No. 05/03

Welcome to FAO's NWFP-Digest-L a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products. A special thank you to all those who have shared information with us.

1. Green gold: U.S. is bamboo's next new frontier
2. First issue of Journal "World Bamboo and Rattan"
3. The Southern African Natural Products Trade Association
4. Botswana: San Bushmen Launch Ecotourism Project
5. Cameroon: Seeking assistance on managing forest biodiversity
6. Ghana: Hands off Forest Reserves
7. Namibia: Marula 'Can Bear Fruit for Namibia'
8. The Gambia: Villages sign forestry document
9. Uganda: US gum arabic buyer eyes Karamoja District
10. Uganda: MPs Pass Forestry Bill
11. Zambia: Local communities to benefit from tourism
12. India: Ethnobotanical surveys
13. Assessing the impact of logging on biodiversity
14. SOUTHEM Country Files
15. FAO's Environment and Utilization Web site
16. Bees for Development Web site
17. Request for information: Grewia tenax
18. Request for information: olibanum (frankincense) producers
19. Events
20. Fungal partners
21. Call for papers: The Management of Common Pool Resources
22. Publications of interest

1. Green gold: U.S. is bamboo's next new frontier

From: Fu Jinhe, INBAR (

The president of Lake Mary-based CMI Global was searching for investment alternatives for the firm, a consultant to other companies that want to do business in China. To that end, he traveled to Nanjing University with Dr. Zhang Min, a renowned bamboo expert. Min showed him 30 years of research on bamboo, and Forman was sold.

Now the owner of two bamboo manufacturing plants in China, Forman plans to enter the U.S. market with more than 20 bamboo products, ranging from lotions, soaps and disinfectants to mattress and pillow covers to flower-preserving extracts, water purifiers and pain relievers.

Forman's will be the first company to offer that range of bamboo products in the United States. But the businessman isn't fazed. After all, he says, bamboo is already a tried and proven product in other parts of the world. "Over 1 billion people have been aware of the benefits of bamboo for over 6 000 years," he points out.

Outside the United States, bamboo enjoys a large and rapidly growing market. According to one recent study, China sells $2.4 billion in bamboo products each year. Of that, exports total $600 million. The Philippines have also taken an interest in bamboo products, as has South Korea. And Malaysia has recently begun looking to bamboo as both a cash crop and a means to alleviate environmental concerns: the fast-growing plant can be used to reforest areas scoured by logging.

In fact, bamboo is considered to be one of the fastest growing plants in the world, thriving in rich and sandy soil alike. It also is a potential source for a variety of products. Min, now Forman's partner, has tabulated 50, including medicinal uses long recognized in oriental medicine. Further, "There's potential for other products yet to be discovered," says Marty Forman Jr., senior vice president of CMI Global.

The manufacturing muscle behind the U.S. retailing expansion lies in two factories: a 44 000 ft2 factory in Nanjing that does research and development of bamboo byproducts, and an 80 000 ft2 factory on the outskirts of Shanghai that processes bamboo. That factory has supplied bamboo products to Japan, a major market for bamboo, for more than 20 years. CMI's wholly owned subsidiary, Yupong International, owns the factories purchased for $3 million and oversees operations. Currently, Yupong does more than $5 million in sales in Japan.

In 2003, the elder Forman expects more than $45 million in sales from bamboo, most of it in exports. That would bring projections for CMI Global's total sales in 2003 to $90 million, more than doubling 2002 revenue. Forman's belief in those strong numbers is bolstered by what he describes as ongoing discussions with retail giants such as Walgreen's, Eckerd Drug and Albertson's, as well as Home Shopping Network and QVC. To make the bamboo products more enticing to those and other retailers, Forman has increased the research capacity of the China plant. He is redesigning the product packaging to give it broader appeal in Western markets. And he has hired advertising agencies and promotional houses to carry out a revamped marketing campaign with an international focus. That's not just the United States: Forman Sr. says he hopes to enter the European market eventually and possibly Latin America.

Extracted from an article by Jill Krueger in Orlando Business Journal of 24 March 2003.

For full story, please see:

2. First issue of Journal "World Bamboo and Rattan"

From: Fu Jinhe, INBAR (

The first issue of quarterly Journal "World Bamboo and Rattan" is available at a cost of 40US$/year.

