No. 06/03

1. Non-wood News
2. New Working Papers on NWFP
3. Brazil: Secrets of the forests
4. Brazil: Bicycle made from Amazonian vegetable leather
5. Brazil: Collecting data on biodiversity in Amazonia
6. Brazil: Environmental protection areas in half of Amazonia
7. Ghana: Bushmeat
8. Ghana: Forest Cover Slumps From 8.2 to 1.6 Million Hectares
9. Mozambique: Operators Accused of Breaking Forestry Law
10. South Africa: Pondoland Villagers Rally to Protect Ecotourism
11. South Africa: Xolobeni Mine seen as a threat to Ecotourism
12. Uganda to Export Gum Arabic to US
13. Uganda: Experts encourage rural folk to plant fruit trees
14. Zimbabwe: Mopani Worm in Danger of Extinction
15. Pan-Africa: Africa - the most promising ecotourism product in the world
16. Phytotrade Africa
17. Request for assistance: Kosovo and medicinal plants
18. Request for assistance - Ghana: bamboo cultivation and utilization awareness creation programme
19. Request for assistance: Chamaedorea elegans
20. Web sites
21. The 4th China Bamboo Culture Festival - call for papers
22. Events
23. Publications of interest
24. Forestry in Australia

No. 6/03

Welcome to FAO¿s NWFP-Digest-L a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products. A special thank you to all those who have shared information with us.

Back issues of the Digest may be found on FAO's NWFP home page:


1. Non-wood News

From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

The special 10th anniversary issue of Non-Wood News is now available on line at:

Special Features in this issue cover Bamboo and rattan statistics, Bamboo, Ecotourism, and Bees and bee products.

Hard copies have been mailed to all those on our mailing list. If you would like to receive a copy - and are not yet on our mailing list - please contact us on:

The deadline for contributions for the next issue is 15 January 2004.

2. New Working Papers on NWFP

From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

The following three new working papers have been produced by FAO¿s Non-Wood Products Programme.

FOPW/03/4 Expert Meeting for development on inventory techniques to assess non-wood forest product resources in African ACP countries. Lusaka, Zambia. 15-17 October 2001.

FOPW/03/5 Reunion des experts des pays francophones d¿Afrique sur le developpement des techniques pour l¿evaluation des produits forestiers non ligneux. Yaoundé, Cameroun. 15-17 février 2002.

FOPW/03/6 Summary of six case study reports as a contribution to development of practical techniques to assess non-wood forest product resources.

Hard copies of these publications are available free of charge from:

Non-Wood Forest Products Programme
Forest Products Division, Forestry Department, FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
: +39-06-570-52746 or -53853; Fax: + 39-06570 55137

Electronic versions of these publications will shortly be available on the NWFP home page:

3. Brazil: Secrets of the forests

Source: Amazon News, 25 June 2003

Nuts, essential oils, precious stones, certificated tropical hardwoods and handicrafts are some of the treasures hidden deep in the Amazonian rainforest. Despite the fact that it occupies two thirds of the territory of Brazil, the Amazon region contributes only 7 percent of Brazil's annual income. The Brazilian environment agency IBAMA estimates that Amazonia's biodiversity could generate an income of R$ 4 trillion, four times more than the current GNP.

On Tuesday 17 June, 650 representatives of the public, private and 'third' sector met in Belem to discuss proposals to make the forest economy the motor which drives the development of the region. During the meeting, the first group of timber producers with the coveted 'green seal' was formed. The group is composed of five companies and two communities in Acre.

An initiative from the federal government, the National Forests Programme, promises to offer incentives for ecologically correct products. The idea is to transform an area twice the size of the state of Sao Paulo into national forests by 2010. Under this new regime, the exploitation of the forest's natural resources will be permitted as long as it conforms to the criteria of sustainable management, i.e. the extraction of forest resources should benefit local communities without damaging the environment.

Adalberto Verissimo, of the Institute of Man and the Environment in Amazonia (IMAZON), said that the future of sustainable development in the region depends on the urgent resolution of the land question. "Around 45% of the forest has no owner", he explained.

Certificated timber continues to be up to 20% more expensive than timber which does not have the FSC 'green seal'. Other ecologically-correct products are up to a third more expensive. "The appeal of these products is in the work behind each item and the many families which benefit from this economic alternative which means that they do not have to leave their land", said Verissimo.

One piece of good news is that there is no shortage of projects in the region aimed at bringing about sustainable development. The non-governmental organisation Friends of the Earth - Brazilian Amazonia has created a service for sustainable business, which offers advice to local communities in Amazonia. "An economy based on sustainable development could generate 500,000 direct and indirect jobs in the next four years", said Roberto Smeraldi, director of the NGO. The sustainable business service has received investment of R$ 1.5 million from the Dutch government in its first year. It helps companies selling forest products to identify markets and find buyers for their products.

