No. 12/02

Welcome to FAO's NWFP-Digest-L. a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products.

This is the last issue of 2002. We would like to take this opportunity to thank you for sharing information with us during the year and to send you our best wishes for a healthy 2003.

1. Commercialization: A reality check
2. Linking NWFP Management with Livelihood Development
3. Institutional and Policy Dimensions
2. New publications available on FAO's NWFP Web site
3. The nut that could help save the Amazon
4. Sustainable businesses replace green marketing
5. Brazil: IBAMA creates centre for the management of medicinal plants
6. USA: World's First Green Certified Maple Syrup
7. World Forestry Congress and Indigenous Peoples
8. Call for Papers for an Indigenous Peoples Forest Publication
10. Bamboo in China
12. Uganda On the verge of silken riches
14. Nigeria: Gum arabic
15. South Africa: Can Ecolabelling Pay? - Badger-friendly honey
16. African Super Park
19. Events
20. Publications of interest
21. Amazonia represents 53% of standing tropical forest
23. A WWF International Discussion Paper on Prunus africana
24. Two new books from Earthscan on biodiversity aspects
25. Miscellaneous - New technique benefits both farmers and forests


1. NWFP Side event at World Forestry Congress

From: Paul Vantomme paul.vantomme@fao.org, Jim Chamberlain, jachambe@vt.edu and Brian Belcher b.belcher@cgiar.org

CIFOR, FAO and IUFRO will be co-hosting a NWFP "side event" (Strengthening Global Partnerships to Advance Sustainable Development of Non-Wood Forest Products) at the World Forestry Congress in Quebec, Canada, in September 2003. It will be an excellent opportunity to communicate lessons and insights from our work and contribute to an improved understanding and focus in the area of NWFP. By joining forces, CIFOR, FAO and IUFRO will be able to reach a very large proportion of the researchers and practitioners with an interest in NWFP.

Suggestions for discussion topics were received following an announcement of this NWFP side event. Three major themes emerged from your suggestions. Under each, sub-themes have been listed that also were generated through your comments. This list of sub-themes is not exhaustive and you may want to add more through the process. You will note that we have outlined a series of phases that lead up to the side event. Realizing that there are only nine months left before the event, and that we will not have a lot of time during the event, a great deal of work is needed before the meeting to achieve our ambitious goals.

We are therefore initiating an Internet-based e-consultation to explore the issues, take stock of lessons learned, identify critical gaps in the knowledge base, and identify research, development and policy needs. We envision this phase working similar to a round-table discussion or a working group, the only difference being that we are sitting at our computers and not sitting together at a table. We are fortunate to be able to use this technology to make major advances on the first objective of the side event. Through this Internet-based dialogue we hope that you will help elaborate on the major issues. We realize some people may not have access to the Internet, and we hope that colleagues that do will make a special effort to include these people in the discussions.

The only way this phase of the process will work is for people to volunteer to lead, and/or be part of, a discussion around one or more of the following (non-exhaustive) main themes.

1. Commercialization: A reality check

  • Constraints to sustainable commercialization
  • Characteristics to successful commercialization
  • Assessing economic and non-economic value
  • What happens when NWFPs arecommercialized?
  • Winners and losers?
  • Ecologicalimplications?
  • Mid-term and long-term dynamics?
  • Whatinterventions work and under what circumstances?
  • Managementimplications of commercialization?
  • Marketing to benefit localpeople
  • Potential for certification

2. Linking NWFP Management with Livelihood Development

  • Resource inventory/monitoring
  • Genetic diversity conservation
  • Assessing sustainable harvest levels
  • Assessing economic and non-economic value (cross theme)
  • Resource management and domestication
  • natural forest management
  • cultivation& production, and genetic variability
  • agroforestry, Farmforestry, Agriculture
  • Role of traditional ecological knowledge indeveloping management practices
  • Acknowledging and respectingindigenous people's rights
  • Understanding and improving markets forNWFPs
  • Processing and value-added for sustainable development
  • The (changing) role of NWFP in household economic strategies
  • Supporting NWFP-based development: what works?

3. Institutional and Policy Dimensions

  • National and international levels
  • (Inter)national collaboration
  • Legislative and regulations
  • Demonstration communities
  • Integrating NWFPs and the timber industry
  • Linking forest sector to people's livelihoods
  • Improving NWFP production and trade statistics

The bullets under Phase 1 (seewww.fao.org/forestry/FOP/FOPW/NWFP/new/nwfp.htm

Suggestions for discussion topics were received following an announcement of this NWFP side event. Three major themes emerged from your suggestions. Under each, sub-themes have been listed that also were generated through your comments. This list of sub-themes is not exhaustive and you may want to add more through the process. You will note that we have outlined a series of phases that lead up to the side event. Realizing that there are only nine months left before the event, and that we will not have a lot of time during the event, a great deal of work is needed before the meeting to achieve our ambitious goals.

We are therefore initiating an Internet-based e-consultation to explore the issues, take stock of lessons learned, identify critical gaps in the knowledge base, and identify research, development and policy needs. We envision this phase working similar to a round-table discussion or a working group, the only difference being that we are sitting at our computers and not sitting together at a table. We are fortunate to be able to use this technology to make major advances on the first objective of the side event. Through this Internet-based dialogue we hope that you will help elaborate on the major issues. We realize some people may not have access to the Internet, and we hope that colleagues that do will make a special effort to include these people in the discussions.

The only way this phase of the process will work is for people to volunteer to lead, and/or be part of, a discussion around one or more of the following (non-exhaustive) main themes.

1. Commercialization: A reality check

  • Constraints to sustainable commercialization
  • Characteristics to successful commercialization
  • Assessing economic and non-economic value
  • What happens when NWFPs arecommercialized?
  • Winners and losers?
  • Ecologicalimplications?
  • Mid-term and long-term dynamics?
  • Whatinterventions work and under what circumstances?
  • Managementimplications of commercialization?
  • Marketing to benefit localpeople
  • Potential for certification

2. Linking NWFP Management with Livelihood Development

  • ¿ Resource inventory/monitoring
  • Genetic diversity conservation
  • Assessing sustainable harvest levels
  • Assessing economic and non-economic value (cross theme)
  • Resource management and domestication
  • natural forest management
  • cultivation& production, and genetic variability
  • agroforestry, Farmforestry, Agriculture
  • Role of traditional ecological knowledge indeveloping management practices
  • Acknowledging and respectingindigenous people's rights
  • Understanding and improving markets forNWFPs
  • Processing and value-added for sustainable development
  • The (changing) role of NWFP in household economic strategies
  • Supporting NWFP-based development: what works?