For more information, please contact:

Fu Jinhe Ph. D.
Program Officer
International Network for Bamboo and Rattan
Beijing 100101-80, P.R. China
Tel.: +86-10-64956961/82
Fax: +86-10-64956983

3. The Southern African Natural Products Trade Association

From: Lucy Welford (

If you asked Chapeto six months ago how he saw his role in a global economy, he would have laughed at you. Chapeto lives in the remote district of Rushinga, in north-eastern Zimbabwe; a hot, dry, dusty place, where the daily struggle for survival can be especially harsh. But if you ask him today, Chapeto will tell you exactly how he fits into the global economy and how he is benefiting from being linked to one of the world's fastest growing industries.

Chapeto and his partner Kasoro, together own one of the latest businesses to benefit from a new regional trade association, SANProTA (the Southern African Natural Products Trade Association) that aims to bring people like Chapeto into the global economy. Chapeto's company is called C&K Investments and they produce oil from the seeds of the baobab tree. They have recently invested in an oil press and established a small oil processing facility that employs five local people. At current production levels they are purchasing six tonnes of seed per month from rural producers throughout their district in return for much-needed cash.

The global trade in natural products is a rapidly growing market sector valued at more than US$40 billion a year worldwide. SANProTA's goal is to unlock the market potential of natural products in southern Africa, giving global companies access to new and exciting African natural products while developing a long-term supplementary income source for poor rural people in the region, so enabling them to improve their livelihoods from the sustainable exploitation of natural products. Established in 2001, SANProTA is a representative body for producers in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The Association provides the institutional conduit for the collection, processing, ordering and dispatching of natural products. Its membership encompasses the full range of rural producers, private sector players, NGOs and research institutions.

With their team of specialist staff in southern Africa and Europe, SANProTA provides its southern African members with technical advice on the latest product development and processing innovations, supply chain management, quality control, export procedures and sales negotiation. SANProTA represents its members at all major European natural products trade shows, feeding members with market information and contacts, and facilitating fair and environmentally sound trading partnerships between members and buyers. The Association also helps members to get to grips with often complicated export procedures, while lobbying for improved trade regulations and an increased understanding of the natural products industry amongst governments and regulatory bodies. SANProTA therefore gives African producers like Chapeto a place at the cutting edge of the natural products industry alongside some of the leading international commercial players, enabling him to gain an equitable and profitable stake the global marketplace.

If you would like to know more about SANProTA, or are interested in becoming a member, contact

Lucy Welford
Liaison and Information Officer
9, Lezard Ave
PO Box BE 385
Belvedere, Harare
Tel (263) 4 704178

4. Botswana: San Bushmen Launch Ecotourism Project

Source: Press Release, Conservation International (Washington, DC), 1 May 2003

One of southern Africa's most ancient and vulnerable communities, Botswana's Bukakhwe San Bushmen, have launched a community-run ecotourism project built on preserving their traditional values and protecting the region's declining wildlife.

Working in partnership with Conservation International and Wilderness Safaris, the Bukakhwe Cultural Conservation Trust recently inaugurated the new venture called Gudigwa Camp. The ecotourism venture is fully owned by the Bukakhwe San Bushmen and all proceeds will be funnelled back into community development projects. The initiative aims to reduce pressure on wildlife in Botswana's Okavango Delta by providing alternative sources of income that respect the Bukakhwe's cultural heritage.

"This integrated and socially responsible approach to tourism will help deliver important local benefits," said Ms Pelonomi Venson, Botswana's Minister for Environment, Wildlife and Tourism. "The community will be able to maintain their ancient customs, tourists get to experience the rich cultural heritage of the Bukakhwe San Bushmen and the region's endangered wildlife is protected."

Hunting, increased human settlement and livestock encroachment have had a negative impact on some of the region's most endangered species like the African elephant (Loxodonta Africana) and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Gudigwa's cheetahs, Wattled cranes, lions and leopards are also under pressure. This new project gives the 700 members of the Gudigwa community sustainable alternatives to livestock grazing and incentives to protect local fauna.

The Bukakhwe San Bushmen of Gudigwa live in northeastern Botswana in the upper extremity of the Okavango Delta. Tracing their roots back to Namibia and southern Angola, they have maintained their cultural heritage for thousands of years, amid their unique wetland surroundings.

Gudigwa Camp will host up to 16 guests at a time in comfortable grass huts modelled on traditional Bushmen shelters. Through walking tours, community members will teach guests about San cultural heritage including the use of medicinal plants, gathering water in the dry season, traditional storytelling, song and dance.

