No. 02/03

Welcome to FAO's NWFP-Digest-L a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products.A special thank you to all those who have shared information with us.

1. New publication in FAO's Non-Wood Forest Products series
2. Canada: Salvaged Ferns - The Newest North Island Export
3. Poverty and the wild beasts
4. Mali Promotes West African Shea Industry
5. Kenya: Biodiversity greatly affected by loss of forest cover
6. Tanzania: Laws to protect indigenous knowledge, innovations needed
7. Sudan: No Need for Iron supplement - Eat Grewia Fruits
8. India: Traditional Knowledge Digital Library
9. Rubber-tappers diversify extractive practices with certified products
10. Extractive reserves to have sustainable management plans
11. Fungus damages Brazil nut exports
12. Web sites
13. Events
14. Publications of interest
15. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants
16. Economic impacts of climate change in South Africa
17. Request for assistance
18. Miscellaneous: Climate change grad students sought

1. New publication in FAO's Non-Wood Forest Products series

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Non-wood forest products from temperate broad-leaved trees.ISBN 92-5-104855-X

Temperate broad-leaved trees grow in very different ecosystems in the northern and southern hemispheres, but are also extensively found in many tropical and subtropical mountain areas. A wide range of non-wood products are derived from temperate broad-leaved trees, and their description is organized in this volume according to the part of the tree from which they are obtained (whole tree, foliage, flowers, etc.). This information is presented in order to raise awareness on, and assist in identifying, opportunities for the management and production of non-wood products from temperate broad-leaved trees. The intended audience of this publication ranges from interest groups in the forest, agriculture and rural development sectors to conservation agencies in developed and developing countries.

Copies of this publication, which is no. 15 in the NWFP series, can be purchased from FAO's Sales and Marketing Group (

2. Canada: Salvaged Ferns - The Newest North Island Export

From: Diane Carley []

Nurseries in the Lower Mainland have already ordered thousands of sustainably harvested ferns from North Island residents as a result of harvesting trials held here earlier this month.

Native ferns such as deer fern (Blechnumspicant) and sword fern (Polystichum munitum) are highly desired products in the nursery industry for use in landscaping and restoration. Concerns about the sustainability of whole plant extraction, however, have resulted in a reduced demand for these wild harvested ferns in the past 4 to 5 years, particularly with the advent of successful nursery propagation. If managed correctly though, wild fern harvesting, as with other Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs), could be a sustainable and viable industry for the North Island community.

To ensure the ecological sustainability and economic viability of whole fern plant extraction, harvesting trials were initiated on the North Island this past December. With the assistance of Western Forest Products and with the information gathered from the North Island NTFP Demonstration Project's 2001 Botanical Inventory, sites with good fern coverage were selected. The research team then chose two species of fern, deer fern and sword fern, and conducted variable levels of commercial harvest (0%, 50% and 100%) within areas slated for timber harvest.

Plots will be re-visited later this year after the timber is harvested. Survivability of the ferns will be compared between the plots. If no significant difference is found between the harvest levels and the survivability of the ferns, then it can be assumed that removing ferns prior to timber harvest is a sustainable method of whole fern extraction. If there is a significant difference, other methods of sustainable harvest should be explored.

Fern harvest prior to road building, however, is clearly a salvage activity. In coordination with WFP, proposed and flagged logging roads were identified and selected for additional harvesting trials, in order to determine the economic viability of salvaging ferns for North Island harvesters.

A variety of plots were established to determine average volumes and wages for roadway fern salvage. Twelve local trainees were hired to assist in the gathering of data. Both men and women, and First Nations and non-First Nations, were involved. The trainees had a variety of backgrounds including forest technicians, silviculturalists, planters and NTFP harvesters. They were all trained in the identification, selection, sustainable harvesting methods, processing and marketing of the two species of ferns.

The data from the study is currently being analysed and a report will be available within the next couple of months.

This project is led by Royal Roads University and funded by the Forestry Innovation Investment Research Program. For further information, contact Wendy Cocksedge, NTFP Coordinator, Royal Roads University, 250-391-2600 ext: 4328,

3. Poverty and the wild beasts

Source: CIFOR-Polex Listserve, 4 March 2003

International donor agencies, such as the UK's Department for International Development (DFID) are trying to figure out what to do about wild animals. People back home like them, especially the warm and fuzzy ones. But the aid agencies' main focus is reducing poverty, and they are still not sure how fuzzy animals fit in the picture.