3. Institutional and Policy Dimensions

  • National and international levels
  • (Inter)national collaboration
  • Legislative and regulations
  • Demonstration communities
  • Integrating NWFPs and the timber industry
  • Linking forest sector to people's livelihoods
  • Improving NWFP production and trade statistics

The bullets under Phase 1 (seewww.fao.org/forestry/FOP/FOPW/NWFP/new/nwfp.htm will let you know what we are trying to accomplish during this phase. Participating may mean proposing new, and expanding on already identified, sub-themes, responding to requests for input, providing comments, identifying critical issues, gaps in knowledge and all those other items listed.

At the end of this phase, participants will have prepared a draft statement on the "state of the knowledge" regarding each theme. These will be shared through our community of peers to make sure they address the major issues, and that important issues have not been left out. As the e-consultation proceeds, you can further participate and contribute/assist with the preparation of case studies and/or state of knowledge reports on key topics as identified during the consultation phase (following a standardized format still to be elaborated).

The purpose of this message is twofold:

1. First we wish to inform you on the status of preparation and on the proposed content of the NWFP side event, as of today; and

2. We need people/institutions who are willing to coordinate/assist the discussion on each of the three themes. This will require coordinating the discussion, via e-mail, reaching out to existing networks of colleagues, making a special effort to expand the network, and summarizing the results of the discussion into a draft statement. Please realize that this will take a lot of effort and you should expect to commit a good amount of time undertaking the discussion group. But, it will prove invaluable in development of the knowledge base and a support group of people interested in the theme.

Please send us an e-mail by15 January 2003if you are interested in coordinating a discussion group (indicate which one), and/or if you want to be an integral part of a discussion group.

The complete action plan can be found on the NWFP home page of the FAO Web site at:www.fao.org/forestry/FOP/FOPW/NWFP/new/nwfp.htm

For more information, please contact:

Dr. Jim Chamberlain, Non-Timber Forest Products Research Technologist US Forest Service, Southern Research Station Coordinator, IUFRO Research Group 5.11 (Non-wood Forest Products) 1650 Ramble Road Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
Tel. +1-540-231-3611
Fax. +1-540-231-1383
emailjachambe@vt.edu
http://www.sfp.forprod.vt.edu
http://iufro.boku.ac.at/iufro/iufronet/d5/hp51100.htm

2. New publications available on FAO's NWFP Web site

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Two studies on the impact of cultivation and gathering of medicinal plants on biodiversity have been commissioned by FAO's Inter-Departmental Working Group (IDWG) on Biological Diversity for Food and Agriculture and are now available on FAO's NWFP Web site:

Schippmann, U.; D.J. Leaman and A. B. Cunningham. 2002. Impact of Cultivation and Gathering of Medicinal Plants on Biodiversity: Global Trends and Issues. In FAO.Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.Satellite event on the occasion of the Ninth Regular Session of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, 12-13 October 2002. Inter-Departmental Working Group on Biological Diversity for Food and Agriculture.

www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/AA010E/AA010E00.HTM

Ramakrishnappa, K.2002. Impact of Cultivation and Gathering of Medicinal Plants on Biodiversity: Case studies from India. In FAO.Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.Satellite event on the occasion of the Ninth Regular Session of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, 12-13 October 2002. Inter-Departmental Working Group on Biological Diversity for Food and Agriculture.

www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/AA021E/AA021e00.htmFor more information, please contact:

Sven Walter
NWFP Programme
Forest Products Division
Forestry Department, FAO,
Tel: +39-06-570-53853
Fax: +39-06-570-55618
E-mail: sven.walter@fao.org
More information on the IDWG is available at http://www.fao.org/biodiversity/index.asp .

3. The nut that could help save the Amazon

Source: WWF International Press Office [Press@wwfint.org]

Brazil nuts are the only commercial nut found exclusively in Amazon forests. Sustainable harvesting of these nuts not only provides a livelihood for people, but also protects the forests from being cleared for agriculture.

The Martinez family has a 300-ha plot of forest next to Tambopata National Reserve in Peru's southeastern Amazon rainforest. But instead of cutting down the forest for farmland like other homesteaders in the area, the Martinez family harvests Brazil nuts.

The Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is found in the forests of Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. It is one of the Amazon's longest-living trees, often reaching 1 000 years, and has a very complex and specialized biology. Its flowers depend on orchid bees for pollination. Once pollinated, a coconut-sized seedpod containing some 20 seeds, or nuts, develops for over 15 months before falling to the forest floor. The only way for the nuts to get out of the seedpod is if a 3-kg rodent, the agouti, releases them. Squirrel-like in appearance and habits, the industrious agouti - the only forest creature capable of gnawing through the fallen seedpods - eats some nuts and buries others for the future, inadvertently planting new trees.

Brazil nuts don't just make good food for agoutis - people like them too. Attempts to cultivate the tree on plantations have failed, making Brazil nuts the only commercial nut found exclusively in Amazon forests. "This important distinction has converted Brazil nut harvesters into guardians of the forest," explains Martinez.

There are about 1 000 Brazil nut concessions in and around the Tambopata National Reserve. When side activities such as transportation and processing are considered, the Brazil nut industry generates employment for some 20 000 people - or 25 percent of the Amazonian state of Madre de Dios. Concessions are granted by the Peruvian government and harvesters must pay a tax based on production. Most operations are small family businesses, struggling to meet basic needs during the short January-March harvesting season.

The work is exhausting, even for the hardy. Harvesters use machetes to split open the hard seed pod and empty the tiny nuts inside, still in their dark-brown shells, into large sacks. A full sack weighs 75-85 kg, and must be carried out of the forest on the harvester's back, attached by a strap around the forehead. Some of these sturdy adventurers walk for several hours before reaching a road or river to transport their cargo to processing plants, where the nuts are shelled and packaged for sale.

Martinez decided there must be a better way. He and a brother teamed up with other harvesters and the Amazon Conservation Association (ACCA) to devise simple methods to improve their labour. One of Martinez's favourites is a small, human-powered cart that enables harvesters to wheel numerous sacks out of the forest at a time. The team has also mapped over 40 000 ha of Brazil nut forest concessions to help harvesters' activities. In addition, they produced a short, local television series. The show's star attraction is the legendary Don Pancho, an elderly Brazil nut harvester who teaches the trade to his young nephew and a visiting student, accompanied by his sense of wit and trusty guitar.

But falling prices threaten the struggling industry: just two years ago Brazil nuts were fetching more than double their current rate. Peruvians outside the Amazon have not yet acquired a taste for the homebred nut, leaving Brazil nuts at the mercy of the international market which favours cashews, almonds, and peanuts.

"Marketing is a major problem," says Vanessa Sequeira, field director of ACCA's Brazil nut project, explaining that most people outside the Amazon are not aware of the nut's important conservation role. In response, the group mounted a consumer education campaign under the banner "Save the Amazon, eat a Brazil nut". The ACCA, together with WWF, also promoted certification of Brazil nut forests. In March 2001, Peru's standard for Brazil nut harvesting was recognized by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) - the first FSC standard for a non-timber forest product.