For more information about the project, please visit: For more information on Wilderness Safaris visit:

For full story, please see:

5. Cameroon: Seeking assistance on managing forest biodiversity

From: Ndumbe Ekema Stephen,

In 1994 a group of extension workers in forestry, agriculture, community development in Bova - Buea Limbe - Fako Division, South West Province Cameroon formed WEWULEY Consultancy to fight deforestation, promote participatory forest management/sustainable agricultural practices to rescue forest/agricultural land, environment and people from the threat of drought, desert encroachment and soil erosion. Forest and trees on farms are the lifeline of rural people. The group helps grassroots farmers, common initiative groups and community forest projects to plant and manage trees. It also works to ensure that the trees that have been felled are replaced, by establishing tree nurseries training and helping the farmers and groups to plant trees on their farm lands. It also organizes training in bee farming.

The Organization is helping communities establish community forests, including establishing commercial forestry enterprises in their management plans covering timber, fuelwood, fruits, charcoal, Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP), medicinal plants and bees, all of which can provide some income for the rural people for poverty alleviation.

Organizational Goal:

To maintain good statistical database to guide future use and protection of the 'Green Gold' the African Rainforest Ecosystem.


' To carry out participatory forest inventories with the collaboration of local communities with optimal use of their indigenous knowledge.

' To assist local communities in the management of forest resources that will improve on their livelihood and contribute to poverty alleviation.

' Carry out activities related to conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem maintenance.

' To support training programs related to sustainable forest resource management.

Our organization has 28 members and resource persons/volunteers, among them ten women. We pay a monthly membership as a contribution towards funding the group's activities but these funds are not enough to help carry out the organization's running costs and projects. We are, therefore, seeking assistance from NGOs, Donor Agencies, interested agroforesters and scientists, etc. Assistance may be in the form of:

' money for purchase of materials/equipment, running costs, etc.

' direct materials and equipment

' cost of publication, etc.

For more information, please contact:

Ndumbe Ekeme Stephen
Wewuley Consultancy
P.O. Box 442 Buea
Fako Division, Cameroon

6. Ghana: Hands off Forest Reserves

Source: Public Agenda (Accra), 12 May 2003

A coalition of civil societies has threatened to drag the government to court if mining companies are allowed to do surface mining in forest reserves. The intention of the coalition was stated by John Mensah Dadzie of Green Earth Organisation, a Non-Governmental Organization at a forum organized in Accra as part of an on-going campaign against government's policy to allow mining in forest reserves.

"The National Coalition Against Mining in Forest Reserves wishes to appeal to the Government of Ghana to reconsider its position to issue mining permits for mineral exploitation in the Forest Reserves, to avert possible legal action by the Coalition against it." Dadzie said.

The coalition's position is informed by the fact that it would be environmentally disastrous to open up the forest dwindling forest reserves for mining. In a presentation on 'alternative views on mining in forest reserves' Dadzie said it is illegal to grant licenses for mineral extraction because it contravenes international conventions on biological diversity. Besides he said it is also against the nation's own policy document produced in 1994, on forests and wildlife.

Dadzie said it is a disrespect to the concerns of the Forestry Commission which is the constitutional body set up to oversee forest and wildlife issues and to develop polices for their effective management. He said the government action breaches the spirit of agreement entered into with such international bodies like the International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO)

Dadzie said Ghana is a signatory to the International Convention on Biological Diversity, which came into effect ten years ago. Significantly, he said, the convention was inspired by the world's growing recognition that the earth's biological resources are vital to humanity's economic and social development. According to Dadzie, by the provisions of the convention, the contracting party shall as far as possible and appropriate integrate considerations of the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources into national decision making. Nations are to protect and encourage customary use of biological resources in accordance with traditional and cultural practices that are compatible with conservation or sustainable use of requirements.

"By sustainability, we mean maximising the benefits of present generation from the goods and services these forest resource provide without destroying its potential or capacity to provide similar goods and services to posterity or generation yet unborn." Dadzie said. He said the reason for which 1.76 million ha, about 22 percent of forest cover out of an estimated total of 8.2 million ha in Ghana in the early part of the 20th century, was reserved was to provide permanent forest estates to protect the environment and to ensure climatic stability for agricultural development, and protect biodiversity, water resources and cultural values.

According to Dadzie the remaining 78 percent of the total forest cover was to be used for production purposes such as timber extraction, agricultural production and other traditional uses. "Hardly was mineral exploration or exploitation mentioned in our statue books let alone to have such mentioned for the protected area." He said the argument that the degraded forest will be planted does not hold water, because the practice over the years of mining shows that is not possible reverse situation.

Dadzie also raised the concerns of the Forestry Commission, which among others states that national forest reserves are part of the world's only remaining but fast depleting forest with rich stock of genetic resources. The forest reserves also constitute a priceless ecological heritage for majority of the rural folk.