One area of growth is the production of cosmetic products, using raw materials from all over the Amazon region. Beraca, a Sao Paulo-based company which acts as an intermediary between producers and industrial manufacturers, has created a research programme to identify potential ingredients. Copaiba oil is used to make anti-dandruff shampoo and acne products. Andiroba oil is being used in anti-cellulite products.

The sustainable development projects have an unquestionable appeal. A specialist shop is Sao Paulo, which sells ecologically correct stationary, furniture and personal hygiene products, has seen an increase in its monthly income from R$40 000 in June 2002 to R$100 000 today. The shop was the first in Brazil to receive the Forest Stewardship Council's 'green seal'.

4. Brazil: Bicycle made from Amazonian vegetable leather

Source: Amazon News, 20 June 2003 (

The Giant bicycle, made using vegetable leather, is a success for the ¿Business for a Sustainable Amazonia¿ partnership. The bicycles come equipped with bags made from vegetable leather, stamped with the WWF logo. The range was launched at the Botanic Garden in Rio de Janeiro during the opening of a new exhibition from Business for a Sustainable Amazonia, a partnership between the Ministry of the Environment, AmazonLife and WWF-Brazil.

The vegetable leather, known as Treetap®, is made from natural rubber and was produced by three rubber-tapping communities in Amazonia, with support from the Rio-based company Amazon Life, WWF-Brazil and the Nawa Institute.

The aim of the vegetable leather project is to develop new products made using natural rubber which guarantee the sustainable use of forest resources and increase the income of the local population.

The bicycles have already attracted great interest from consumers in Holland.

5. Brazil: Collecting data on biodiversity in Amazonia

Source: Amazon News, 22 May 2003. (

The Brazilian Air Command signed an agreement with the Emilio Goeldi Museum in Belem granting researchers the use of the SIVAM surveillance system to collect data about biodiversity in Amazonia. The aim is to create a database containing information about plant and animal species in the region. The database will be based on the Museum¿s archives about mammals, invertebrates, amphibians and wood, among others.

The information from the SIVAM system will help the museum to consolidate this database. The information will include a description of the status of each species, indicating if, for example, the species is threatened with extinction. The project will be concluded in the next 18 months.

6. Brazil: Environmental protection areas in half of Amazonia

Source: Amazon News, 29 May 2003. (

Brazil should consider the idea of transforming half of Amazonia into an environmental protection area, according to a document published by the World Bank; Brazil should combine "its tremendous natural riches", with higher levels of human capital, foreign trade and innovation to "construct an economy based in knowledge and natural resources".

The document advocates the preservation of Amazonian¿s ecosystems alongside the existence of highly productive agriculture

7. Ghana: Bushmeat

Source: The Independent (Accra), 16 June 2003

Since Ghana held a national conference on the bushmeat crisis in August 2002, Ghanaians have been made more aware of the threatened state of some creatures in their forests.

It is believed that with this knowledge Ghanaians have become more selective in their consumption of bushmeat. To further help sensitise Ghanaians on the animals, reptiles and birds faced with the danger of extinction. The Environmental Watch would from today begin write-ups on these endangered species, courtesy a document titled "Endangered Bushmeat Species in Ghana" produced by Conservation International - Ghana.

The creatures are categorised as Endangered [EN], Critically Endangered [CE], Vulnerable [V] and Data deficient [DD]. The Environmental Watch begins the write-ups with the over 40 globally threatened species of mammals, fishes and birds that can be found in Ghana.

All species of global conservation concern are also of national conservation concern. At the national level, such species are classified as "Wholly Protected", which means their hunting, capture or destruction are prohibited at all times, as stipulated in Schedule I of the Consolidated Wildlife Laws of Ghana (WD 1999). The Diana Monkey The Diana Monkey (Cercopithecus Diana) is categorised as endangered (EN). Miss Waldron's Red Colobus (Procolobus badius) is another monkey species threatened with extinction and is categorised as critically endangered (CR); its major habitat is the rainforest (mainly arboreal).

For full article, please see:

8. Ghana: Forest Cover Slumps From 8.2 to 1.6 Million Hectares

Source: Accra Mail (Accra), 22 May 2003

Out of a total estimated 10 to 30 million natural species of flora and fauna on the earth, only 1.5 to 1.7 million species have been recorded, representing just 17 percent of the total number. In Ghana about 2 974 indigenous plants, 450 fish, 728 birds, 225 mammals, 221 amphibian and reptile species have been recorded so far. Dr. P.K. Ofori-Danson, of the Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of Ghana, Legon and a Member of the National Biodiversity Committee revealed these facts yesterday at a press conference to launch this year's International Day of Biological Diversity, which is being observed today under the theme: "Biodiversity and Poverty Alleviation - Challenges for Sustainable Development".

In May1992, a Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was agreed to in Nairobi Kenya and was opened for signature at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992 and became operational on December 29, 1994. Ghana was the 12th of the 157 countries that signed the CBD and is celebrating the day nationally under a local theme of "Biodiversity Conservation, Our Survival". The day is set aside to educate the public on the importance of biological resources and need to conserve them.