Some aid officials wonder whether the poor really need wild animals. Others argue that projects that combine conservation and development cost a lot for each person the project benefits and they worry that more parks might marginalize the poor.

Such concerns recently led DFID to do a "Wildlife and Poverty Study". It concluded that some 150 million people still rely heavily on wildlife for meat or cash and that wildlife tourism might become an interesting option for marginal remote areas. Given that the World Bank and the Global Environment Facility spent $7.4 billion on conservation and biodiversity projects over the last ten years, the poor could also benefit from having more of such funds going to meet their needs.

DFID says most poverty reduction strategies fail to recognize that many rural people rely on bushmeat and that declining wildlife populations makes their lives more difficult. (On the other hand, wild animals also cause problems when they eat villagers' crops or livestock, spread disease, or attack people.) Solving the bushmeat problem in countries with weak institutions will not be easy. So far efforts to find other sources of protein to substitute for wild animals haven't had much success. People need to think more about the bushmeat issue from the villagers' perspectives, and not just in terms of conservation. Working with logging companies, traditional forest dwellers, small farmers, and commercial hunters will each require separate approaches. In any case it will be a hard nut to crack.

With regards to tourism, the study finds that community based wildlife management projects have yielded mixed results in eastern and southern Africa. Some households and districts got more money and jobs, but at a high cost to donors. To get beyond that stage requires quick and simple mechanisms for establishing resource rights, clearer and more equitable benefit sharing arrangements, and building up local business skills.

In 1998, tourism was one of the five leading export sectors in two thirds of the world's 49 least developed countries. But the tourism business is risky and outsiders usually get most of the benefits. Still, serious attempts to promote "pro-poor" wildlife tourism through community enterprises, serious partnerships between companies and communities, and efforts to up-grade the skills of local workers have just begun. No one knows if they will succeed.

The study points out many times that we still know surprisingly little about these issues from a livelihoods' perspective, much less what to do about them. And financing research is not as popular as it once was. But this is one case it where it might just make sense.

To request a free electronic copy of this paper you can write the DFID public enquiry point at

To send comments or queries or if you have any problems with the DFID equity point, you can write the authors, Joanna Elliott and the Livestock and Wildlife Advisory Group,

4. Mali Promotes West African Shea Industry

Source: Corporate Council on Africa (Washington, DC) Press Release 6/3/03

The West Africa International Business Linkages Program (WAIBL) brought together 160 U.S. and West African participants in Bamako, Mali to discuss US-Africa business agreements in the shea butter industry. The West Africa based conference followed a similar event held in Washington, D.C. in January 2003 that attracted nearly 70 U.S. companies. Both served to educate participants on the shea industry as well as create an environment for U.S. buyers and West African sellers of shea to meet. WAIBL is a program of the Corporate Council on Africa (CCA).

The conference featured industry experts who spoke on commodities as exports, quality control and standardisation, possible means to improve the industry through regional collaboration, marketing, labelling and packaging tips for the U.S. market, and challenges and opportunities for shea in the U.S. Included in the 160 conference participants were shea producers, distributors and exporters from Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Niger, Senegal, Guinea, Benin and Togo. Four U.S. companies also attended.

Following the conference, WAIBL arranged site visits to two Malian villages. Thirty of the conference participants attended, taking the opportunity to see shea butter produced in the traditional manner by the women in the villages.

As shea butter quickly gains wider recognition in the U.S., the WAIBL conference served to bring more attention to the industry and the potential for collaborations between U.S. companies interested in developing shea butter market opportunities with West African shea producers and exporters.

CCA, established in 1992, is a non-partisan 501 (c) (3) membership organization of over 150 American corporations dedicated to strengthening the commercial relationship between the United States and Africa. CCA members represent nearly 85 percent of total U.S. private sector investments in Africa. CCA's website is

For full story please see:

5. Kenya: Biodiversity greatly affected by loss of forest cover

Source: The East African Standard (Nairobi), 10 March 2003

The allocation and destruction of forest lands has had serious impact on useful plants and animals, says Michael Gacanja of the Kenya Forest Working Group. The pressure on useful plants will increase due to reduced habitat. Continued over-collection of medicinal plants will eventually end in the loss of those plants and affect the health of people who are not able to purchase modern medicines.

