, discuss their experiences and share lessons learned for successful ecotourism partnerships.

The exchange, called Learning Host to Host, was funded by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) as part of its strategic approach to encourage community-based biodiversity conservation and natural resource management in the Vilcabamba-Amboró conservation corridor of the Tropical Andes hotspot.

For full story please see:

    9. Kleinhans Fellowship: New Fellow to Study Amazon

Source: Rainforest Alliance [], 5 August 2003

The Rainforest Alliance has awarded the 2003-2005 Kleinhans Fellowship for study of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to Carla Morsello, PhD. Carla will examine how the commercialization of NTFPs in the Brazilian Amazon is affecting local indigenous communities and forest conservation. The NTFPs in the study will include local oils, nuts, flowers and herbs used by the cosmetics and medicinal industries.

Read the press release at:

    10. GEF to Double Funding Available to NGOs for Community-based Environmental Projects

Source: July CEPF E-News, Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund,

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) announced 1 July 2003 that it will more than double the amount of small grant funding available to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations through its Small Grants Programme.

GEF - one of five CEPF donor partners - is an international financial organization with 175 member countries that acts as a major catalyst for improving the global environment. The GEF Small Grants Programme, which awards grants up to $50 000 each, supports projects that simultaneously benefit the global environment and local communities in developing countries.

"GEF's Small Grants Programme has made a huge difference in the well-being and environmental health in thousands of local communities," said GEF's CEO and Chairman Mohamed T. El-Ashry. "Though the program's grants are small compared with the needs of our global environment, their impact is large - and GEF is working closely with its partners to make the program's impact even larger in the coming years."

According to the recently approved GEF business plan, the GEF small grants budget is projected to increase from $30 million in 2003 to more than $60 million in 2005. The increase in funding would allow GEF to award more small grants and increase the number of countries participating in the program.

Since 1992, GEF has committed approximately $117.35 million for small grants, leveraging an additional $65.6 million in co-financing, to NGOs and community groups in developing countries. The Small Grants Programme is administered on behalf of the GEF by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). In each participating country, a broad-based national steering committee provides overall guidance and strategic direction for the programme and screens and selects projects for grant awards.

Press release:

    11. DFID Forestry Research Programme

From: Hannah Jaenicke,

The following two projects are being funded by the DFID Forestry Research Programme.

R8295 Methodology for planning sustainable management of medicinal plants in India and Nepal
Anna Lawrence, Environmental Change Institute (ECI) - University of Oxford

1 June 2003 - 31 March 2005

India, Nepal

Through participatory action research focused on medicinal plants, a globally applicable protocol will be developed for the creation of biometric assessment methods for NTFPs. Comparing and enhancing existing methods, the project will aid communities in Nepal and India in selecting useable, efficient and accurate methods to incorporate into their forest management plans. Methodologies will be disseminated nationally. Their uptake and local relevance will be ensured by close collaboration with local communities as well as government and target institutions. A manual on the development of biometrically sound methods for NTFP measurement will be distributed locally and internationally.

ZF0192 Planning workshop on medicinal bark in South Africa
Wong, Jenny
, Wild Resources Ltd., University of Wales at Bangor, UK
1 March 2003 - 30 April 2003

South Africa

A recently completed workshop on developing biometric sampling systems and optimal harvesting methods for medicinal tree bark in southern Africa could form the basis of a larger regional research cluster.

For more information, please contact:
Dr. Hannah Jaenicke
Deputy Manager, DFID Forestry Research Programme
Natural Resources International Ltd.
Park House, Bradbourne Lane, Ditton,
Aylesford, Kent ME20 6SN
United Kingdom
direct phone: +44-1732-878681
fax: +44-1732-220498/99

    12. Guidelines on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants

Source: Susanne Honnef & Susanne Schmitt on the Phytomedica list serve,

At a recent meeting organized by the WWF-UK and WWF/TRAFFIC-Germany, representatives from WHO, IUCN, TRAFFIC and WWF discussed the need to revise the 1993 'Guidelines on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants'. These are global guidelines that were published by WHO, IUCN and WWF following the historic 1988 Chiang Mai Declaration 'Saving Lives by Saving Plants'.