Dr. Ofori-Danson was not happy that though a very small portion of the natural species has been discovered, human activities have adversely contributed to the extinction of the of some plants, animals and microbial organisms. He attributed it to the limited knowledge about the importance and the essence to conserve and maintain natural resources. He said in less than 100 years Ghana's total forest cover has been reduced from 8.2 million hectares to less than 1.6 million hectares out of which only 32 000 hectares are in excellent condition. He advised that by expanding the knowledge of biodiversity, the material basis for future biotechnology and food production would also expand.

Dr. M. K. Antwi, Deputy Minister of Environment and Science, said human lives mainly depend on biological resources and called for concerted efforts to preserve and maintain the natural resources. He said the ministry is committed to provide support to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its network of institutions to monitor the environment, implement preventive and control measures that would help to restore the natural environment. Dr. Antwi announced that the ministry has set up a National Biodiversity Committee to harmonize all biodiversity-related policies and coordinate the implementation of strategy with other agencies to ensure that sound polices are implemented for the benefit of Ghana and the sub-region as a whole.

For full story, please see:

9. Mozambique: Operators Accused of Breaking Forestry Law

Source: Agencia de Informacao de Mocambique (Maputo), 3 June 2003

A prominent Mozambican NGO, the Rural Mutual Help Association (ORAM), has described as alarming the way some dishonest businessmen are exploiting the country's forestry and wildlife resources, particularly in Sofala, Zambezia, and Nampula provinces, reports Tuesday's issue of the daily paper "Noticias". ORAM notes that the way those operators behave does not benefit the local communities by creating jobs or improving socio-economic infrastructures. The association's assistant director, Reinaldo Sive, said in Beira, the Sofala capital, during the launching of a national radio campaign on forestry and wildlife, that sustainable use of these resources could have a positive impact on reducing absolute poverty in the country. He said that Mozambique has great potential for industrial and community development based on forest resources.

A 1994 inventory says that about 78 per cent of the country's territory is covered with various kinds of forest, but pressure has grown for the exploitation of these forests since the end of the war of destabilisation. "These facts call on us to be cautious and endeavour to make sustainable use of our resources, despite the huge forested areas we have", said Sive. ORAM believes that, if properly applied, the existing law, policies and regulations on forests and wildlife would help reduce the problems in that sector and enhance economic growth.

The Sofala Provincial Agriculture director, Joao Ribeiro, said that there are about two million hectares of forest in that region, particularly in the Marromeu, Cheringoma, Muanza and Maringue districts. He said that these resources should be used to maximum benefit of the residents, while minimising the negative impact of their exploitation. Properly used, he said, these forests could generate employment, and improve household income and diet. Ribeiro warned that "the sharp degradation of natural resources, particularly deforestation and unregulated slaughtering of wildlife, is extremely unpleasant and of great concern. Thus the government and the institutions of the sector have been working out laws, policies, strategies, and regulations to bring the situation under control".

For full story, please see:

10. South Africa: Pondoland Villagers Rally to Protect Ecotourism

Source: African Eye News Service (Nelspruit), 2 June 2003

Villagers in KwaZulu Natal's impoverished Pondoland rejected proposed mine and road developments in a bid to protect the region's fledgling ecotourism industry. The development proposals include the extension of the N2 toll road to KwaZulu Natal's border with Mozambique, and establishment of various dune mining operations.

Pondoland Development Trust (PDT) project manager Mvula Lolwana said villagers and local tourism entrepreneurs believed the developments would destroy the unique character and central marketing 'drawcard' of the Wild Coast region. "All residents surveyed by the trust prefer to keep their fauna and flora despite promises of short-term job creation," said Lolwana. The PDT is a community-based non-profit development agency for the Wild Coast region. "We all want development in Pondoland, but not this kind of development. We want something that will upgrade our current way of life and not destroy it, and we definitely do not want temporary jobs that will be created at the cost of environmental degradation," said Lolwana.

He added that government development experts had failed to consult on any of the proposed infrastructure projects and often assumed local communities were ignorant of environmental concerns. "There has been no consultation with us. For generations the Wild Coast has been neglected, and as a result we have grown a close relationship with our fauna and flora. We therefore reject any suggestion that this road is supposed to improve our lives." Lolwana suggested that government planners urgently meet with affected communities to discuss existing and future development plans, and to hear local views on how government could bolster existing ecotourism and other economic developments.

For full story, please see:

11. South Africa: Xolobeni Mine seen as a threat to Ecotourism

Source: Business Day (Johannesburg) 28 May 2003

Tourism and minerals departments lock horns over the ramifications of the project on investments. A booming Eastern Cape ecotourism industry is under threat as SA prepares to put the final seal on a multimillion dollar Australian mining deal along the pristine Xolobeni area abutting the Mkimbati Nature Reserve.