Mike Anane of the League of Environmental Journalist, said five multinational mining companies have geared up to begin mining in the forest reserves by August this year. Unfortunately, the NPP government seems to be helpless in attempt to stop this because of what amounts to blackmailing tactics of the multinationals. According to Anane, the companies claimed to have spent over ten million dollars in prospecting exercises when the NDC government granted them permission to go into the forest. And that if the present government failed to grant them permit they (the companies) would go to court to demand their money back. The companies have also threatened to relocate to Guinea and Tanzania and lay off their workers.

Anane said that the cabinet has already accepted defeat and granted permits to two of the companies, Newmont and Ashanti Goldfields, to operate the reserves at Ajenja Bepo and Kubi. Other reserves that have to go include Subri River Forest Reserve. Apart from its significant biodiversity, it is the watershed of the Pra and Bonsa Rivers. Other reserves marked are Supuma Shelterbelt, Opon Mansi in the Western region, Tano Suraw and Suraw Extension and Cape Three Points, all in the Western Region and Atewa Range Forest reserves in the Eastern Region.

Anane also revealed that the outgoing Minister for Mines, Adjei Darko blames the NDC government for granting the mining companies permit in the first place to do prospecting in the forest. But even as Adjei Darko blame NDC, the minister gave himself away by asking whether the country should leave those rich deposits of gold there in the ground while a lot of problems like poverty, under development and unemployment starred at the nation in the face. The Minister also expressed concern about the negative signals that will be sent abroad about the investment climate in the country.

For full story, please see:

7. Namibia: Marula 'Can Bear Fruit for Namibia'

Source: The Namibian (Windhoek), 30 April 2003

The Government has recognised the economic potential of the marula tree fruit and their by-products. As a result it has funded the establishment of community projects such as the Eudafano Women's Co-operative in the North.

Addressing a crowd of people from all over the country at the recent Omagongo Cultural Festival 2003, including King Shikongo Taapopi of Uukwaluudhi, President Sam Nujoma said marula trees, or omugongo as they are known by indigenous people, play a critical role in the lives of many Namibian communities especially in the North. He said the Eudafano Women's Co-operative is involved in the commercial production and marketing of several kinds of products derived from marula fruit. These products, Nujoma said, include various types of cosmetic products, refreshments, wine and cooking oil. "Many of these products are available locally while others are being marketed on the international market," said Nujoma.

In addition to marula fruit, the economic potential and viability of other indigenous fruit and plants can be investigated with a view to exporting them on a commercial basis, the President suggested. He said it is important for traditional communities to utilise their knowledge of local natural resources as a way of maximising benefits from Namibia's wealth of biodiversity for all the people. Omugongo fruit is traditionally used as a source of wine (omagongo), juice (oshinwa) and cooking oil (odjove). The by-products that remain after the extraction of cooking oil and manufacturing of cosmetics are used to make different types of soap. "I would like to emphasise the fact that our people can only derive benefits from our flora and fauna if we continue to promote the conservation of our environment and the utilisation of our natural resources in a sustainable manner," he said.

The President called on communities to plant many indigenous trees so that they can provide the country with fruit, shade and timber as well as prevent further desertification which threatens many areas countrywide.

For the full story, please see:

8. The Gambia: Villages sign forestry document

Source: The Independent (Banjul), 9 May 2003

The village of Galleh Manda in CRD recently hosted a Joint Forest Park Management (JFPM) signing ceremony for Medina Demba and kunkilling forest parks, where twenty villages adjacent to the state forest parks and the Forestry Department entered into agreement for sustainable management of the forest parks.

According to Robert Boyker, Coordinator, Gambia Forestry Communication Concept (GFCC), the signing of a management agreement is part of the initial phase of JFPM. He said forest parks are state forests that were demarcated since 1950's with the objective of securing a permanent forest cover. 'In order to achieve the most effective and sustainable management of the forest parks, and to share the benefits and responsibilities, the concept of JFPM was developed to involve adjacent villages in the actual management of the park', he said. Accordingly, he said the uniqueness of each forest park requires that individual management plans should be developed through the collaboration of the adjacent communities and the Forestry Department.

The Medina Demba and kunkilling forest parks, which have a nationwide management goal within the framework of the agreement, were the first parks to enter into JFPM agreements involving several villages.

For full story, please see:

9. Uganda: US gum arabic buyer eyes Karamoja District

Source: New Vision (Kampala), 15 May 2003

A US company is in Karamoja district to collect samples of the gum arabic, a tree sap used in the manufacture of soft drinks.