Forest loss in water catchment areas contribute to reduced water flow in rivers. In Mt. Kenya Forest, low water levels for downstream users following water abstraction by upstream users last year also raised tension between the two users.

The destruction of forests has also led to serious impact on biodiversity. A large percentage of the country's biodiversity occurs in forests. Gachanja says closed canopy forest harbour 40 percent of large mammals (of over 500g), 30 percent of the birds and about 35 percent of the butterflies occur in forest habitat. There are three times as many threatened large species in forests as in Savanna. In the case of threatened birds, around 50 percent occur in forests. Threatened species are known to occur in over 60 inland and 65 Coastal forests. Indeed, half of Kenya's threatened woody plants occur in Coastal forests. These Coastal forests combined with Taita Hills complex and the mountains east of the Rift Valley, account for almost all the rare forest biodiversity in Kenya, with a few other rare species scattered across the large blocks of mountain forests.

Overall, of the forest-dependent and nationally threatened species in Kenya's forests, about 50 percent of the plants, 60 percent of the birds and 65 percent of the mammals are found in the Coastal forests despite its relatively small forest cover. Deforestation is known to have impacts on viable population of species within forests. Gachanja submits that some trees of special commercial importance may be so reduced in numbers that their populations may no longer be viable. For example,Milicia excelsa(Mvule) has been exploited for timber from the coastal forests for decades, andVitex keniensis(Meru oak) andOlea capensis(Cape olive) are in a similar state of decline in the mountain forests.

The densities of forest-specialist birds in Mau and Kakamega have been shown to decline as a result of logging. Extreme destruction of forests through charcoal burning has driven animals out of forests. Elephants in Rumuruti forest are moving out to surrounding farms, causing human-wildlife conflicts. Logging that has been rampant in Kenyan forests removes part of the population of some species and at the same time alters a forest structure and therefore its micro climate, humidity and light regimes. The structure is changed to a more broken canopy formation, often with a much heavier liana load on the remaining tall trees.

The plant species composition shifts in favour of colonisers that proliferate in forest openings. Pole cutting can cause declines in biodiversity under extreme over-use because the young trees recover and produce coppice shoots. Similarly, the collection of dead wood for fuel may have some negative effects on the recycling of nutrients within the forest ecosystem.

Forests play a critical role in water catchment for the country. For example, Kenya's five main "water towers", the Mt. Kenya, the Aberdare, the Cherangani the Mau complex and the Mt. Elgon forests provide most of the nation's water.

For full story please see:

6. Tanzania: Laws to protect indigenous knowledge, innovations needed

Source: Zephania Ubwani in The Guardian/ IPP Media (Dar es Salaam) cited in BIO-IPR of GRAIN Los Banos, 18 March 2003.

A university don has called for the review of the legislation on intellectual property rights in Tanzania to make it protect indigenous knowledge and innovations of the local communities. The review and harmonization of the laws and regulations would not only help and guarantee the local communities to maintain their traditional knowledge and innovations but ensure they benefited from the control of such information.

Dr. Palamagamba J. Kabudi, a senior lecturer in Law at the University of Dar es Salaam, told a workshop on Indigenous Knowledge that the intellectual property rights regime in Tanzania did not adequately protect the traditional knowledge of the local people and must be reviewed. "A special legislation has to be enacted to better enable the local communities to protect and control their knowledge, innovations and practices such as plant varieties", he said.

It was unfortunate that the legislation on intellectual property rights in Tanzania was confined to protecting the rights of inventors, scientists, commercial breeders and biotechnology companies but weak on the protection of traditional knowledge. According to Dr. Kabudi this is because traditional knowledge is usually considered not new and lacks novelty and its attendant components. He proposed the enactment of legislation on intellectual property rights requiring approval of and benefit sharing with the local communities through appropriate government institutions. "It is advisable that this legislation should include access to both knowledge and genetic resources which are taken away and patented ex-situ," he said. Dr. Kabudi also called for the establishment of ethical guidelines and codes of conduct for the collection and dissemination as well as benefit sharing for traditional knowledge, innovations and practices.