SA has in theory approved the mining development by awarding Transworld Energy & Minerals Resources SA in which Perth-based Mineral Commodities has a 75% stake a permit to mine ilmenite for titanium production but, in doing so, has sacrificed its own ecotourism investment.

The permit was granted in March last year and is valid until July 13 next year, with an option to extend for a further two years. The only obstacle is an environment impact assessment report, which has met with resistance by various environmental and tourism stakeholders. They argue that commercial mining will sink an already viable ecotourism industry in the Wild Coast region.

This tentative deal has also pitted the minerals and energy department against the environmental affairs and tourism department, resulting in a task team being set up to iron out the conflicting issues that have created so much controversy. Both departments are fighting to protect their investments and interests. The SA Export Development Fund has reportedly snapped up nearly R2m worth of shares in the mining project (Xolobeni Mineral Sands), and Minerals and Energy Minister Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka has a duty to ensure the development goes ahead as planned.

The local, provincial and national departments of environmental affairs and tourism have collectively ploughed R2m into the R15m Wild Coast ecotourism programme, of which R13m is funded by the European Union, over four years. The programme, in its third year, has already generated an income of R1.5m and created about 500 fulltime and 1 000 part-time jobs. It has also resulted in the emergence of 180 small business enterprises in local communities. Next year, the programme which has 132 thriving projects including horse and hiking trails, and fly fishing is expected to generate at least R4.5m.

The environmental affairs and tourism department anticipates revenue streams to double to R9m by 2009, by which time 5 000 fulltime and about 7 000 part-time jobs would have been created. These figures exclude monies generated and jobs created through private sector ecotourism ventures. However, the future viability and growth of these projects which extend about 200km from the Umtamvuna River to the Kei River is at stake as government works to sidestep the environmental issues to make way for mining.

In comparison, the mining company says it will create 270 permanent jobs, with additional posts generated through contracts and indirect ancillary services. Estimated annual revenue will be in excess of 75m, and the company says mineral resources suggest a 17-year life, with a mine value of over $1,3bn. But, at the end of that period the area is bound to be stripped of its natural glory due to the company's plans for large scale conventional dry mining.

Mineral Commodities, however, does not foresee any problems, saying it has excluded environmentally sensitive areas and confined its activities to the grasslands and dune sands that lie immediately inland of the coastal vegetation. The company believes it will be able to demonstrate that the mining project can be developed and operate within acceptable environmental criteria.

The minerals and energy department maintains that the mining development is consistent with government's initiatives to provide social and economic upliftment to black communities.

But, Johann Kotze from the environmental affairs and tourism department is certain any industrial development will "ruin the sense of the place". He says mining will affect the actual coastline, estuaries, waterfalls, equatorial forests, ecological faults and the endemic flora which are unique only to the Wild Coast area. "There is tremendous potential in the Wild Coast, which is highly conducive for ecotourism development. This is a good opportunity for SA to position itself as a responsible global ecotourism destination." Kotze suggests that the company make efforts to harmonise its development with tourism needs.

For full story, please see:

Related story:

12. Uganda to Export Gum Arabic to US

Source: The Monitor (Kampala), 16 June 2003

Uganda will soon export gum arabic, a plant that has not been exploited for decades, to the United States, President Mr Yoweri Museveni has said. "We are looking again at the products we already have, to find new markets for them. For example, we have a plentiful supply of gum arabic, a key ingredient in the manufacture of soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, but we have never exploited it. In fact, we have hacked down our gum arabic bushes to make way for cattle."

Mr Museveni made the disclosure during a reception, sponsored by the Agoa III Action Committee in Washington DC. "Tonight, I am pleased to announce that Ugandan gum Arabica has been tested in the United States and been found to have the characteristics required by US importers. United States industry leaders have asked to purchase all the high-grade gum arabic we can supply," he said.

The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) which led to lifting of duties and quotas from sub-Saharan Africa's exports to the US, was enacted in 2000.

President Museveni said that Uganda would no longer rely on exporting raw commodities.

"With few exceptions, the mere possession of mineral wealth has never made a country wealthy. Often, in fact, the opposite is true," he said. He observed that what generated growth, jobs and broad-based prosperity was the transformation of those minerals into valuable products. Mr Museveni noted that the transformation of many African countries from being agriculture producers to processors would not be an overnight transition. "Most of our people eke out a living from subsistence agriculture. Were international markets (to be) open to their products, investment would flow into growing and getting those products to the market," he said.

The President said it would be desirable if the current round of WTO negotiations brought an end to the rich countries' tariffs and subsidies that "are keeping African agriculture in a state of pre-industrial wretchedness, complete with cycles of famine."