Despite these advances, Sequeira worries that time is running out for the majority of Peru's harvesters. This past year she says many could not afford to harvest their concessions because of low prices and high transportation. In addition, the Peruvian government has not yet established a regulatory framework that would facilitate Brazil nut harvesting. If the trend continues, many harvesters could be forced to turn to damaging extractive industries for economic survival, like panning for gold or slash-and-burn agriculture, converting these long-time friends of the forest into foes.

The Brazil nut tree is part of the delicate web of life in the Amazon. Apart from orchid bees, agoutis, and the Brazil nut harvesters, the life of many other plants and animals is intertwined with this tree. The empty seed pods, for example, fill with rainwater and provide breeding grounds for damselflies, a poison frog, and a toad, all of whom depend on these small ponds on the forest floor. The major threat to the trees - and the myriad of life that relies on them - is forest clearing. Sustainable harvesting of Brazil nuts is therefore a vital way to provide protection of Peru's forests. So do what the slogan says - eat a Brazil nut and save the Amazon!

(Written by Stephanie Boyd, a freelance journalist based in Peru.)

For more information, please contact:

Emma Duncan
Managing Editor
WWF International
E-mail: eduncan@wwfint.org
Tel: +41 22 364 9556
Fax: +41 22 364 8307
For more information on all WWF's work on forests, visit
http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/forests/index.cfm

4. Sustainable businesses replace green marketing

Source: Amazon News - 28 November 2002

Forest products have an increasing presence in the Brazilian business world. A short time ago, these 'socially and environmentally correct' products would have been considered 'alternative' but now they are beginning to penetrate traditional consumer markets.

Some examples of successful products are vegetable leather made from latex, copaiba oil, candles made from andiroba, Brazil nut oil and foods made using Amazonian fruits.

These products are produced by traditional communities, mainly in Amazonia. Almost all of the communities are isolated, with enormous difficulties in the area of distribution of the products and a certain irregularity in supply.

"These communities need to develop a sound business plan and speak a language that business people understand", said João Carlos Veríssimo, president of BrasilConnects. Verissimo said that it is becoming easier to interest companies in such projects, particularly when they are presented as sustainable business opportunities rather than philanthropy. Support for sustainable businesses is beginning to replace the tendency for so-called 'green marketing'.

5. Brazil: IBAMA creates centre for the management of medicinal plants

Source: Amazon News, 5 December 2002

Every market in Brazil has at least one stall selling medicinal plants. The collection of these plants in not always carried out in an ecologically sound manner. The popularity of certain products often leads to predatory exploitation, placing some species at risk of extinction.

IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis) is creating a Medicinal Plants Centre to improve control over this trade and encourage the sustainable management of 221 native species considered to be 'conservation priorities'. IBAMA will also publish a book called 'Strategies for the Conservation and Management of the Genetic Resources of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants', the first report of the status of such species.

The World Health Organisation estimates that the world trade in medicinal plants is worth half a trillion dollars annually. In 2000, sales in medicinal plants in Brazil grew by 15 percent in relation to 1999. By comparison, the synthetic medicine industry saw a growth of just 4 percent. The consumption of medicinal plants is set to double in the next few years.

The centre will launch an on-line database about medicinal plants in April 2003.

Some of the most endangered species are rosewood (used in the perfume industry), arnica, ipe roxo (used in the treatment of cancer) and unha-do-gato (used to treat hepatitis C).

Many medicinal plant species are exported. According to IBAMA figures, 2 842 tonnes were exported in 1998, 1 531 to the USA and 1 466 to Germany.

IBAMA has created the centre in response to concerns about biopiracy.

6. USA: World's First Green Certified Maple Syrup

Source: Rainforest Alliance [ newsletter@ra.org], 9.12.02

Merck Forest is the world's first producer of maple syrup that is certified as sustainably produced by the SmartWood Program of the Rainforest Alliance (accredited by the Forest Stewardship Council). Auditors carefully examine their forest and its management to ensure that their maple products and their timber products are made in a way that is safe and sustainable to their forest.

Certified Organic: Northeast Organic Farmer's Association (NOFA Vermont) inspects their sugarbush operations each year to guarantee that their syrup is free from lead and that no chemical defoamers are added to their syrup, or chemicals to their tapholes. They also ensure that their system is the cleanest possible and that their sugarbush is managed sustainably.

www.merckforest.com/farmstand/default.asp#

7. World Forestry Congress and Indigenous Peoples

From: IKIMA International Indigenous Peoples' Organization for Research and \Communications [ ikima@sympatico.ca ]

First Announcement of the Indigenous Peoples' Forest Forum

The XII World Forestry Congress is being organized and hosted by Canada under the auspices of FAO and will be held in Quebec City, Canada from 21-28 September 2003. The World Forestry Congress occurs every six years, and is the biggest and most important meeting in the area of forestry. The overarching theme of the 2003 meeting is "Forests, source of life" and for the first time in history of the World Forestry Congress, Indigenous Peoples will be visible and will have an active role.

The National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA) of Canada, a member of the organizing committee of the XII World Forestry Congress, is hosting and organizing an Indigenous Peoples' Forest Forum as an official side event.Approximately 200 Indigenous Peoples from around the world will take part in this two-day preparatory and strategy gathering. This side event is intended for indigenous community members, leaders, scholars, and entrepreneurs in preparation for the XII World Forestry Congress.

Objectives

1. Full, effective and informed participation of Indigenous Peoples in the XII World Forestry Congress;

2. Creation of an Indigenous Peoples Network on Forests;

3. Indigenous Peoples' assistance in the development of forestry policies, practices, research, and international cooperation;

4. Enhance the Indigenous Peoples' vital role in the conservation and sustainable use and management of the world's forests;

5. Exchange of experiences, perspectives and information among Indigenous Peoples; as well as with non-governmental organizations, governments, research and education institutions, and the private sector on diverse forestry issues; and

6. Provide a forum in which Indigenous Peoples can raise key issues concerning sustainable forest management.

Funding

Sponsorships are being sought to enable optimum participation of Indigenous Peoples at the XII World Forestry Congress and at the Indigenous Peoples' Forest Forum. Further details on eligibility for travel subsidies will be announced on the NAFA website as arrangements are made.

First Notification of an Indigenous Peoples' Forest Pavilion

The Indigenous Peoples' Forest Pavilion will showcase diverse, innovative and leading Indigenous Peoples' sustainable forest management initiatives at the XII World Forestry Congress. The Pavilion will be designed to advance Indigenous Peoples' interests and approaches, highlight achievements and identify outstanding issues and concerns. There will be approximately 30 initiatives selected from around the world to be a part of the Pavilion for the duration of the Congress.

The Pavilion will showcase approaches to sustainable forest management that (a) include elements of Indigenous governance systems and traditional land use practices; (b) address unique Indigenous forest management objectives or cultural values; and (c) enhance traditional rights to harvest. Initiatives to be included should also pertain two or more of the following subject matters.