Prof. George Kajembe of the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) said indigenous knowledge, which has sustained the local people in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa for generations, had until recently been seen as a hindrance to modernization. Lack of recognition, understanding and use of indigenous knowledge have led to environmental degradation and loss of the country's biodiversity. He warned on the implications of patents and other forms of intellectual property rights on living organisms such as plants for commercial purposes, saying they encouraged bio-piracy and theft of the country's resources. "The types of rights Tanzania needs are not those intellectual property rights which monopolise for commercial purposes what belong to the communities but those rights that recognise and protect the lives and livelihood of the local communities," he said.

For full story please

7. Sudan: No Need for Iron supplement - Eat Grewia Fruits

From: Kamal El-Siddig []

Grewia tenaxis a tropical bushy tree with rounded, pendulous fruits, 5-10 mm across. Fruits change gradually from green to bright red when quite ripe. The firm, fleshy layer surrounding the stone is edible and is relished out-of-hand by children and adults, alike. Fruit juice is regarded a great thirst-quencher, especially during the hot months from March to July. Also a thin porridge (Nesha), prepared by boiling fruit pulp and millet flour is given to pregnant and lactating women to improve their health and milk production.

And now we know why Grewia fruit is so prized by Sudanese people that it is even considered a substitute for iron supplement? Of the wide range of nutrients in the Grewia fruit, the iron content has attracted most attention. Indeed the iron content is important to local communities who know well that it is a simple safeguard against iron-deficiency anemia. It has, on average, 2 - 3 times the Fe content of orange with up to 74 mg per 100 g edible portion. The iron in the fruit juice, in particular, is noted for being much more easily assimilated than man-made forms of iron. The fruit is also rich in carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins, and low in fat and sodium.

In spite of its potential, which is well recognized, wild shrubs are continuously exploited to meet the increasing demand. A plant that is easy to cultivate and tolerant to harsh conditions, deserves more research & development efforts than it has so far received. There is an urgent need to study the growth, development and utilization ofG. tenaxmore comprehensively to facilitate the improvement of this species for the benefit of mankind in the future. We are now launching a joint project at the Arid Land Research Center (ALRC), Tottori university, Japan and the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), Sudan to address there topics. We welcome any inputs from those who have experiences with this species.

For more information, please contact:
Dr. Kamal El-Siddig
Visiting Associate Professor
Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University
1390, Hamasaka, Tottori 680-0001
Tel: +81 857 23 34 11
Fax: +81 857 29 6199

8. India: Traditional Knowledge Digital Library

From: Dr. M.V. Viswanathan, NISCOM (

The National Insitute of Science Communication (NISCOM) of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi (India) is developing a Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL), in collaboration with the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy, Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, in order to protect India's Traditional Knowledge from biopiracy.

The TKDL proposes to digitize, in phases, information available in the public domain on Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Naturopathy and Folklore. The first phase will cover Ayurveda. An interdisciplinary team comprising Ayurveda experts, computer programmers, scientists, patent examiners and technicians have been working on the project since October 2001.

The TKDL has been patterned on the International Patent Classifications and has been ratified by the WIPO. Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification, an innovative structured classification system for the purpose of systematic arrangement, dissemination and retrieval has been evolved by Mr. V.K. Gupta, Director of NISCOM, for about 5 000 sub-groups against one group in international patent application, i.e. AK61K35/78 related to medicinal plants.

The TKDL will be available in different foreign languages (e.g. English, French, German, Spanish), as well as Indian languages, which will make it accessible to patent examiners globally. It will be made mandatory for patent examiners to refer to TKDL before granting patents on non-original inventions.

For more information, please contact:
Mr. V.K. Gupta
Chairman, TKDL Task Force and
Director NISCOM
Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg (Near Pusa Gate)
New Delhi 110 012
Fax: +91-11-5787062

9. Rubber-tappers diversify extractive practices with certified products

Source: Amazon News, 30 January 2003 (

The rubber-tappers of Acre are learning to diversify their production, two decades after the fall in the price of rubber on the international market provoked a crisis which left them at the mercy of unscrupulous loggers, who exploited the forest in a predatory manner.