President Yoweri Museveni's wants to have the region listed among the top foreign suppliers to the American market.

Jimmy Lomakol, the coordinator Moroto private sector promotion, said the Atlantic Gum Corporation has taken samples from the acacia trees in different parts of Karamoja for analysis. He said that the firm, which is funded by the American Soft Drinks Association, had identified 20 sites from where the samples had been collected. He said the process of sampling could take about two years before Uganda was allowed to export the much cherished tree sap to the American and European markets.

"They (Atlantic Gum Corporation) are very particular in that each and every tree from where the samples have been taken is marked and their circumference and height also measured," Lomakol said.

He said penetrating the American market required that any raw material used in the manufacture of any product should be traced to its origin. "They are also particular about the output and behaviour of the trees from where the samples are picked," Lomakol said. He said that the exercise of analysing the trees and their output was being hampered by the community who felled some of the identified trees for construction of huts. He said that in some instances, the herdsmen also picked and ate the sap before it was gathered for analysis. "We have therefore embarked on the sensitisation of the community and using some of the local leaders in the identification and preservation of the trees sampled for analysis," Lomakol said.

Museveni introduced the idea of gathering gum Arabic sap for the US market during the launching of the disarmament exercise in December 2001. Museveni informed the community in Karamoja that the region could become one of the largest exporters of the sap in the world.

For full story, please see:

10. Uganda: MPs Pass Forestry Bill

Source: New Vision (Kampala), 15 May 2003

PARLIAMENT on Tuesday passed the National Forestry and Tree Planting Bill 2002, which is expected to address the problem of the rapidly decreasing forest cover.

Environment state minister Dr Kezimbira Miyingo said the wood for fuel would last only eight years. He said a tree plantation fund would be set up and managed by the National Forest Authority (NFA) to be created soon. "If we do not act now, we will have to import wood. Action must be taken now," he said.

Kezimbira said politicians should not discourage people from growing trees on the grounds that they take over 10 years to grow. He said after 10 years, the trees could be used for various purposes.

The chairman of the natural resources committee, Ndawula Kawesi (Kiboga West), said Uganda's forest cover had dropped from 54% in the past to 20%. He said this was due to illegal pit-sawing and saw milling, forest encroachment, urbanisation, illegal livestock grazing, high electricity costs, commercial wood cutting and over harvesting trees.

For full article, please see:

11. Zambia: Local communities to benefit from tourism

Source: The Times of Zambia (Ndola), 15 May 2003

THE Zambia Wildlife Authority (Zawa) says a mechanism has been worked out in the sharing of tourism revenue in which the local communities will now retain 45 percent of consumptive and non-consumptive tourism.

Zawa director general Hapenga Kabeta said yesterday the measure had been adopted as an effective way of wildlife management that would see the local people playing a central role and derived maximum benefit from tourism activities in their areas. Speaking at the ongoing African Travel Association (ATA) congress in Lusaka, Mr Kabeta said Government and the host traditional ruler were entitled to 10 percent and 5 percent respectively while Zawa had a 40 percent share from the revenues generated.

Mr Kabeta said the retaining of the largest share of these earnings was as a result of the authority's desire to ensure community driven tourism activities that benefited the local people. He said that Government had also put in place protective measures in recognition of the need to ensure that communities were not shortchanged in these matters. These include the devising of appropriate clauses to ensure that safari-hunting concessionaires were made to deliver on various undertakings made in concession agreements. The undertakings are meant to address the issues of poverty eradication through building of schools, clinics and roads among others and also ensure that communities got their respective allocations of fees by the safari-hunting outfitters.

Mr Kabeta said past attempts at conservation of nature failed as locals felt alienated from the management of the resource resulting into massive abuse of the same resource. But a turn around through the 1998 review of legislation to ensure participation of locals and sharing of associated costs and benefits presents a solution through sustainable utilisation, local participation and proper regulatory framework. He said through the concept of ethno-tourism, central to this year's conference, an attempt was being made to restore and promote the human dignity of the African people and have a direct positive on the lives of the poor.

The Zawa chief observed that ethno-tourism should be used as a strategy for poverty alleviation and sustainable development.

12. India: Ethnobotanical surveys

From: P.Oudhia,

Here are latest 15 articles based on my ethnobotanical surveys in Chhattisgarh.I invite you to read these articles and give your comments.