¿ forest management practices (i.e. selective logging, conservation, protection and restoration);
¿ co-management regimes;
¿ non-timber forest products and non-timber values;
¿ traditional land use and occupancy studies and their use in forest management planning;
¿ GIS mapping and traditional territorial demarcation work;
¿ indigenous forest research initiatives and emerging trends;
¿ climate change and forest health;
¿ role of Indigenous women in forest management;
¿ joint ventures and other approaches in processing and manufacturing;
¿ water issues and forest management;
¿ traditional forest-related knowledge;
¿ protected areas;
¿ agroforestry;
¿ indigenous Peoples' rights and their implications for forest policy (i.e. legislation and international agreements;
¿ forest and forestry products certification experience and models;
¿ forest biological diversity;
¿ model forests;
¿ capacity-building, education and training.

Applications will be accepted until31 January 2003. Limited funding will be available for up to two individuals from each initiative to attend the WFC. Sponsorships are being sought for the development of the Pavilion and the development of the materials for the selected sustainable forest management initiatives.

For more information, please contact:
National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA)
875 Bank Street, Ottawa ON K1S 3W4, Canada
Tel: +1(613) 233-5563 / Fax: +1(613) 233-4329
Email: ikima@nafaforestry.org
www.nafaforestry.org

8. Call for Papers for an Indigenous Peoples Forest Publication

From: IKIMA International Indigenous Peoples' Organization for Research and Communications [ ikima@sympatico.ca ]

The National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA) represents forestry interests of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada and actively promotes their participation in sustainable forestry management balanced with appropriate commercial development. NAFA's objectives are to obtain the highest value possible from forest resources and to facilitate information sharing on effective resource use and management. The organization also promotes the development of mutually supportive relationships between Aboriginal Peoples in Canada and Indigenous Peoples from around the world who are working on common issues related to forest landscapes.

As a member of the organizing committee to the XII World Forestry Congress (XII WFC), NAFA wants to ensure the meaningful participation of Indigenous Peoples in a number of different ways. Three of the main activities been organized include the Indigenous Peoples' Forest Forum, the Indigenous Peoples' Forest Pavilion and a call for papers on Indigenous Peoples' Forest Issues.

As part of this strategy, NAFA will prepare a special Indigenous Peoples' publication on forest issues that includes research papers, case studies and concept papers. This publication will showcase Indigenous Peoples' knowledge and ability to engage in sustainable use and integrated management of their forests. To have a far reaching and long lasting impact, the release of this special publication will coincide with the gathering of the international forestry community at the XII WFC.

Indigenous organizations and their partners are encouraged to submit papers, including abstracts, in English, French or Spanish. These papers should be between 1 500-3 000 words in length. Accompanying abstract should not exceed 250 words. All papers should be submitted to the National Aboriginal Forestry Association in electronic format via emailikima@nafaforestry.org by 15 January 2003.

A non-exhaustive list of potential themes include:

¿ forest management practices (i.e. selective logging, conservation, protection and restoration);
¿ experience with forest products certification;
¿ use and management for non-timber forest products (i.e. traditional medicine and foods, resins, ornamental plants, etc);
¿ management of forests for non-timber values;
¿ forest co-management and other forms of partnerships;
¿ traditional forest management practices;
¿ parks and protected areas;
¿ the inclusion of forest cultural, social and spiritual values in forest management, traditional land use studies;
¿ indigenous Peoples' Rights and the link with forest policy;
¿ agroforestry;
¿ indigenous forest research initiatives;
¿ emerging trends (i.e. plantations and their impact on Indigenous Peoples);
¿ other forest use (i.e. tourism and recreation activities, etc,);
¿ processing and manufacturing of forest products;
¿ environmental services (i.e. climate change, etc,);
¿ forest biodiversity;
¿ issues of resource and land access, legislation and international agreements;
¿ GIS mapping and other approaches to territorial demarcation (i.e. traditional forms);
¿ role of Indigenous women in forest management;
¿ traditional forest-related knowledge;
¿ capacity building, education and training;
¿ forest and water management;
¿ forest ecosystem health;
¿ forest and art; and
¿ forest management as function of Indigenous governance systems (i.e. the use of customary law).

For more information, please contact:
National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA)
875 Bank Street - Ottawa ON K1S 3W4 CANADA
Tel:+1-(613) 233-5563 / Fax: (613) 233-4329
Email: ikima@nafaforestry.org
www.nafaforestry.org

9. Voices from the Mountain

From: Kelly Hawrylyshyn, Panos, UK [ KellyH@panoslondon.org.uk ]

Two new collections of oral testimonies have just been published:Oral Testimonies from Cerro de Pasco, PeruandSouthwest and northeast China.

Already published in the series:

¿Oral Testimonies from Wollo, Ethiopia;

¿Oral Testimonies from the Lesotho Highlands;

¿Oral Testimonies from Mount Elgon, Kenya; and

¿Oral Testimonies from the Sudety mountains, Poland.

Each collection in theVoices of the Mountainseries contains a fascinating blend of anecdote, information, history, culture, knowledge, opinion and experience - with all the contradictions this may imply. These are the individual voices of the ordinary people on whose actions development depends. And they are at the heart of one of the key challenges of the next decade - how to meet national development needs without further marginalising mountain peoples.

As the pace of development accelerates in mountain regions, so the social and physical environment is changing. Yet the demand for mountain riches - timber, minerals, water, tourism facilities - is more often driven by urban, lowland populations and industry than by highland communities. Mountain people are the custodians of diverse - sometimes unique - environments, essential to the survival of the global ecosystem. Further erosion of their ability to care for those assets will be the world's loss, not just theirs.

Panos has been working with community-based environmental, cultural and development organisations in select highland areas, training local people to record interviews on a range of issues, in order to communicate their personal experiences and understanding of the challenges ahead. The result is a wealth of material - vivid, challenging, full of human detail and variety.

If you are interested in development issues, in whatever region, these absorbing accounts will prove an excellent complement to other kinds of research and reporting - illustrating the complexities and realities of mountain living and bringing the issues to life.

Still to come: Oral Testimonies from the Himalaya (India and Nepal); the Karakorum (Pakistan); and the Sierra Norte (Mexico).

Collections are published in A5, 50pp, maps, photos, index, glossary. Copies are available free to the media and to resource-poor organisations in the South. Otherwise, copies are available for £5.00 plus postage and packaging. To order please contact Kelly atkellyh@panoslondon.org.uk <mailto:kellyh@panoslondon.org.uk

Other Panos mountain resources:

¿ www.mountainvoices.org<http://www.mountainvoices.org/- an on-line archive of in-depth interviews with mountain people around the world

¿High Stakes: the future for mountain societies- a Panos media report which outlines the issues facing mountain people and examines the ways forward during the International Year of Mountains and beyond. The report is available atwww.panos.org.uk

All Panos mountain resources have been primarily funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (www.sdc.admin.ch<http://www.sdc.admin.ch/)

10. Bamboo in China

From: Fu Jinhe [ jfu@inbar.int]

Below is information from the China Forestry Development Report 2001 of the China State Forestry Administration.