Now, various communities are working with non-government organizations to rationalize the production of timber, oils, seeds and fruits, aggregating value to these products. One of the means of achieving this is certification, not only of the raw material, but also of the whole production chain.

That is what the community of Porto Dias, on Acre's border with Bolivia, have done: - they received the coveted ''green seal'' from the Forest Stewardship Council for the rational management of 27 timber species which are extracted and processed in a community-owned sawmill and workshop. The certificate covers an area of 4 209 ha and benefits 13 families. The community aims to produce 700m3of certified timber per year, some of which will be sold as raw material. The rest will be processed and transformed in decorative and useful objects. The community is also hoping to produce certified copaiba and Brazil nut oil. The project is supported by the Amazonian Workers Centre.

Porto Dias is the second rubber-tapper community in Brazil to obtain the FSC seal. The first was the Chico Mendes Agroextractivist Project in Xapuri. Another community, São Luiz do Remanso, in the Vila Capixaba region of Acre, is in the initial phase of the certification process.

Currently, the demand for certified timber exceeds supply.

IMAZON, together with Friends of the Earth and the certifying authority IMAFLORA, have published a book ''Hitting the Target 2", aimed at encouraging more producers to seek certification. IMAZON has also produce a video, with support from WWF-Brazil and USAID, titled ''Green Gold'', which is aimed at local companies interested in the sustainable management of forests in Amazonia.

10. Extractive reserves to have sustainable management plans

Source: Amazon News, 6 February 2003,

By the end of this year, eleven of Brazil''s thirty extractive reserves will have operational sustainable management plans. This means that these sustainable use conservation areas, with a total area of five million hectares, will have a document which define priorities for exploiting natural resources. The reserves which will have management plans are: Alto Tarauacá, Cazumbá-Iracema and Chico Mendes (Acre); Jutaí and Médio Juruá (Amazonas); Barreiro das Antas, Lago do Cuniã and Rio Ouro Preto (Rondonia); Rio Cajari (Amapa); Tapajós-Arapiuns and Soure (Para).

The plans will permit residents to manage timber and wild animals in the reserves for the first time. The reserve already produce rubber, nuts, palm hearts, vegetable essences, oils, honey, fish and fibres. The management plans will guarantee the sustainable use of natural resources, helping to preserve the forest for future generations.

The extractivists have their rights to natural resources guaranteed by law and receive financial assistance to reform their houses and purchase equipment. Local residents create a symbiotic relationship with the forest which guarantees the survival of both.

11. Fungus damages Brazil nut exports

Amazon News, 13 February

Last year, according to statistics from the Federal Office of Agriculture, Amazonas exported around 3 200 tonnes of Brazil nuts. Brazil as a whole exported 9 600 tonnes during the same period. However, much of the produce exported has been returned due to the presence of a fungus which contravenes European legislation on food hygiene.

The Ministry of Agriculture is discussing methods of controlling the fungus with the European Union. An EU delegation is now in Brazil to assess Brazil's system of controlling contamination. They will spend two weeks in Brazil analysing various aspects of the production process.

12. Web sites

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Cancer Plants

This Web site is for those who are interested in sustainability of the world's natural medicine chest.

Forestry Images

A joint venture by the US Forest Service and the University of Georgia, Forestry Images holds nearly 4 500 colour JPEG images of forest plants, insects, silvicultural practices, invasive organisms, and general natural scenes.

Gender and Sustainable Development Resource Directory
This database places a focus on resources produced in the global south. Subjects include Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Environment and Health.>


This World Bank site summarizes knowledge and experience, provides gender statistics, and facilitates discussion on gender and development.>

Manejo campesino de recursos naturales y productos forestales no maderables


A search engine for scientific information.

Small Grants Programme for Operations to Promote Tropical Forests in Southeast Asia (SGP PTF)

The SGP PTF aims to enable civil society organizations to implement forest-related projects in nine Asian countries, including the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Includes details on recent calls for proposals and application guidelines.

The Center for Plant Conservation

Comprehensive information about the United States' native, imperilled plants.

Trees outside forests

13. Events

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Harvester Involvement in Inventorying and Monitoring of Nontimber Forest Products

3 April 2003

Pittsburgh, PA, USA

This workshop is part of a national study funded by the National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry (NCSSF) ( The project's goal is to assess the relationships between forest management practices, nontimber forest products (NTFPs), and biodiversity in the U.S.