All participants recommended the revision of the 1993 guidelines in light of significant new developments in the field of medicinal plant conservation and use over the past decade (e.g., community involvement in conservation, incentive-based approaches/certification). The usefulness of an up-to-date global framework document was highlighted strongly. Apart from governments and NGOs, a new key audience for the revised guidelines will be the commercial sector (e.g., herbal medicine industry, traders). This sector can contribute significantly to conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants through socially and environmentally sound sourcing practices.

To achieve maximum buy-in, the revised guidelines will be developed through a global consultation process, which should be completed by December 2004. TRAFFIC becomes the fourth author of the revised document. The work will be guided by a steering committee comprised of two representatives of each organization.

If you wish to participate in the electronic consultation please send a message to Dr Wolfgang Kathe, TRAFFIC-Europe who will from now on be coordinating this effort. ( Please copy your message to Ms Anne van den Bloock (

The timetable for consultation is the following (NB: after March 2004 still tentative).
1. e-mail Circulation of 1st draft annotated outline and preamble for global review to WWF,TRAFFIC, IUCN & WHO networks plus experts; distribution 1st August, comments required by 30th September 2003.
2. October -December 2003 incorporation of comments and drafting of 1st full-text version
3. E-mail Circulation of full-text version for global review to WWF, TRAFFIC, IUCN & WHO networks plus experts; distribution early January; comments required by end of March 2004
4. Incorporation of comments
5. Tentatively - International consultation workshop: early June 2004
6. Guidelines completion December 2004.

The old 1993 'WHO/IUCN/WWF Guidelines on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants' can be found

For more information, please contact:
Wolfgang Kathe, PhD
Boulevard Emile Jacqmain 90
B-1000 Bruxelles
Tel: +32 / 2 / 343-8258
Fax: +32 / 2 / 343-2565
Susanne Honnef
Species Conservation Section, WWF Germany
TRAFFIC-Europe Germany
Umweltstiftung WWF Deutschland
Rebstoecker Str. 55
D 60326 Frankfurt, Germany
Tel: +49 69 79144-212
Fax: ++49 69 617221

    13. Web sites and e-zines

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

El manejo campesino de los recursos naturales y productos forestales no maderables

RAinforest REport (RARE)
, a quarterly e-zine, packed with exciting rainforest news, reviews, expedition updates and student research opportunities.

Contact to request your copy.

Focus on Forests
Although this new web site is aimed at pupils studying the UK's National Curriculum, Key Stage 3, it is also useful to a much wider audience. It was created by the World Land Trust with funding from the Forestry Research Programme of the UK's DFID. The website is based around case histories, and in the future it may be possible to include others, or create links to other sites.

For more information, please contact:

    14. Events

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Mountain Tradition Herb Festival
5-6 September 2003
Shoal, Kentucky, USA
Mountain Tradition will be bringing together leading herb lovers, environmental classes and alternative healers from throughout the country and locally to share with us their knowledge of the Earth, plants and natural healing methods.

Learn how to make soap, herbal medicine, and wine, make a basket, grow and preserve herbs, grow and use ginseng and other mountain herbs, make solar panels, etc.

For more information, please contact:
Linda Heller +1-606-672-6444

International Conference on Bamboo Resource Utilization and Processing Technology
8-10 September 2003.
Yiyang, China
For more information, please contact:
The Bureau of Scientific and Technical Science and Technology of Yiyang City, No.31, South Kangfu Road, Yiyang City, Hunan Province, P.R.C. 413000.

E-mail: or

Certification & World Forestry
25 September 2003
Quebec City, Canada
"Certification & World Forestry" is the fourth Certification Watch Conference and will build on a tradition of high profile strategic events organized by Certification Watch and will examine the status, trends and challenges related to the development of forest certification and responsible procurement throughout the world.

Topics to be presented and discussed include phased approaches to forest certification; reduced impact logging, certification standard development; Congo Basin and other partnerships; plantations versus natural forest certification; illegal logging; mutual recognition and collaboration among programs; high conservation value forests, responsible procurement, chain of custody and labelling of wood products.

"Certification & World Forestry" will take place in Québec City on the occasion of the World Forestry Congress.

For more information, please explore the conference website at or simply download the conference flyer at

or contact:
Candace Reimer
Conference Coordinator,
+1 (514) 273-5777 or toll free in North America at 1-877-273-5777

Goods from the Woods: Enhancing Stewardship and Livelihood
27-28 September 2003
Grand Rapids, MN, USA
Goods from the Woods will demonstrate opportunities to diversify our forest-based economy and increase the benefits we enjoy from our forests, while protecting our forests for future generations.