1. Traditional medicinal knowledge about useful garden plant Parijat (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, family Nyctanthaceac) in Chhattiagarh, India

2. My experiments with the wonder crop Safed Musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) : Some useful observations of recently completed experiments at SAMPDA'S research farm

3. Interactions with the farm workers of Kondagaon region Chhattisgarh, India, having traditional medicinal knowledge about useful herb Bhatkatiya (Solanum xanthocarpum)

4. Interaction with the paddy growers of Durg region, Chhattisgarh, India, having traditional medicinal knowledge about useful tree Babool (Acacia nilotica)

5. Interactions with the herb collectors of Gandai region, Chhattisgarh, India having rich traditional medicinal knowledge about useful herb Dhawai (Woodfordia fruticosa)

6. Traditional medicinal knowledge about useful herb Jason (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, family : Malvaceae) in Chhattisgarh, India

7. Traditional medicinal knowledge about useful herb Semal (Bombax ceiba, family : Bombacaceae) in Chhattisgarh, India

8. Karanj (Pongamia pinnata syn. P. glabra, family : Papilionaceae) as medicinal herb in Chhattisgarh, India

9. Traditional medicinal knowledge about useful herb Bhelwa (Semecarpus anacardium, Family : Anacardiaceae) in Chhattisgarh, India

10. Medicinal herbs of Chhattisgarh, India, having less known traditional uses. I. Sagon (Tectona grandis, family Verbanaceae)

11. Medicinal herbs of Chhattisgarh, India having less known traditional uses. II. Indrajau (Wrightia tinctoria, family : Apocynaceae)

12. Medicinal herbs of Chhattisgarh, India having less known traditional uses, IV Gorakh Booti (Aerva lanata, family:Amaranthaceae)

13. Medicinal herbs of Chhattisgarh, India, having less known traditional uses. III. Hingot (Balanites roxburghii, family : Balanitaceae)

14. Medicinal herbs of Chhattisgarh, India having less known traditional uses. V. Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon, family : Ebenaceae)

15. Medicinal herbs of Chhattisgarh , India having less known traditional uses VI. Kadam (Anthocephalus cadamba, family Naucleaceae)

For more information, please visit:

13. Assessing the impact of logging on biodiversity

Source: CIFOR-Polex Listserve, 12.5.03 (D.KAIMOWITZ@CGIAR.ORG)

Back in the early days of coal mining, miners used to take canaries into the mineshafts to alert them about deadly gasses. If the birds died the miners knew it was time to get out fast.

People also use animals to indicate how healthy the environment is in other contexts. Mining companies in Australia track the types of ants they find near abandoned mines to see if the sites have been fully restored. Waste treatment plants in the United States keep an eye on the bluegill fish to monitor the quality of their water.

For some time, scientists have been looking for something similar to assess the impact of logging companies on biodiversity. They hope that by examining what happens to specific species of animals or groups of species in particular forests they will be able to say whether logging has damaged those forests too much.

So far they have not had much luck. Claudia Azevedo-Ramos and Oswaldo de Carvalho Jr. from a Brazilian NGO called IPAM and Robert Nasi from CIFOR recently reviewed previous attempts to identify species that might be used for this purpose and concluded that to-date no one has come up with any really good candidates.

The authors accept that logging clearly influences which animals survive in the forest and in what numbers. The problem is that each species responds differently. What happens to one species tells surprisingly little about what will happen to others. There are some promising leads like the fact that logged over forests usually have fewer birds that eat insects and more that eat fruits, but these leads still do not amount to much.

Nor is that the only problem. Counting animals in forests is difficult and expensive, particularly if they are rare, hard to identify, or move around a lot. It may also be tricky to figure out whether animal populations decline due to logging or because of hunting.

It would be wonderful if we could find something like the miners' canaries to help manage forests. But this review suggests it is not likely to happen. Perhaps it is time to put our resources somewhere else.

To request a free electronic copy of this paper or to send comments or queries to the authors please write to Claudia Azevedo-Ramos at

14. SOUTHEM Country Files

Source: Forest Information Update, 12 May 2003, (

Forestry country files for the Southern Hemisphere have been updated and are now available. The countries include: Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. The files are essentially facts and figures updates of each country including such topics as: geographic, political and economic background; forestry resources; roundwood resources; wood supplies; forest products; trade; outlook. The cost is NZ$50.00; AUD$40.00; and US$35.00.

For more information, please contact:

Mike Smith
Editor and Director
Trade and Media Services Ltd.
5 High Street
Rotorua 3201
New Zealand
PO Box 6215,
Rotorua, New Zealand.
Tel. +64-7-349 4107;
Fax: +64-7-349 4157.