1.Bamboo and Rattan Industry in China

As a country with the richest bamboo and rattan resources, China boasts 4.21 million ha of bamboo forests with over 400 species. The annual harvest volume of Moso bamboo is 114 million stems, while the output of dried bamboo shoots is 310 000 tons. The area, species and stock volume of bamboo rank the first in the world. China has been striving to develop its bamboo industry, with an annual output value of 24 billion yuan and foreign currency earned through exports reaching U.S.$800 million. The development of woven bamboo articles and processed bamboo products has become one of the economic growth points in some regions of China.

Source: Forestry in China

2.Forestry Industries maintain a steady growth

In 2000, the total output value of forest industries reached 355.547 billion yuan, an increase of 11.5% over 1999. The added value of forestry reached 89.33 billion yuan, an increase of 5.2% over 1999.

In 2000, 79 800 ha of bamboo forest were established, 5% lower than 1999. The production of dried bamboo shoots across China reached 339 100 tons, 9.2% higher than 1999; 1.233 billion stems ofPhyllostachys pubescensandBambusa pervariabiliswere harvested, an increase of 7.1% over 1999. The harvesting volume of other varieties was 3.0344 million tons.

Source: China Forestry Development Report 2001

For more information, please contact:

Fu, Jinhe Ph. D.
Program Officer
International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR)
Mailing Address: Beijing 100101-80, P.R. China
Tel: +86-10-64956961-404

Fax: +86-10-64956983

Email: jfu@inbar.int
http://www.inbar.int/
http://www.geocities.com/zhuzi.geo/

11. India: Profitable cultivation ofPhyllanthus emblica

From: Diji Chandrasekharan [dc90@cornell.edu]

In 1994, Mr. Rajendra established Nivee Gardens Nursery in Palladam, Tamil Nadu, an arid region of South India. Over the course of eight years, Nivee Gardens Nursery has become a significant supplier of various fruit and medicinal tree saplings and crop. This nursery currently cultivatesPhyllanthus emblica,Mangifera indica,Tamarindus indica,Psidium guajava,Coco nucifera, andManilkara achrason its 15 acres, and employs 75 people.

Nivee Gardens Nursery uses innovative grafting techniques and intercropping systems to produce quality products and generate economic profit. It is estimated that after four years,Phyllanthus emblicacan generate an average annual profit of Indian Rupees 95 000 (approximately US$1 975) per acre.

Through Nivee Gardens Nursery, Mr. Rajendra's objective is to promote dryland development through cultivation of non-timber forest products and other fruit trees, adopt the latest technology in the market, create national and international awareness of medicinal plant cultivation, and become a global player in the supply of various medicinal herbs and other natural products.

For further information regarding the innovative activities of Nivee Gardens please contact:

Mr. Kathirvel. E
Nivee Gardens Nursery
Annanagar, Trichy Road
Palladam, Coimbatore
Tamil Nadu, India - 641 664
Ph. No: +91 4255 522312
Mobile: + 91 98422 17569
98430 17555
E-mail: ekathir@hotmail.com

12. Uganda On the verge of silken riches

Source: New Vision (Kampala), 12 December 2002

Uganda has the potential of being one of the leading producers of silk yarn in the world, Uganda Export Promotion Board (UEPB) trade officer Othieno Odoi told Business Vision early this week. "UEPB under the strategic government intervention programme realized that textiles is one of the issues being ear-marked. That is why we have undertaken the silk sub-sector with a view to complete the textile sector in order to compete in the US initiative African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA)," he said.

Uganda is not meeting the demand in foreign markets, especially in Egypt, which needs at least 500 metric tonnes per month. Instead Uganda can only supply 200 metric tonnes every month. "We have the silk yarns in abundance and the favourable climate which enables faster growth of the mulberry trees where the silk yarns grow from," he said. "Following the national stakeholders workshop for silk farmers, which we held at Kanungu, we decided on an action plan among farmers to make sure that we meet the production levels required." In order to boost farmers, UEPB distributed silk planting materials in Western Uganda as part of their ground work. Following the high demand of silk in foreign markets, it will help farmers increase their incomes by an average of sh150 000/month.

"In the rural areas a quarter of an acre of mulberry trees can earn a farmer a good capital within 21 to 23 days," Othieno said. The harvest period of the silk cocoons, which farmers eventually sell, can fetch sh2 800 for every kilogram compared to other crops.

For full story see:http://allafrica.com/stories/200212120565.html

13. Uganda: Developing Niche Markets

Source: Extracted from New Vision (Kampala), Uganda, 28 November 2002.

Uganda has the potential to produce for niche markets. Spices like cardomon grow well in Uganda; eco-tourism is still underdeveloped. A bark-cloth project in Rakai is in touch with the Gucci and Armani fashion houses. Uganda's economic future will depend a lot on whether it can identify and exploit areas where they have a comparative advantage.

For full story see:http://allafrica.com/stories/200211280347.html

14. Nigeria: Gum arabic

Source: Vanguard (Lagos), Nigeria, 26 November 2002

JIGAWA Gum Arabic Processing Company has raised one million gum arabic seedlings as part of its long-term development plan. Its General Manager, Alhaji Hamza Turabu, said that the seedlings were obtained from five nurseries located at Maigama, Sule Tankarkat, Garki, Dansobe and Andaza.

Two other nurseries, he said, would be opened at Balango and Kirikasanma. With appropriate backing from the state government, the company had the potential to raise new plantations amounting to 1 000 ha/year. The company, which started operations in January 2002, is already involved in the management of the 750 ha of gum arabic in the state.

Turabu said some 170 tonnes of the commodity, valued at N17 million, had been sold to companies in the U.S. since the start of company operations. JIGAWA would install machinery for the gum arabic laboratory at Maigatari by the end of December "to ensure the processing of grade one gum arabic required in the international market", he said. The company, in conjunction with experts from the U.S., had trained 60 gum arabic farmers on modern techniques of managing gum arabic plantations and marketing options available in the international market.

A mass mobilisation campaign had commenced to sensitise farmers to embrace the project "because of its high economic value". Gum arabic attracts N100 000/tonne in the market and each tree has a maturation period of five years. It can be exploited thereafter for up to 25 years. Turabu advised the federal and state governments to focus on the planting of gum arabic to check erosion and desertification.

http://allafrica.com/stories/200211270016.html

15. South Africa: Can Ecolabelling Pay? - Badger-friendly honey

Source: Moneyweb (Johannesburg), South Africa, 4 December 2002

Although there is no current South African certification for the 'ecolabel' products, except in the case of organic produce, large retailers are making various environmental declarations, and label differentiators such as natural, recyclable, recycled content, have emerged on products and with respect to services in the marketplace.