For more information, please contact:
Colleen Oestreich, Giziibii RC&D Coordinator, 3217 Bemidji Ave. N., Bemidji, MN 56601, USA
Tel: +1-218.751.1942 Extension 5,
Fax: +1-218.751.953

Natural Forests in the Temperate Zone of Europe - values and utilization
14-18 October 2003.
Rakhiv, Transcarpathia (Ukraine)

The objectives of the Conference are
¿ to review the status quo and the state of knowledge about natural (old growth) forests in the temperate zone of Europe,
¿ to show the value of natural forests from different points of view and to analyse conflicting interests and aims on a local, national and international level,
¿ to assess the economic potential of natural forests and forest reserves,
¿ to intensify the international and interdisciplinary co-operation in research on natural forests,
¿ to promote and support the long-term protection and conservation of old-growth forests

Topics to be covered during the working sessions (voluntary papers and posters)
Value of natural forests as reference systems
¿ for forest development, regeneration and succession processes
¿ for habitat, species and genetic diversity
¿ for risks and impacts of natural hazards
¿ for effects of anthropogenic influences and climatic change on forest ecosystems
¿ for the deduction of silvicultural strategies and forest management concepts

Value of natural forests as largely pristine habitat in an anthropogenically modified landscape
¿ as key habitats for threatened and/or highly specialized species
¿ as conservation areas (protection requirements, programmes)
¿ as cornerstones in forest reserves networks to counteract negative effects of fragmentation

Socio-economic values of natural forests
¿ as a natural resource and cultural heritage for the local population
¿ as protection against natural hazards (e.g. erosion, landslides)
¿ as a place for experiencing nature, contemplation and inspiration
¿ as an attraction for scientific or eco-tourism
¿ as contribution to the local population's livelihood

Protection and management of natural forests
¿ problems of protection
¿ conservation strategies and management concepts
¿ management of buffer zones

For more information, please contact:
Brigitte Commarmot, Swiss Federal Research Institute, Zürcherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
Fax: 41-1-739-22-15;

Dr. Fedir D. Hamor
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
P.O. Box - 8
UA-90600 Rakhiv
Zakarpatska oblast, Ukraine
Fax +38-03132-22054

Monitoring Science and Technology Symposium: Unifying Knowledge for Sustainability in the Western Hemisphere
20-24 September 2004
Denver, Colorado, USA
Efforts of natural resource professionals throughout the Western Hemisphere in the 20th century have lead to a number of revelations regarding the way in which human beings interact with the natural world and how to (and not to) sustainably manage resources. By sustainability, we mean to leave future generations with as many management and utilization options as the current generation enjoys.

The 21st century is being marked by a number of converging scientific, technological, and societal factors that advance the possibility of improved concurrent sustainability of natural resources and human institutions. It is the following factors that provide the principles upon which this symposium is organized:

For more information, please contact:
Dr. Sidney Draggan
Senior Science and Science Policy Advisor
Immediate Office of the Assistant Administrator
for Research and Development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Ariel Rios Building
Mail Code 8101R
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20460
Tel: +1-202.564.6658
Fax: +1-202.565.2431

    15. Publications of interest

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Bamboo cookbook
, the world's first cookbook for bamboo shoots is available.
Price: USD 36.00

Adams, William M. 2003. Future Nature. A Vision for Conservation . Earthscan. ISBN:1853839981.

Dixit, R.D.& Ramesh, Kumar. 2003. Plants used by local people in human welfare. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 2003, 27: 1, 53-59;

This paper provides a list of 25 plants species, ranging from herbs to trees, commonly used by the local people of India for the treatment of various ailments. Current botanical and local names, brief morphological description, medicinal claims, preparation, administration are provided for the species, which belong to 22 genera and 17 families.

Gautam, K.H. & Watanabe, T. 2002. Silviculture for non-timber forest product management: challenges and opportunities for sustainable forest management. Forestry Chronicle. 2002, 78: 6, 830-832.