15. FAO's Environment and Utilization Web site

From: Magnus Grylle, Forestry Information and Liaison Unit,

FAO's Forestry Department new Web site on Environment and Utilization can be found at:

Forest utilization is of course what Forestry is all about. On the golden path towards sustainable forest management, environmental aspects of all kinds of forestry must be taken into consideration. This site covers this subject in detail and offers much further reading.

For more information and comments, please contact:

Laura Russo
Forestry Officer (Utilization and Environment)
Forest Products Division, FAO Forestry Department
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy
+39-06-57052044 (tel) +39-06-57055618 (fax)

16. Bees for Development Web site

From: Bees for development (

Bees for Development announces its new website open! Providing an insight into our work and activities you can visit the site for all sorts of reasons:

' Not yet a subscriber to our Journal? You are welcome to download a complimentary copy if you wish and then subscribe on the site.

' Join forum discussions on: top-bar hives, honey marketing and legislation, beekeeping projects, organic certification; Bees for Development Safaris, and more.

Support Bees for Development Trust - give a donation by credit card or download your standing order and Gift Aid forms. (The Bees for Development Trust Charity No 1078803.)

' Download a range of informative documents.

' Look at the Links, Communication Centre and information about Bees for Development.

For more information, please contact:

Bees for Development
Troy, Monmouth
NP25 4AB, UK
Tel +44 (0) 16007 13648
Fax +44 (0) 16007 16167

17. Request for information: Grewia tenax

From: Kamal El-Siddig (

I am working on the ecophysiology of the small-leaved white crossberry (Grewia tenax) and I would appreciate receiving any information on this underutilized species.

Dr. Kamal El-Siddig
Visiting Associate Professor
Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University
1390 Hamasaka, 680-0001
Tel: +81 857 23 34 11
Fax +81 857 29 6199

18. Request for information: olibanum (frankincense) producers

From: Yuliya Okhina (

For the present time we represent a container maritime agency in Ukraine. We are looking for the contacts of olibanum (frankincense) producers which are situated in the Mediterranean sea area (especially Greece and Lebanon).

Yuliya Okhina,
Assistant of general manager,
CMA Ukraine, Odessa
+38 0482 348484
+38 0482 348488

19. Events

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

2nd Congress of Conservation of Biodiversity in the Andes and the Amazon Basin

4th Ecuadorian Botanical Congress

25-30 August 2003
Loja, Ecuador

For more information, please contact:

Rainier Bussmann
Nature and Culture International
1400 Maiden Lane
Del Mar, CA 92014
Fax: +1-858-259-1815

The 4th China National Bamboo Culture Festival

9-11 October 2003
Xian Ning, P.R.China.

The Organizers: the State Forestry Administration of China, the Hubei Provincial Government and INBAR. The co- Organizers: China Bamboo Industry Association, Forestry Bureau of Hubei Province, Government of Xian Ning

Main events:

' Opening Ceremony

' National Bamboo Products Exhibition

' International Seminar on Industrial Utilization of Bamboo (One day, organized by INBAR)

' Exhibition on Chinese Brush Writing and Painting related to Bamboo

' Visit to Bamboo plantations/ companies

An international training workshop on bamboo furniture processing will be held immediately after the Festival; it will be a very comprehensive exposition of the innovative Chinese products made from bamboo - from furniture through panelling and flooring to handicrafts and edible shoots.

INBAR plans to hold a one-day seminar on utilization of bamboo during the festival. While in no way replacing the World Bamboo Congress (which will not be held, it seems, in the foreseeable future) this seminar does provide the opportunity for workers in the field to meet together to discuss latest discoveries.

Xian Ning is situated very close to bamboo plantations and to bamboo-using industries. It is intended to organize field trips to visit these.

INBAR's Annual Workshop and Training Course will follow immediately afterwards in Hainan Island (which can be reached easily from Wuhan).

For more information, please contact:

Fu Jinhe Ph. D.
Program Officer
International Network for Bamboo and Rattan
Beijing 100101-80, P.R. China
Tel.: +86-10-64956961/82
Fax: +86-10-64956983

World Herbo Expo- 2004

12 -14 January 2004

Organized by People for Animals in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment & Forests & the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, & Medicinal Plant Board, Government of India.