Profit was an unexpected boon for Woolworth's when it launched its Badger Friendly Honey range. This successful commercial and environmental venture was started, as is so often the case, by a personal interest from senior management. After reading a magazine article which revealed the destructive methods of beekeeping in South Africa, which threatened the already endangered Honey Badger, Woolworths' CEO Simon Susman, requested an investigation into the situation.

Woolworths then established a protocol, which ensured that its own label honey and food ranges that include honey were not contributing to the problem. The result was a complete refocusing of the R3.2-billion beekeeping industry, with the Association of Beekeepers adopting a Badger friendly code of practice to ensure the protection of the honey badgers and promoting responsible beekeeping practices. Johan Ferreira, head of food technology at Woolworths, says: "The project quickly gained momentum. Although it has cost us both time and money it also brought about a change in the industry, an entirely unexpected 50 percent increase in the sale of Woolworths' honey and significant media interest."

(For complete article see:http://allafrica.com/stories/200212080238.html)

16. African Super Park

Source: South African Press Association (Johannesburg), South Africa, 3 December 2002

The South African, Mozambique and Zimbabwean presidents will launch an African "super park" adjoining the Kruger National Park in Mpumalanga. President Thabo Mbeki, together with his Mozambican and Zimbabwean counterparts, Presidents Joachim Chissano and Robert Mugabe, will sign a treaty on 9 December to formally establish one of the world's largest transfrontier conservation areas, the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP).

The agreement seals a two-year process of intensive preparations for the establishment of the 35 000 km2park. The GLTP will span over South Africa's Kruger National Park, Mozambique's Limpopo National Park and the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe.

Spokeswoman for South Africa's Environmental Affairs and Tourism Minister Valli Moosa, Phindile Makwakwa, said South Africa launched a three-year operation to release thousands of wildlife from the Kruger National Park to Mozambique's Limpopo National Park as part of the development of the Transfrontier Park.

http://allafrica.com/stories/200212040085.html

17. Regional workshop on NTFP monitoring

From: Eric T Jones [ etjones@ifcae.org ]

A special one-day free workshop organized by the Institute for Culture and Ecology

Harvester involvement in inventorying and monitoring of non-timber forest products (aka Special Forest Products) in the southeastern region of the United States, including east TX, AR, LA, MS, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC, VA, KY, TN, MD, DE.

Date: Thursday, February 27, 2003
Time
: 8:30 am to 5:00 pm
Location
: USDA Forest Service Region 8 Headquarters, 1720 Peachtree Road NW, Atlanta, Georgia. USA

Who Should Attend: Anyone interested in the sustainable management of non-timber forest products, including federal, tribal, state, and private land managers, harvesters and buyers, extension agents, policy makers and scientists from the states listed above.

Purpose of the Workshop:To explore how harvesters might participate in a biological monitoring program of non-timber forest product resources (such as ginseng, saw palmetto and other medicinal plants; mushrooms and berries and other wild edibles; galax, grape vines, moss and other floral greens; pine straw, wild seeds, etc.).

Registration:

This workshop is FREE and open to the public. However, pre-registration is requested.

For more information and to pre-register, please contact Katie Lynch no later than20 February 2003(ktlynch@ifcae.org, +1-503-320-1323).

Format:This participatory workshop is built around small group activities and interactive discussions. Lunch is provided.

Background:This workshop is part of a national study funded by the National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry (NCSSF)www.ncssf.org. The project's goal is to assess the relationships between forest management practices, non-timber forest products (NTFPs), and biodiversity in the U.S. This is the second of four regional workshops.

For more information, please contact:

Institute for Culture and Ecology,
PO Box 6688
Portland OR 97228, USA
+1-503-320-1323
or visit our website: www.ifcae.org

18. Globalisation, localisation and tropical forest management in the 21stcentury'

From: Jelle Maas [ Jelle.Maas@wur.nl ]

FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT & CALL FOR PAPERS AND POSTERS

Congress on 'Globalisation, localisation and tropical forest management in the 21st century'

22-23 October 2003

Roeterseiland, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

The start of the 21st century has been marked by a multitude of forest-related international agreements and initiatives. Notwithstanding these efforts, deforestation continues unabated at the cost of 500 million people who depend on forests for their livelihoods. At the same time, tropical forest management is being reshaped through the emergence of new actors and partnerships. The role of the nation state has eroded, while that of the private sector and civil society is on the increase. Of particular interest is the potential of new global-local multi-stakeholder partnerships, which have received an impulse through:

¿ globalisation, which connects local communities with international actors such as environmental NGOs and research organizations lending support to sustainable forest use;

¿ localisation (i.e. decentralisation, democratisation, devolution of power and political autonomy for indigenous people), which creates new actors in environmental management and means that in many developing countries there is no longer a single source of decision-making power dealing with forest resources.

It has become clear that forest management in the exclusive hands of a single entity, whether government, private, NGO or local community, has proven to be inadequate, and that forums for stakeholder negotiations, alliances and joint actions are increasingly needed and emerging. Examples can be found at the global level (e.g. the World Bank/WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation, the Sustainable Use and the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund - CEPF, and the Rainforest Challenge Programme) and at the regional level (e.g. the Amazon Cooperation Treaty, the Guiana Shield Initiative and the Yaoundé Forest Summit), while numerous partnerships between international donors, government agencies, national and international NGOs, private sector actors, research organizations and communities emerge at local level for the protection and co-management of forest resources. Thus, tropical forest protection and management are increasingly the product of negotiations and joint actions between players at the global and local level.

The question now rises as to whether and under what conditions the new alliances and partnerships will be able to curb the destruction and degradation of tropical forests. Will new strategic alliances be able to put sustainable forest management - understood as deliberate efforts to maintain the forests' ecological values, production services and their role as source of livelihood for the rural poor - into effect?

The congress is going to focus on the effects of global-local partnerships and agreements related to climate change and the international trade in forest products, for being two topical aspects of globalisation with a potential impact on forest management and forest-related livelihoods. The first encompasses processes around the certification of timber and non-timber forest products, WTO, CITES and strategies to combat illegal logging. The second centres on developments around the Kyoto protocol, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and the CO2emissions trade. The question about the potential of new alliances will be highlighted mainly in relation to these processes, whereby the objectives of the congress are:

¿ to bring together current knowledge on and experience with international partnerships and their effects on tropical forest conservation, management and poverty alleviation;

¿ to identify 'lessons learnt' and conditions for successful and effective multi-scale partnerships;

¿ to discuss opportunities and bottlenecks in relation to multi-scale partnerships for the livelihoods of forest-dwelling people and communities at the forest fringe, including potential exclusion of stakeholders under the new management arrangements;

¿ to define recommendations for policy and research on tropical forest management in a globalising environment.