For full story, please see:

13. Uganda: Experts encourage rural folk to plant fruit trees

Source: New Vision (Kampala), 21 May 2003

The benefits of fruits have been known for a long time. They supplement staple foods and improve their nutritional quality while at the same time they provide rural people with income and employment. Income from fruits is sustainable and predictable, unlike that from annual crops such as cotton or maize. Some fruit trees yield twice a year. Fruit trees can also be grown with other food crops and near homesteads.

A joint effort by the Uganda Agroforestry Development Network (UGADEN) NAADS and ICRAF among other players, now intend to use fruit trees as a weapon against poverty.

They expect millions of Uganda's poor in the rural areas to be their allies by planting many trees. Some 80 percent of Ugandans who live in the rural areas add up to 19 million people.

A survey carried out by the World Forestry Centre, ICRAF recently showed that 52.6 of households in Uganda had not planted any trees during the previous 12 months. This was mainly due to the limited access to quality planting material. Most households reported that they had no tree seedlings to plant. The report also reveals that 10 percent of formerly arable land had been degraded due to over cultivation and that abandoned land is increasing at the rate of 3 percent every year.

The experts say that fruit tree planting holds a huge potential given that there are currently over 1 000 species of fruit trees in the Tropics that are still in the wild. These, they say, can be domesticated and turned into products. Some fruit trees from the wild have already been used to produce high value products. The shea nut tree produces butter which is a major ingredient in high quality cosmetics and foods, and the Amarula is a major ingredient in high quality drinks.

For full story, please see:

14. Zimbabwe: Mopani Worm in Danger of Extinction

Source: The Daily News (Harare), 27 May 2003

For Anna Mathathu, it is incomprehensible that the protein-rich mopani caterpillar could be facing extinction in the Matabeleland region if urgent steps are not taken to conserve its habitat. All her life, the 56-year-old villager has relied on the seasonal delicacy to supplement her meagre diet. But it has become obvious to her, and countless other residents of Matobo district - located about 70 kilometres south of Bulawayo - that unless conservation strategies are adopted, the mopani caterpillar will not accompany future rains as it has done for decades.

The delicacy is known to the Ndebele-speaking people of Matabeleland as amacimbi, to the Kalanga as mahonja or mashonja and to the Shona as madora. Encased in a tough and spiky skin that protects its nutritional flesh, the mopani caterpillar has gained popularity as a delicacy in the countries of southern and central Africa. To the rural communities of Matabeleland, where it thrives, it has become an important source of food.

But a brisk trade in the delicacy is threatening its survival and worrying villagers, who say there is no regulatory system to control the mopani caterpillar business that has become a source of livelihood for hundreds of people from within and outside Matobo district. "That (threat) is because people from outside the district have been over-exploiting the resource without considering that the caterpillars need to regenerate every year. Such people care more about the profits they derive from the resource than its sustainability," Mathathu said. The villager, who is from the Manyane area of Matobo district, added: "Even the prime amacimbi-producing parts of the district still do not have the caterpillars despite the rains this year. We fear they may not appear next year.

Villagers say the steady decline in the supply of amacimbi began three years ago when groups of women from Bulawayo and Harare began invading the area to buy the mopani worms, leading to over-harvesting of the delicacy. Traders from Zimbabwe's main urban areas export the caterpillars to Botswana, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), South Africa and Zambia. The caterpillars were initially taken to the DRC in 1998, where they were an instant hit, with Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia also becoming major consumers.

The absence of regulations or legislation to control the harvesting of the mopani worms has made it impossible for rural communities in Matabeleland to limit the trade in the delicacy, some villagers told The Daily News.

Canaan Ncube, a ward development committee member in the Donkwe area, said: that the harvesting of amacimbi had become so commercialized that the mopani tree, the caterpillar's habitat and source of food, was endangered every rainy season.

"People fell down decades-old mopani trees just to get a kilogramme of immature caterpillars," he noted. "In the process, the habitat is destroyed and once the immature caterpillars are harvested, there is no hope of others re-appearing in the same area."

Although local authorities in whose areas the caterpillars thrive have been advised to introduce by-laws to manage harvesting as well as to safeguard the environment and the caterpillars' habitat, most councils in Matabeleland South have yet to implement such regulations.

Knowell Dube, the Matebeleland South provincial natural resources' officer, told The Daily News that the authorities in the province were aware of the destruction of habitat and were attempting to come up with solutions. "We are working with a number of councils to form local groups that will monitor the harvesting and protect the trees. The theory is that given incentives like exclusive harvesting permits, villagers can take better care of their trees and protect the mopani worm from over-harvesting. But we need regulatory support from the councils to achieve this."

For full story, please see:

15. Pan-Africa: Africa - the most promising ecotourism product in the world

Source: Vanguard (Lagos), 13 June 2003

A passion for Africa, tourism based on a code of ethics, a belief in the power of tourism as an instrument of prosperity, can all be major factors in responding to the challenges of poverty and inequity, but most of all - prospects of peace.