For more information, please contact:

Dr. R. Sugandhi
President, People For Animals,
"Vasundhara Bhawan"
E-4 Patel Nagar, Bhopal - 462021 M.P. (INDIA)
Tel: +91-0755-275 2727, 275 4941, 271 3713

20. Fungal partners

Source: [cfc-news] Community Forestry Connections, 9 May 2003, (

Corner on Ecology: Partners....for 500 Million Years! by Gigi La Budde

Paleontologists theorize that the evolutionary leap of plants from ocean to land was accomplished by plants forming a symbiotic relationship with fungi. Today, 90 percent of all plants are associated with fungi in the soil, and 80 percent could not survive without their fungal partners. The complete article is available at:

21. Call for papers: The Management of Common Pool Resources

Source: Forest Information Update, 12 May 2003, (

Forests, Trees and Livelihoods intends to devote a special issue in 2004 to The Management of Common Pool Resources. The scope of the special number is to be wide in order to shed light on the factors that promote or mitigate against success in the management of common pool resources.

PREMISE: Strengthening the communal management of common pool resources can lead to sustained improvements in the well being of disadvantaged people by empowering them to participate equitably and effectively in the management of the resources on which they depend.

CENTRAL THEME: That, in spite of the complex mix of goods, services and values, as well as the multiplicity of stakeholders that characterise most forests and makes them different from other common pool resources, there are common lessons to be learnt from experience with water management, range management, fisheries management, forest management, individual (fruit) tree management, single product (e.g. rattan) management, medicinal plant management, etc. A wide approach to management regimes is acceptable provided authors define the resources and distinguish between common pool management regimes and programmes such as Joint Forest Management, Participatory Forest Management, etc.

For more information, please contact:

Michael S. Philip, Editor, Luton Cottage, Bridgeview Road, Aboyne AB34 5HB, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, U.K.


22. Publications of interest

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Araújo, M.B. 2003. The coincidence of people and biodiversity in Europe. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(1):5-12.

Brink, M. and Escobin, R.P. (Editors). 2003. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 17. Fibre Plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands. 456 pp. ISBN 90-5782-129-X

The hardcopy edition is distributed by: Backhuys Publishers, PO Box 321, 2300 AH Leiden, the Netherlands. A paperback edition will be available in March 2005 (e45).

For developing countries, a cheaper paperback edition (ISBN 979-8316-46-0) will be available by mid-2003 from the PROSEA Network Office, PO Box 332, Bogor 16122, Indonesia.

For more information, please contact:

Dr. J.S. Siemonsma
Head Publication Office
Wageningen Agricultural University
PO Box 341
6700 AH Wageningen
The Netherlands
Fax: +31-317-482206

Dick, C.W., Etchelecu, G., and Austerlitz, F. 2003. Pollen dispersal of tropical trees (Dinizia excelsa: Fabaceae) by native insects and African honeybees in pristine and fragmented Amazonian rainforest. Mol. Ecol. 12(3):753-764.

Dold, A.P., and Cocks, M.L. 2002. The trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 98(11-12):589-597.

Gaston, K.J. 2003. The how and why of biodiversity. Nature 421(6926):900-901.

Gordon, J.E., Barrance, A.J., and Schreckenberg, K. 2003. Are rare species useful species? Obstacles to the conservation of tree diversity in the dry forest zone agro-ecosystems of Mesoamerica. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(1):13-19.

Hypolite, E., Green, G.C., and Burley, J. 2002. Ecotourism: its potential role in forest resource conservation in the Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies. Int. For. Rev. 4(4):298-303.

Jenkins, M., Green, R.E., and Madden, J. 2003. The challenge of measuring global change in wild nature: are things getting better or worse? Conserv. Biol. 17(1):20-23.

Ladio, A.H., and Lozada, M. 2003. Comparison of wild edible plant diversity and foraging strategies in two aboriginal communities of northwestern Patagonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(5):937-951.

Moffat, A.J. 2002. The state of British forests at the beginning of the 21st century. Int. For. Rev. 4(3):171-183.

Schmelzer, G.H. and Omino, E.A. (Editors). 2003. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Proceedings of the First PROTA International Workshop, 23-25 September 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 360 pp. ISBN 90-77114-04-1.

Thaman, R.R. 2002. Trees outside forests as a foundation for sustainable development in the small island developing states of the Pacific Ocean. Int. For. Rev. 4(4):268-276.

Veach, R., Lee, D., and Philippi, T. 2003. Human disturbance and forest diversity in the Tansa Valley, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(5):1051-1072.

Wilkie, M.L., Eckelmann, C.M., Laverdière, M., and Mathias, A. 2002. Forests and forestry in small island developing states. Int. For. Rev. 4(4):257-267.


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last updated:  Friday, August 28, 2009