The two-day congress programme will include plenary sections, regional and thematic workshops and a poster session. Keynote speakers and experienced scientists will be invited to make presentations at plenary sessions. Proposals can be submitted for:

* Plenary sessions
* Symposia and workshop sessions
* Paper presentations
* Poster presentations

Organizing agencies

* The Amsterdam Institute for Global Issues and Development Studies (AGIDS)
* Centre for Latin American Research and Documentation (CEDLA)
* Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM)
* Amsterdam Institute for International Development (AIID)
* Tropenbos International (TBI)

Schedule

Pre-registration 1 March 2003
Abstracts due 1 March 2003
Selection of abstracts 1 April 2003
Second announcement 1 April 2003
Registration 1 July 2003
Third and final announcement 1 August 2003
Papers due 1 September 2003
Congress 22-23 October 2003

Registration

Registration information will be available in the second announcement and on the websites http://gp.fmg.uva.nl/agidsandwww.tropenbos.org. Pre-registering atwww.tropenbos.orgwill ensure you receive regular updates by e-mail as the event draws closer.

For more information, please contact:

Dr Mirjam A.F. Ros-Tonen
Amsterdam Research Institute for Global Issue and Development Studies (AGIDS)
University of Amsterdam
E-mail: m.ros@frw.uva.nl

19. Events

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Symposium on history and forest biodiversity - challenges for conservation.

13-15 January 2003.

Leuven, Belgium

For more information, please contact: Sofie Bruneel, Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, Catholic University of Leuven; tel: 16-32-97-21; fax 16-32-97-60; Email:sofie.bruneel@agr.kuleuven.ac.be;

www.agr.kuleuven.ac.be/lbh/lbnl/forestbiodiv/

An ITTO/IUCN International Workshop

Increasing the effectiveness of transboundary conservation areas in tropical forests

17-21 February 2003

Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand

Ecosystems and species do not recognise political boundaries. In the many cases where borders between countries bisect tropical forests, transboundary conservation programs can make an important contribution to biodiversity conservation while supporting regional integration and economic development.

At the same time, transboundary conservation programs present many challenges - to political leaders, on-the-ground managers and local people. How can cross-border cultural, political and linguistic differences be accommodated? What can be done to resolve conflicting laws? How can bureaucratic delays in transboundary decision-making be overcome? What are the best ways to involve local people?

These and other questions will be addressed at this international workshop. IUCN and the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) will bring together people with experience and knowledge on protected area issues to discuss opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of transboundary conservation areas in tropical forests. The workshop will also contribute to the IUCN World Parks Congress regarding the role of cooperation across borders in tropical forest conservation and management.

The workshop aims to:

¿ Raise the profile of the TBCA concept, highlighting major issues and challenges as an input to the World Parks Congress;

¿ Evaluate international trends in the political and institutional arrangements for the development of TBCAs, including bottlenecks to political support;

¿ Identify the political, managerial and technical issues in transboundary management at the landscape level with a view to integrating TBCA into the broader landscape to ensure they are planned and managed in context;

¿ Make recommendations for improving formulation and management of ITTO TBCA projects on the basis of the IUCN 'good practice guidelines for transboundary cooperation between protected areas';

¿ Increase networking between ITTO-supported TBCA project staff, IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas, and other experts and practitioners.

For more information go towww.iucn.org/themes/fcp/activities/transboundary1.htm

or contact:

TBCA Meeting Secretariat
Attention: Dena Cator and/or Sonja Canger
Forest Conservation Programme
IUCN - The World Conservation Union
Rue Mauverney
28 CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland
Tel 41-22-999-0265
Fax 41-22-999-0025
Email: transboundary@iucn.org

4thMinisterial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe -"Living Forest Summit"

28-30 April 2003

Vienna, Austria

The "Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe" (MCPFE) is a high-level political initiative for cooperation of 40 European countries and the European Community. It addresses common opportunities and threats related to forests and forestry and promotes sustainable management of forests in Europe. Launched in 1990, it is the political platform for the dialogue on European forest issues.

Key issues of this Living Forest Summit will be biological diversity in Europe, climate change in the context of sustainable forest management, economic conditions for activities in the forest sector, as well as cultural aspects.

Simultaneous interpretation of the deliberations will be provided into English, French, German and Russian.

For more information, please contact:

Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE)
Liaison Unit Vienna
Marxergasse 2
A-1030 Vienna, Austria

Tel: +43 1 710 77 02
Fax: +43 1 710 77 02 13
E-mail: liaison.unit@lu-vienna.at
www.mcpfe.org/index.html

Second Annual Sustainable Forest Management Summit

9-11 June 2003

Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada

The Great Lakes Forest Alliance (GLFA) is a forum to foster and facilitate cooperative efforts that enhance management and sustainable use of the public and private forest lands in Michigan, Minnesota, Ontario and Wisconsin. GLFA is sponsoring the second annual sustainable forest management summit "Forest Management in the New Millennium: Meeting Ecological, Economic, and Social Challenges".

Call for Presentations: Abstracts should be submitted by31 January 2003.

Further details can be found on the meeting websitewww.lsfa.org/about.html

Vth IUCN World Parks Congress

8-17 September 2003

Durban, South Africa

The IUCN World Park Congress meets every ten years. As the major global forum for protected areas, it offers a unique opportunity to take stock of protected areas; provide an honest appraisal of progress and setbacks; and chart the course for protected areas over the next decade and beyond. Some of the themes for this year include:

¿ Building the Global System: Arctic, Biosphere Reserves, Cave and Karst Protection, Grassland Protected Areas, Transboundary Protected Areas

¿ Understand and Prepare for Global Change

¿ Improving the Effectiveness of Protected Area Management

¿ Equity and People: Category V Protected Areas, Local Communities and Protected Areas, Non-material Values of Protected Areas

¿ Developing the Capacity to Manage: Information Management, Tourism and Protected Areas, Training and Protected Areas Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas

Participation is by nomination only.Deadline for nominations is 31 December 2002.

For more information, please contact:

Peter Shadie, Executive Officer, World Parks Congress

Tel: 41 (0)22 999 0159;

emailpds@hq.iucn.org

www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa/wpc/wpcnomination.htm

Tropical Savannas and Seasonally Dry Forests: Ecology, Environment and Development International Conference
14-20 September 2003
Edinburgh, UK

For more information, please contact:

Edinburgh Centre for Tropical Forests
Pentlands Science Park
Bush Loan
Penicuik
Edinburgh EH26 0PH
Scotland, UK
Telephone ++ 44 (0)131 440 0400
Fax ++ 44 (0)131 440 4141
Email savanna-conference@ectf-ed.org.uk
www.ectf.co.uk

Rainfed Farming in Semiarid Lands: Are There Sustainable Systems?