Recent concerns regarding non-timber forest product (NTFP) management are focused on raw material production. But NTFP ought to be viewed from the perspective of ecological processes, cultural heritage, livelihoods of local people, economic values and incentives for forest management. This broader role for NTFP cannot be realized by simply domesticating a few species. Integration of NTFP in forest management is necessary in order to achieve sustainable forestry. Because forestry technologies are developed with timber values uppermost, it is vital to develop forest management technologies that take into account both timber and non-timber values. Global examples show that traditional knowledge could play a vital role while developing silvicultural regimes, and in situ experimentation will strengthen the regimes.

Kasali, A.A.; Adio, A.M.; Kundayo, O.E.; Oyedeji, A.O.; Adefenwa, A.O.E.M. & Adeniyi, B.A. 2002. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Fam. Burseraceae) bark. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2002, 5: 3, 173-175

Lacuna-Richman, C. 2003. Ethnicity and the utilization of non-wood forest products: findings from three Philippine villages. Silva-Fennica. 2003, 37: 1, 129-148.

The utilization and trade of non-wood forest products in three villages in the Philippines were compared in this study. Two villages were situated close to each other on the Island of Palawan. The Tagbanua, an indigenous people, inhabited one village; migrants from the Visayas Region of the Philippines populated the other. The third village is located on the Island of Leyte, in the Visayas Region, populated by native Visayan settlers. There was no significant difference in the number of NWFPs utilized by the indigenous people and the migrants. However, there was a wide disparity in income between the two groups, with migrants earning more, partly due to the marketing of commercial NWFPs. This gap could be decreased by fairer trading practices that are dependent in part on better educational opportunities, land rights, legal assistance and access to markets for the Tagbanua. Specific socio-economic characteristics, such as the presence of a hunter within the household and size of the family were found to have a positive correlation with the use of NWFPs in some study villages. Income and the food expenditure of the household were inversely related with the use of NWFPs in the native Visayan village.

Louka, E. 2002. Biodiversity and Human Rights: The International Rules for the Protection of Biodiversity. Transnational Publishers. (

Peres, C.A. & Lake, I.R. 2003. Extent of non-timber resource extraction in tropical forests: accessibility to game vertebrates by hunters in the Amazon basin. Conservation-Biology. 2003, 17: 2, 521-535

Extractive activities targeting a wide range of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are ubiquitous in tropical forests, yet the extent of structurally intact forests in a given region affected by this form of cryptic disturbance is poorly documented. The authors conducted a basin-wide geographic information system analysis of the non-motorized accessibility of Amazonian NTFP extraction and estimated the proportion of the Amazon drainage basin within Brazil (3.74 million km2) that can be accessed on foot from the nearest navigable river or functional road. A long-term series of standardized line-transect vertebrate censuses were used conducted throughout the region to illustrate the effects of physical accessibility on wildlife densities in terms of hunting pressure as a function of distance from the nearest point of access. Population abundance in large-bodied, prime-target species preferred by game hunters tended to increase at greater distances from the access matrix, whereas small -bodied species ignored by hunters usually showed the reverse trend. In addition, the authors estimated the proportion of presumably inviolate core areas within nature, extractive, and indigenous reserves of Brazilian Amazonia that are prohibitively remote and unlikely to be overhunted; for instance, only 1.16% of the basin-wide area is strictly protected on paper and is reasonably safe from extractive activities targeted to game vertebrates and other valuable NTFPs. Finally, the paper discusses the concept of truly undisturbed wildlands in the last major tropical forest regions by distinguishing potentially overharvested areas from those that remain largely or entirely pristine and that maintain viable populations of a full complement of harvest-sensitive species.

Prasad, R. & Mishra, M. 2001. Documentation of unpublished literature/ research reports on Non Timber Forest Products (1989-2000).Indian Institute of Forest Management, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal (M.P). ISBN 81-7969-000-8.

Shmatkov, N. & Brigham. T. 2003. Non-timber forest products in community development: lessons from the Russian Far East. Forestry Chronicle. 2003, 79: 1, 113-118.

One of the components of the IUCN-The World Conservation Union project, "Building Partnerships for Forest Conservation and Management in Russia" funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), is designed to assist remote communities of the Russian Far East to sustainably develop their non-timber forest product (NTFP) resources. In this project, NTFPs are viewed as one part of a local sustainable livelihood strategy (including tourism, cultural activities, hunting, herding). The project provides business and legal issues training, consultation on small business and community-based enterprise development, and support for sustainability and monitoring programmes. One of the basic principles of the project has been a participatory approach to project development and implementation. It is the hope of project participants that the successful development of NTFP and other opportunities will decrease the pressure to move forward with potentially damaging resource exploitation activities. Although community economic development is the primary goal, the revival and sharing of indigenous knowledge about NTFPs has been identified by participants as a key issue, and is a focus of educational materials being developed through the project.