These points encapsulated the mood of the Conference on Tourism, Peace and Sustainable Development, held in Luanda at the end of May in conjunction with the World Tourism Organization's Commission for Africa. The Conference was chaired by Mr. Jorges Alicerces Valentin, the Minister of Hotels and Tourism of Angola and attended by some 40 countries including more than 20 ministers of tourism. The issues discussed included macroeconomics, peace dividends, investment, partnerships, economic impact analysis, aviation liberalization and interface with New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). In addition, related case studies were reviewed from across the continent.

There was also widespread support for the view that Africa has the opportunity to use its unique tourism assets - its cultures, traditions, natural beauty and wildlife - as a major factor in poverty reduction and in unlocking peace dividends where conflict is resolved. The meeting shared the view articulated and demonstrated by Mr. Dawid DeVilliers, WTO Deputy Secretary-General that "passion for Africa and a belief in the power of tourism as a change agent can be a major factor in responding to the challenges of poverty and inequity". It also underscored the value of the WTO's Global Code of Ethics as invaluable guidance for the kind of tourism that Africa must seek to pursue. "Africa is the most promising ecotourism product in the world, we must develop it with passion, profitably, through partnerships at all levels and above all with a strategic vision and the commitment from the governments of Africa," said the Tourism Minister of Mauritius, Mr. Nandcoomar Bodha.

Peace is fundamental to tourism development. With peace, tourism can be a central factor in economic growth, sustainable development and social progress. Without it the potential vanishes. Delegates stressed that partnership in tourism must be stronger than terrorism and that "we should for no cost allow any country to be a victim of ruthless threats of irresponsible individuals" as is the case in some African destinations, that recently experienced attacks on tourism or tourists.

The geopolitical shift towards development generally and Africa specifically was also noted with optimism. The UN Millennium Development Goals, seeking to halve extreme poverty by 2015, the Summits of Doha on Trade Inclusion, of Monterrey on Debt Relief and of Johannesburg on Sustainable Development all led in the right direction for positive change. Regionally, the concept of an African Union and of NEPAD provided new exciting visionary mechanisms for African integration and renaissance - the latter now actively developing an African Tourism framework and reaching out to other institutions for support and interface.

For full story, please see:

16. Phytotrade Africa

From: Lucy Welford (

The Southern African Natural Products Trade Association - SANProTA has a new name. On 1st June 2003, SANProTA (the Southern African Natural Products Trade Association) officially became known by its new name: PhytoTrade Africa.

There are other changes, too. Out will go our historical affinity towards supply-driven, NGO-type development approaches, replete with tongue-twisting acronyms, woolly notions about target groups and protectionism, and well-meaning, but ineffective, management strategies; in will come a new, demand-driven approach to business development, service provision, and market penetration, aimed at giving you, our members, exactly what you want, when you want it.

We¿re still the Southern African Natural Products Trade Association; this is our legal identity and cannot be changed. But from now on, we will refer to ourselves, and be referred to by others, as PhytoTrade Africa.

For more information, please contact:

Dr. L A Welford
Liaison and Information
PhytoTrade Africa
9, Lezard Ave
PO Box BE 385

17. Request for assistance: Kosovo and medicinal plants

From: Jolie Lonner (

I am an herbalist and forest ecologist. I have accepted an assignment with a non profit organization funded by USAID to look at medicinal plant production in Kosovo. I am particularly interested in sustainable harvesting of medicinal plants. In Kosovo there have been no preliminary studies on wildcrafting of NTFPs. The main forest products harvested are angelica, gentian, juniper and bilberry. Currently there is no information pertaining to harvest methods, wildcrafter culture or amount of resource available.

My question to the group is this: If you had 15 working days in Kosovo what issues would you chose to focus on? What questions would you ask of wildcrafters and processors to understand the scope of the situation? How would you go about surveying the resource?

My current strategy is to institute a survey for wildcrafters that would get some basic information. Some questions I have come up are:

¿ General location of gathering site

¿ Size of patch

¿ What percentage of patch gathered

¿ Was there evidence that other people visited patch

¿ Closeness to road

¿ How much time did it take you to gather what quantity

¿ Did plants flower before time of harvest

¿ What percentage of your income is dependant on gathering

¿ Any difference in resource this year from last year

¿ Do you use medicinal plants at home

¿ Explain your method of harvest

I would love your input and comments. Do you know of any wildcrafter surveys that have already been produced and used? If you have any other survey questions or ideas for overall strategies please contact me. Thanks,

For more information, please contact:

Jolie Lonner
P.O. Box 5105
Arcata, CA 95518,

18. Request for assistance - Ghana: bamboo cultivation and utilization awareness creation programme

From: Allotey Abraham (

To arrest the dwindling forest conditions of Ghana and its associated environmental degradation, a reafforestation programme which includes bamboo cultivation has been adopted.