For more information, visit:www.ifcae.orgor contact Katie

Conference on Biodiversity, Biotechnology, and the Protection of Traditional Knowledge

4-6 April 2003
St. Louis, Missouri, USA

The event will gather leading biological scientists, social scientists, legal scholars, national and international government officials, and representatives of non-governmental organizations to discuss the protection of biodiversity, the protection and regulation of agricultural and plant biotechnology, and the international intellectual property implications of both, with particular attention to the protection of traditional knowledge and other intellectual property mechanisms of interest to the developing world.

Mangrove 2003: Connecting Research and Participative Management of Estuaries and Mangroves

20-24 May 2003
Salvador, Brazil

The Mangrove 2003 Conference will seek to promote the necessary link between generation of knowledge and environmental management, in order to enhance local participation in solutions for socio-environmental problems.

For more information, please contact:

Conference Secretary
Universidade Federal de Bahia
Instituto de Geociências - Instituto de Biologia
Núcleo de Estudos Ambientais
Campus Universitário de Ondina
Salvador, Bahia
Brazil CEP: 40170-290
Fax 55 71 332 4085

New date for

Wood of the Gods - First International Agarwood Conference

Ho Chi Minh City & An Giang Province, Vietnam
10-15 November 2003
See Digest 8/02 for full information or

14. Publications of interest

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Bennett, E.L., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bakarr, M., Eves, H.E., Robinson, J.G., and Wilkie, D.S.2002. Hunting the world's wildlife to extinction.Oryx36(4):328-329.

Bosch, C.H., Siemonsma, J.S., Lemmens, R.H.M.J. and Oyen, L.P.A. (Editors),2002.Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Ressources Végétales de l'Afrique Tropicale. Basic list of species and commodity grouping/Liste de base des espèces et de leurs groupes d'usage. PROTA Programme, Wageningen, the Netherlands. 341 pp. ISBN 90-77114-01-7.

Gossling, S., Hansson, C.B., Horstmeier, O., and Saggel, S.2002. Ecological footprint analysis as a tool to assess tourism sustainability.Ecol. Econ.43(2-3):199-211.

Hansen, D.M., Olesen, J.M., and Jones, C.G. 2002. Trees, birds and bees in Mauritius: exploitative competition between introduced honey bees and endemic nectarivorous birds?J. Biogeogr.29(5-6):721-734.

Kusters, Koen, Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A.F., Van den Top, Gerhard M. & Dietz, Ton.2001.The potential contribution of non-timber forest product extraction to tropical forest conservation and development: lessons from a case study of bamboo utilisation in a Sierra Madre community, the Philippines.J. Bamboo and Rattan, Vol. 1, No.1, pp 77-94.

This article presents the results of a study of bamboo exploitation carried out in a village in the Sierra Madre, the Philippines. With a view to providing evidence for the hypothesised link between exploitation and conservation/development in the NTFP debate, it evaluates the feasibility of using the commercial exploitation of buho (Schizostachyum lumampao) as a strategy for conserving the rain forest.

Ling, S., Kümpel, N., and Albrechtsen, L.2002. No new recipes for bushmeat.Oryx36(4):330.

Nepal, S.K.2002. Involving indigenous peoples in protected area management: comparative perspectives from Nepal, Thailand, and China.Environ. Manage.30(6):748-763.

Oglethorpe, J.A.E. (ed.)2002.Adaptive Management: From Theory to Practice. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UKviand 166pp.

Oyen, L.P.A. and Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Editors), 2002.Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, Precursor. PROTA Programme, Wageningen, the Netherlands. 341 pp. ISBN 90-77114-01-7.

Gossling, S., Hansson, C.B., Horstmeier, O., and Saggel, S.2002. Ecological footprint analysis as a tool to assess tourism sustainability.Ecol. Econ.43(2-3):199-211.

Hansen, D.M., Olesen, J.M., and Jones, C.G. 2002. Trees, birds and bees in Mauritius: exploitative competition between introduced honey bees and endemic nectarivorous birds?J. Biogeogr.29(5-6):721-734.