Singh, V.K.; Govil, J.N. & Singh, G. 2002. Recent progress in medicinal plants. Vol 1: Ethnomedicine and pharmacognosy. Sci Tech Publishing LLC; Houston; USA.

This book, the first of eight volumes of the series on the recent progress in medicinal plants research, contains 33 papers discussing the ethnobotanical value of different medicinal plants from diverse geographical locations.

Singh, V.K.; Ali, Z.A. & Siddiqui, M.K. 2002. Folk herbal remedies of the Kheri District forests (Uttar Pradesh), India. Sci Tech Publishing LLC; Houston; USA.

An extensive ethnopharmacological survey of the Kheri district forests in Uttar Pradesh, India in 1995 provided first-hand information on folk medicinal claims prevalent among the local populations. A total of 101 plant species belonging to 89 genera and 54 families were found to be commonly used in the area by local medicine men (Khar Vaidyas) as folk drugs. This paper reports 169 widely accepted folk recipes along with their mode of application and therapeutic dosage.

Sunil, Nautiyal; Maikhuri, R.K.; Rao, K.S.; Saxena, K.G.. 2003. Ethnobotany of the Tolchha Bhotiya tribe of the buffer zone villages in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 2003, 27: 1, 119-142;

A survey was conducted during 1995-97 to identify the plants traditionally used by the Tolccha Botiya tribe inhabiting 10 buffer zone villages (Chamoli District) of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 173 plant species were used by the inhabitants. Of these, 82 percent (142 species) were used as sources of medicines, spices, condiments, vegetables and fruits, and the remaining species were used as sources of house construction materials, fuel, fodder and agricultural implements. These species are listed with their scientific and local names, family, and uses. Monetary equivalents, calculated based on the prevailing market rates, are presented for some forest products collected for different purposes by the inhabitants.

    16. India: Project Reports on NTFPs/Medicinal Plants

From: Manish Mishra, India,

Listed below are Project Reports on NTFPs and Medicinal Plants that have been prepared during the last 3-4 years. All the original reports/papers are available at Institute of Forest Management (IIFM).

Mishra, M. and Kotwal, P.C. 2003. Sustainable management of some critically endangered species of medicinal plants in central India. IIFM funded project. Status-Completed

The field-based study on sustainable harvesting of selected medicinal plants and socio-economic dependence and development have been carried out in two selected districts viz. Bhopal and Mandla in Madhya Pradesh. The study closely examined for the management system, value addition and procurement of selected medicinal plants including Malkangni (Celastrus paniculatus), Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), Kali musli (Curculigo orchoides), Baichandi (Dioscorea bulbefera) and Safed Musl (Chlorophytum borivillianum). The selected species have been classified as critical species around the globe by IUCN and concern has been expressed for their protection and conservation. The condition of the five selected medicinal plants in the natural forest of the study site is deteriorating because of the high price of product in the market and immature harvest by the local people.

Mishra, M. and Kotwal, P.C. 2003. Conservation and management of some critically endangered medicinal plants in the tropical forests of Madhya Pradesh. Draft Project report submitted at IIFM, Bhopal. Status-Completed.

The forest of state of Madhya Pradesh is very rich in Medicinal & Aromatic plants (MAPs). In the absence of any clear-cut policy to promote production, collection and marketing of various MAPs, its management has suffered over the past few decades. MAPs play an important role in the rural economy since many species have become important due to a sudden demand for cosmetics. There is a general global trend in favour of eco-friendly plant based products for medicines, dyes and cosmetics.

Mishra, M. Phukan, B.R., Singh, S.P. and Lhungdim, H.P. 2000. Utilization pattern of medicinal plants among the Bharia tribes of Patalkot (Chindwara district in M.P) and their sustainability. IIFM Research Project Report.

In this project an attempt was made to understand the pattern of utilization of medicinal plants among the Bharia tribes of Patalkot Valley, Chhindwara (M.P).