I would therefore be most grateful to have the following donations to help establish bamboo nursery

¿ Elite bamboo seeds and seedlings

¿ Educational materials on bamboo

¿ Films on bamboo cultivation and processing

¿ Equipment (mist systems, projectors etc. both used and new)

For more information, please contact:

Abraham A.A. Allotey
Post Office Box GP 3752

19. Request for assistance: Chamaedorea elegans

From: Angel Sol Sanchez

I´m a Ph.D. Student and I´m doing my thesis with Chamaedorea elegans, a tropical palm. I¿m looking for all kinds of information about trade, harvesting, and intermediaries.

My main goal is to do a norm of trade and to establish quality standards, so the farmers only could harvest those fronds which have a good price in the market.

I hope to help to conserve this resource in his natural environment

Please if you have information in your database scientific information, please let me know. It is very important

For more information, please contact:

Angel Sol Sanchez
Ph.D. Student (Mexican Researcher)
458 Taylor Avenue Num 3
83843. Moscow, Idaho
Tel. + 208 885 14 48
Email: or

20. Web sites

From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

The Bugwood Network

The Bugwood Network has more than 11 000 images and photographs of insect pests, invasives, weeds, IPM images, and other forestry images available online.

Scientific Search Engine

A specific search engine that searches journals and web entries.

The red chilena del bambu

For more information on bamboo in Chile, please contact

Forest. Dpl. Ing. Jorge Campos Roasio
Avda. El Condor No 844
Ciudad Empresarial Huechuraba
Santiago, Chile

21. The 4th China Bamboo Culture Festival - call for papers

From: Fu Jinhe, INBAR, China (

4th China Bamboo Culture Festival

9-11 October 2003
Xianning City, Hubei, China.

The festival is being co-organized by the State Forestry Administration of China, the Municipal Government of Sichuan Province and the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR).

The INBAR International Bamboo Workshop will be held during the festival. INBAR is now calling for papers for this Workshop.

1. The Workshop will focus on industrial utilization of bamboo, other issues including cultivation, policies, etc may also be discussed.

2. Date: 10 October 2003, one day only.

3. Expected participants: 120 (including foreign participants) from research institutions, universities, industries, trade, government sectors, NGOS, and diplomats in Beijing.

4. Speakers at the Workshop will be selected from the Authors of the papers received by INBAR by 25 July 2003. The invited Speakers will be requested to prepare a PowerPoint presentation (both English and Chinese in each slide, or leave room for adding another language) and one page summary as well, and send it by e-mail to INBAR by 25 August 2003.

5. Proceedings will be published after the Workshop.

Please e-mail your paper (in English & Microsoft Word File) to INBAR before 25July 2003.

The contact person is:

Ms. Hao Ying,
Tel: +86-10-6495 6961/6982 ext. 207,
Fax: +86-10-64956983,

22. Events

From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

Global Summit on Medicinal Plants (GSMP)

26 September-1 October, 2003

From ancient times plants have been used as a source of medicine. Many people in the modern world are turning to Herbal medicine. The use of traditional medicine and other Alternative Therapies for the maintenance of good health has been widely observed in most countries. Traditional medicine is rich in domestic recipes and communal practices. The recent upsurge in the use of herbal medicines has led to enormous commercial possibilities, but many issues remain unresolved. Today, many medicinal plant species face extinction or severe genetic loss, but detailed information is lacking. For most of the endangered species, no conservation action has taken place.

In the present context, an International Summit on Medicinal Plants will be a forum for scientists, researchers and policy makers to meet and discuss the key areas of conservation of medicinal plants, health care and ethnomedicine, etc. The main theme of the Conference, which is being hosted by Century Foundation, is ¿Recent Trends in Phytomedicine and Other Alternative Therapies for Human Welfare¿.

This conference will draw attention to the vital importance of medicinal plants and other therapies in health care. There will be exciting programmes of plenary lectures, oral and Poster presentations and round table discussions. In addition to the scientific events, there will be opportunities for social interactions at the welcome reception and cultural events and programme of local visits.

For Registration and further information on the conference please contact: visit our website:

or contact:

Dr V Sivaram,
Global Summit on Medicinal Plants
Department of Botany
Post - Graduate Centre
Bangalore University Kolar - 563101,
Phone: + 91-80-3650312
Telefax: 91-80-5244592


Dr Anita Menon,
Organizing secretary,
Global Summit on Medicinal Plants
Century Foundation
# 35, 3rd Cross, Vignannagar
Malleshpalya, Bangalore-560075
Phone: +91-80-5249900 Telefax: +91-80-5244592

23. Publications of interest

From: FAO¿s NWFP Programme

Abuzinada, A.H. 2003. The role of protected areas in conserving biological diversity in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):39-45.

Al-Eisawi, D. 2003. Effect of biodiversity conservation on arid ecosystem with a special emphasis on Bahrain. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):81-90.

Al-Sayed, M., and Al-Langawi, A. 2003. Biological resources conservation through ecotourism development. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):225-236.

Benítez-Malvido, J., and Martínez-Ramos, M. 2003. Impact of forest fragmentation on understory plant species richness in Amazonia. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):389-400.