Kusters, Koen, Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A.F., Van den Top, Gerhard M. & Dietz, Ton.2001.The potential contribution of non-timber forest product extraction to tropical forest conservation and development: lessons from a case study of bamboo utilisation in a Sierra Madre community, the Philippines.J. Bamboo and Rattan, Vol. 1, No.1, pp 77-94.

This article presents the results of a study of bamboo exploitation carried out in a village in the Sierra Madre, the Philippines. With a view to providing evidence for the hypothesised link between exploitation and conservation/development in the NTFP debate, it evaluates the feasibility of using the commercial exploitation of buho (Schizostachyum lumampao) as a strategy for conserving the rain forest.

Ling, S., Kümpel, N., and Albrechtsen, L.2002. No new recipes for bushmeat.Oryx36(4):330.

Nepal, S.K.2002. Involving indigenous peoples in protected area management: comparative perspectives from Nepal, Thailand, and China.Environ. Manage.30(6):748-763.

Oglethorpe, J.A.E. (ed.)2002.Adaptive Management: From Theory to Practice. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UKviand 166pp.

Oyen, L.P.A. and Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Editors), 2002.Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, Precursor.PROTA Programme, Wageningen, the Netherlands. 187 pp. ISBN 90-77114-02.5. (Also available in French)

Paillet, F.L.2002. Chestnut: history and ecology of a transformed species.J. Biogeogr.29(10-11):1517-1530.

Robinson, J.G., and Bennett, E.L.2002. Will alleviating poverty solve the bushmeat crisis?Oryx36(4):332

Rowcliffe, M.2002. Bushmeat and the biology of conservation.Oryx36(4):331.

Sene, A., Hammett, A.L. & Moore, K.2002. Non-timber forest products in Senegal.Journal of Tropical Forest Products8(1): 1-13 (2002).

In recent years, forests have been increasingly recognized as rich reservoirs for many valuable biological resources, not just timber. As a result of the devastation caused by drought, clearing of land for agriculture and overexploitation of timber, there has been a growing interest in non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The Senegal Forestry Action Plan, designed to ensure sustainable forest management, stresses the importance of identifying the constraints to and opportunities for sustainable non-timber forest product development. This paper addresses theses issues in order to suggest programmes or initiatives to encourage NTFP development. Data on products and prices from Senegal's Forestry Service as well as reports and documents from other agencies were examined to identify constraints to NTFP management. The authors' analysis suggests that constraints can be removed based on an approach that involves rural people.

Sonwa, D.J.; Okafor, J.C.; Mpungi Buyungu, P.; Weise, S.F.; Tchatat, M.; Adesina, A.A.; Nkongmeneck, A.B.; Ndoye, O. and Endamana, D.2002. Dacryodes Edulis, A Neglected Non-Timber Forest Species For the Agroforestry Systems of West and Central Africa.Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, Vol. 12, pp. 41-55. A B Academic Publishers, Great Britain

Dacryodes edulis, or safou, is a fruit tree native to Central Africa and the Gulf of Guinea region. It is usually present in agroforestry systems in the region, particularly in home gardens and cocoa and coffee agroforests. It plays an important role in household consumption and the surplus is sold on the rural and urban market. A lack of attention by research and extension services means that there is neither scientific knowledge nor official recommendations for its management in agroforestry systems. The attempt to introduce it into forest fallows in Côte d'Ivoire is a good example of industrial involvement in the development of agroforestry and the expansion of tree production in West Africa. Drawing on experience from Cameroon, Nigeria and Côte d'Ivoire, this paper presents indigenous management techniques and emerging opportunities to promote safou in West and Central African agroforestry systems for food security, income generation and rehabilitation of the environment.

15. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants

From: Dr. J.S. Siemonsma, PROSEA (

Lemmens, R.H.M.J. & Bunyapraphatsara, N. (Editors).2003. "Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(3) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. ISBN 90-5782-125-7.

The hardcopy edition (_150) is distributed by: Backhuys Publishers, PO Box 321, 2300 AH Leiden, the Netherlands. A paperback edition will be available in January 2005 (_70)

For developing countries, a cheaper paperback edition (ISBN 979-8316-44-4) will be available in 2003 from the PROSEA Network Office, PO Box 332, Bogor 16122, Indonesia.

664 pages, beautifully illustrated.