Mishra, M. Phukan, B.R., Singh, S.P. and Lhungdim, H.P. 2000. Studies of regeneration potential and changes in status of some important plant species, their availability and flow of NTFP in the village economy of Patalkot valley, Chhindwara District M.P. IIFM Research Project Report. Status-Submitted.

The project had the following objectives: to study the present regeneration potential and vegetation status of important plant species of the forest; to compare the regeneration and vegetation status of studied villages with earlier benchmark studies; to study the flow of NTFPs at household level; and to estimate income form NTFPs and their impact on livelihood of forest dependent populations.

Mishra, M.; Prasad, R.: Phukan, B.R. & Singh, S.P. 2000. Developmental intervention and its impact on forest fringe villages: A case of Actual collection & production potential of Tendu leaves in Madhya Pradesh. IIFM funded research project report. Status Submitted.

Mishra, M. and Teki, S. 2002. Sustainable harvesting, value addition and marketing of selected NTFP species: A case of Malkangiri and Koraput districts of Orissa state. RCNAEB, New Delhi Funded project. Status-Completed.

The study reveals that the present marketing system can be improved through simple interventions that would substantially increase the returns to the people. Organizing community groups and facilitating the value addition and marketing of NTFPs through these can eliminate several links in the marketing chain. The different value addition option for selected NTFPs, namely Chironji, Mahua flowers and fruits, Aonla and Imli, have been explored. The leaves of Mahul and kullu gum are also include in the value addition. The application of different value addition steps at every stage, from collection to marketing of these NTFPs, has been considered.

Prasad, R; Kotwal, P.C. and Mishra, M. 2000. Standardizing methodology for sustainable harvesting of some NTFPs in Madhya Pradesh. IIFM Research Project Report. Status-Completed.

A research project on standardizing methodologies for the sustainable harvesting of the three most important non-timber forest products, i.e. Aonla (Emblica officinalis) Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) and Safed Musli (Chlorophytum spp.), has been taken up in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

Yadav, M.M.; Vijay Kumar, C.V.R.S. and Mishra, M. 2003. Research study on wood craft and wood carving Industry at Bastar (Chattisgarh) and Jodhpur in Rajasthan. IIFM funded research project. Status-Ongoing.

Yadav, M.M. and Mishra, M . 2002. Base study on the Evolution of Non-timber based Woodcraft Industry at Budhani and Chittrakoot. Sponsored by SRTT, Tata Trust, India. Status-Report submitted.

Yadav, M.M.; Sing, R.K.; Vijay Kumar, C.V.R.S and Mishra, M. 2003. Promotion of medicinal plants marketing: developing market information system (MIS), market networks and policy framework. Project sponsored by the National Medicinal Plant Board, New Delhi. Under the promotional activities of the NMPB board. Status: Ongoing research project.

The broad aims of the project are to contribute to the conservation and rational utilization of forest resources, to increase economic and social benefits from the forestry sector and to improve the distribution of these benefits among producers and consumers. The specific aim is to support and strengthen medicinal plants marketing by addressing issues related to efficient marketing: to identify institutional interventions necessary for creating and enabling environment for sustainable harvesting and cultivation; and to create database of medicinal plants and their users, market demand, potential buyers, suppliers, prices etc of raw and processed material, as well as the trade in medicinal plants.

For more information, please contact:
Manish Mishra
Faculty, Ecosystem Management and Technical Forestry Branch
Indian Institute of Forest Management, (IIFM)
Nehru Nagar P.O Box 357, Bhopal (M P).INDIA
Pin: 462003 India.
Ph. +91-0755-775716/773799

    17. Miscellaneous: volunteers sought

Source: H. Gyde Lund, FIU, 30 June 2003, []

Following the invitation of the Mexican Government, Coral Cay Conservation Ltd (CCC) will begin a collaborative conservation programme in September 2003, in the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve. The Sian Ka'an reserve comprises of a variety of ecosystems which support an incredible wealth of biodiversity. However, rapid development due to the recent explosion of tourism in the area presents several threats to the reserve and exerts great pressure on its natural resources. CCC, alongside local partners, will initiate a programme to survey the regions terrestrial environments in order to underpin the development of effective management strategies and provide training and conservation education opportunities.

CCC is currently looking to recruit experienced staff and self-funding volunteers for this new and exciting project. Volunteers need not have any prior experience since all training will be provided.

For further information contact or see CCC website (


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last updated:  Monday, August 24, 2009