Bruenig, E.F. 2003. Maintaining forest biodiversity - comments. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):1-2.

Fabbio, G., Merlo, M., and Tosi, V. 2003. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe - the Mediterranean region. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):67-76.

Lange, C.N., and Mwinzi, M. 2003. Snail diversity, abundance and distribution in Arabuko Sokoke forest, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 41(1):61-67.

Langenheim, Jean. H. 2003. Plant Resins: Chemistry, Evolution, Ecology and Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland OR., USA. Hardcover. 586 pp. $49.95.

Le Thanh Chien. Trial Planting of Cinnamomum cassia for High Essential Oil Productivity from the Leaves. Forest Science and Technology Research Results Period 1996-2000. Forest Science Institute of Vietnam (FSIV) Hanoi, Vietnam. (Source: What's new at - April 2003 Update. Full text available.)

Parviainen, J., and Frank, G. 2003. Protected forests in Europe approaches-harmonising the definitions for international comparison and forest policy making. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):27-36.

Peres, C.A., and Lake, I.R. 2003. Extent of nontimber resource extraction in tropical forests: accessibility to game vertebrates by hunters in the Amazon basin. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):521-535.

Phung Cam Thach et al. Yields and Quality of the Essential Oils Extracted from a Number of Melaleuca Species of Various Provenances. Forest Science and Technology Research Results Period 1996-2000. Forest Science Institute of Vietnam (FSIV) Hanoi, Vietnam. (Source: What's new at - April 2003 Update. Full text available.)

Puumalainen, J., Kennedy, P., and Folving, S. 2003. Monitoring forest biodiversity: a European perspective with reference to temperate and boreal forest zone. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):5-14.

Rametsteiner, E., and Simula, M. 2003. Forest certification - an instrument to promote sustainable forest management? J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):87-98.

Shiva, M.P. and Verma, S.K. 2002. Approaches to sustainable forest management and biodiversity conservation with pivotal role of non timber forest products. Dehradun, Uttaranchal, India: International Book Distributors. ISBN: 8170892945.

Wulf, M. 2003. Forest policy in the EU and its influence on the plant diversity of woodlands. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):15-25.

Zuidema, Pieter A. 2003. Ecology and management of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa). PROMAB Scientific Series 6. PROMAB, Bolivia/the Netherlands. 112 pp. ISBN 90-393-3390-4.

Brazil nuts are one of the most important non-timber products obtained from tropical forests. They generate several tens of millions US dollar in export revenues and provide income to many thousands of families in Bolivia, Brazil and Peru. Over 99% of the total Brazil nut production is obtained from natural - mostly primary - forests. As Brazil nuts give an economic value to the forest, their collection helps to conserve Amazonian forests. Being a forest giant that may attain a height of up to 50 m and a circumference of over 9 m, the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa ) is a fascinating tree. Although they grow relatively fast, it still takes Brazil nut trees a century to start producing nuts. The nuts are contained in mysterious woody fruits that can only be opened by certain rodents.

This book provides an up-to-date review of our knowledge on the ecology and management of this important Amazonian tree.

For more information, please contact: Dr. P.A. Zuidema, Department of Plant Ecology/Prince Bernhard Centre, Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80084, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands

E-mail:: or:

New Website PROMAB:

Zuidema, Pieter A. 2003. Ecologia y manejo del arbol de castana (Bertholletia excelsa). PROMAB Serie Cientifica 6. PROMAB, Bolivia/Paises Bajos. 120 pp. ISBN 90-393-3389-0.

La castaña o almendra es uno de los productos no-maderables más importantes de los bosques tropicales. Este producto genera varios millones de dólares americanos en valor de exportación y provee ingresos a miles de familias en Bolivia, Brasil y Perú. Más del 99% de la producción mundial de castaña es colectada en bosques naturales, mayormente primarios. La castaña le da un valor económico al bosque y por lo tanto, su recolección ayuda a la conservación del mismo. Siendo un gigante del bosque que puede alcanzar una altura de 50 metros y una circunferencia de más de 9 metros, el árbol de castaña (Bertholletia excelsa) es una especie fascinante. Aunque crece relativemente rápido, el árbol de castaña necesita 100 años antes de comenzar a producir nueces. Las nueces se encuentran dentro de misteriosos frutos leñosos, que pueden ser abiertos solamente por algunas especies de roedores.

Este libro provee una revisión actualizada de nuestros conocimientos sobre la ecología y el manejo de este importante árbol Amazónico.

24. Forestry in Australia

From: Laura Wood ( )

The Forestry in Australia report is an in depth study containing statistics, trends, forecasts and competitor information. For a complete index of this report click on

Report Pricing: Electronic EUR 465

For more information, please contact:

Research and Markets Ltd., Guinness Centre, Taylors Lane, Dublin 8, Ireland


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last updated:  Monday, August 24, 2009