16. Economic impacts of climate change in South Africa

Source: Conserve Africa List Manager [], 18.1.03

Turpie, J.; Winkler, H.; Spalding-Fecher, R.; Midgley, G.2002.Economic impacts of climate change in South Africa: apreliminary analysis of unmitigated damage costs.Energy & Development Research Centre (EDRC), University of Cape Town.

What are the predicted economic impacts of climate change in South Africa? This paper attempts to provide preliminary estimates based on secondary data from the findings of the Vulnerability and Adaptation Study for the South African Country Study on Climate Change (1999). The impacts on natural, agricultural, human-made and human capital are addressed using the change in production approach.

Findings include the following:

* Forests, small but locally valuable in terms of commercial production of timber and non-timber products stand to be entirely lost.

* Tourism may be affected due to a loss of habitats and biodiversity, and due to changes in temperature, humidity and malaria risk, and represents the biggest potential economic loss since tourism contributes as much as 10% ofGDP.

* Changes in ecosystem function, the loss of biodiversity and non-market impacts, brought about by changes in temperature and precipitation, represent the second largest potential economic impact.

* Significant decrease in river flow in the southern and western catchments are predicted, leading to a shrinkage of areas amenable to the country's biomes to about half of their current extent, with huge losses in biodiversity.

* The productivity of rangelands increases due to a CO2fertilization effect.

* Whilst changes in terrestrial animal diversity could not be predicted accurately, the study suggests huge losses of species due to range shifts.

* Savannas, important for grazing and the subsistence harvest of numerous resources may be radically reduced, leading to large losses of productive value.

* Agricultural systems are not nearly as affected as natural systems with the impacts on crop production relatively minor in relation to the value of the sector as a whole.

* Finally, the impacts of climate change on human health are considered, concentrating on the increased incidence of malaria, the proportion of deaths being expected to increase and the costs in terms of the treatment costs of the sick and the loss of earnings of the sick or their carers.

For full story please see:

17. Request for assistance

From: Cliff S. Dlamini []

I am a PhD candidate involved in "The Value of NTFP in Swaziland: Overview, Assessment and Implications" from January 2003 to December 2005 and urgently need financial assistance for my studies. I have managed to raise US $ 1000 but it is not sufficient to cover all the costs. Outstanding are the living expenses and books as well as medical Issues, which may be about US $ 3000 for this year.


Main groups on NTFP to be studied: Medicinal; Tannin; Fodder; Household items; Ornamentals; Foods and drinks; Cultural/ceremonial; Eco-tourism; Fuel wood and charcoal; Dyes and traditional poisons; Soil conservation; Handicrafts; Other.

Sampling: To cover all the 4 ecological zones of the country, and all the 13 Vegetation types, All the 4 Districts, All the 55 Tinkhundla Centres and all the chiefdoms.

Design: Multistage Simple Stratified Random Sampling Approach.

You are most welcome to assist me with any possible amount and I will acknowledge all those who will be able to help. The cheque may directly addressed to : The University of Stellenbosch" and the International Office may be the best Office to deal with at:

The International Office, University of Stellenbosch, P/B X1, 7602 Matieland, South Africa

Tel. (0721) 808 4628/3318
Fax: (0721) 808 3822

For more information, please contact:

Cliff S. Dlamini
Swaziland Ph.D. Student No. 12661716
University of Stellenbosch
P/B X1
7602 Matieland
South Africa

18. Miscellaneous: Climate change grad students sought

From: Dieter Schoene, FAO (

I would like to establish contacts urgently with current graduate students and recent graduates involved in a Master's or PhD programme in the area of forests and climate change. I am particularly interested in their thesis topics, specialized course work in climate change, and their potential availability for part-time work for FAO in this area.

19. Miscellaneous: Young Scientist Publication Awards

Source: Forest Information Updated, 17 February 2003

The Commonwealth Forestry Association has established a scheme known as the International Forestry Review Young Scientist Publication Awards, or the Young Scientist Awards (YSA) that is designed to help promote the careers of young forest scientists and managers through publication in the International Forestry Review. Age of author under 30 years of age at time of submission of entry. Author should not have previously published articles in peer-reviewed international technical journals. The submission should be from one author. Entries should be submitted in English. For more information contact the editor of the International Forestry Review


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last updated:  Friday, August 28, 2009