December 2003

Niger, West Africa

The symposium will feature presentations on the most productive systems in low rainfall areas (<400 mm) where farmers strive to meet family needs from small parcels of land.

Following the presentations (limited to 16) a roundtable will discuss whether even the most productive systems are sustainable under such conditions, and the implications in light of the conclusions reached.

Languages: French, English

For more information, please contact:

Saidou Abdousalem
ICRISAT Center
Niamey, Niger
s.abdoussalam@cgiar.org

20. Publications of interest

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Apel, M.A.; Sobral, M.; Henriques, A.T.; Menut, C.; & Bessiere, J.M.2002. Chemical composition of the essential oils from Southern Brazilian Eugenia species. Part IV: Section Racemulosae.Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2002, 14: 4, 290-292.

For more information, please contact: Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, UFRGS, Av. Ipiranga 2752, 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Campos, A.J.J.; Finegan, B.; & Villalobos, R.2001. Diversified forest management: improvement of goods and services from the biodiversity of a neotropical forest.Revista Forestal Centroamericana.No.36, 6-13.

This paper examines three aspects of the diversity of a neotropical forest and the goods and services that it offers under an integrated management scheme for biodiversity, as practised by CATIE in Costa Rica. The first two sections of the paper examine options for the generation of income for the owner from the provision of environmental services (as promulgated in Forestry Law 7575 in 1996) and the sustainable use of non-wood forest products. The last section focuses on conservation in forests used for wood production, analysing the impact of use on plant diversity, and the way in which the results of the CATIE studies can underpin the conceptualization, communication and evaluation of the criteria and indicators used for sustainable forest management.

Goswami, M.; Haridasan, K.; Basar, J.; & Singh, K.A. 2002. Biodiversity of medicinal plants and rattans in Arunachal Pradesh-prospects for commercial cultivation.Resource management perspective of Arunachal agriculture, 31-45.

The species of medicinal plants and rattan (Calamus, Plectocomia, and Daemonorops spp.) in Arunachal Pradesh, India, are presented. The economic potential of and constraints in the commercial-scale production of these species are briefly discussed. Tabulated data on the market price of herbal drugs in India are provided.

Grace, O.M.; Prendergast, H.D.V.; Staden, J. van; and Jager, A.K.(van-Staden-J). 2002. The status of bark in South African traditional health care.South African Journal of Botany. 2002, 68: 1, 21-30.

Bark products constitute nearly one third of plant material used in South African traditional medicine. Since the large majority of South Africans make use of traditional health care, bark is fundamental to the traditional pharmacopoeia. In this review we consider the status of bark resources, as reflected by the literature, and highlight the need for multi-disciplinary research to address the lack of available information on plant species used for their bark. The supply of bark to the medicinal plant trade has been rendered non-sustainable, due to increased user populations and reduced indigenous vegetation. Whilst conservation of the South African flora is paramount, natural resources cannot meet the current, nor foreseeable, demand for bark. Alternatives such as tree propagation and cultivation, strategic management and plant part substitution are discussed. Effective implementation of these action plans is reliant on the dissemination of existing and new knowledge.

For more information, please contact: Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Botany and Zoology, University of Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa.

Lybbert, T.J.; Barrett, C.B.; & Narjisse, H.2002. Market-based conservation and local benefits: the case of argan oil in Morocco.Ecological Economics. 2002, 41: 1, 125-144;

Market-based approaches to biodiversity conservation gained popularity in the 1990s. The success of these strategies hinges on the successful creation or expansion of target markets and the beneficial involvement of local stakeholders in these markets so that improved incentives induce conservation. This paper evaluates these two key elements in the case of argan oil commercialization in southwestern Morocco. Data used are collected through a household survey involving 117 households. The principal finding is that even when locals appear well positioned to reap ex post benefits, one can reject the hypothesis that successful resource commercialization necessarily stimulates local development and reduces poverty. Most locals participate only superficially in the new and expanded markets for argan oil, and the benefits that do trickle down to local households appear to be regressively distributed, both regionally and between households.

Portilla, A.2001. Environmental economics and biological diversity.Debate Agrario Lima.No.33, 25-37.

A discussion of the assessment of biological diversity of tropical forests in the Amazonian region of Peru, which distinguishes between economic and non-economic valuations of forest resources (timber, as well as non-wood and environmental products and benefits). It notes the rise in export permits (flora and fauna) during the 1990s, and also briefly discusses the idea of the carbon market (carbon mitigation agreements) and methods of valuing the conservation of biodiversity in tropical forests.

Potter, L.M.2002. Forests and grassland, drought and fire: the island of Borneo in the historical environmental record (post-1800).Advances in Geoecology. No.34, 339-356.

Evidence from Dutch and British historical records is used to examine the environmental history of the Island of Borneo. The study focuses on change in the forests, both their species mix and the nature of their ecosystems, as well as their felling and conversion to other land uses. The emphasis is on the activities of the non-European population in changing local environments, sometimes in conjunction with extreme climatic events. There are four main topics discussed: (1) the impact of population and farming practices on forest; (2) collecting activities (especially gutta percha, a latex extracted from several species of the genera Palaquium and Payena); (3) Imperata cylindrica grassland formation; and (4) drought and fire.

21. Amazonia represents 53% of standing tropical forest

Source: Amazon News - 12 December 2002

We all know that Amazonia is the world's largest intact tropical forest but never before has so much data on the current state of its conservation been presented in one publication. The chapter on Amazonia in a recent book from Conservation International is signed by 36 authors. The experts state that Amazonia has 34 ecoregions, of which 17 are dense tropical forest. The total area is 6 241 270 km2. The largest part - 63.7% of the total - is in Brazil.

Amazonia currently represents 53% of the world's standing tropical forest. The Amazon river may be the longest in the world, following the discovery of a small river, Carhuasanta Creek, which may be the source of the Amazon. The length of the Amazonas is calculated to be between 6 275 and 7 872 km. The Nile has an extension of 6 700 km.

Around 40 000 plant species are found in Amazonia, of which around 30,000 are endemic. There are 427 known mammal species in Amazonia, of which 173 are endemic. The group of mammals with the largest number of species are bats with 158 different species. There are 81 primate species. New primate species are being discovered at the rate of one per year. The number of known mammal species is likely to reach 500. Of the 1 294 bird species catalogued, 260 are endemic.

22. South Africa: Collaborative approaches in traditional medicinedevelopment

Source: Phytomedica List [phytomedica@conserveafrica.org]

Traditional medicine development: coming together in the new South Africa

by 1. Anne Hutchings, 2. Indres Moodley and 3. Dumisane Nzima (1. Department of Botany, University of Zululand; 2. Department of Pharmacy, University of the Witwatersrand; 3. Department of Psychology, University of Zululand

Abstract

Lack of enabling legislation has inhibited development of the rich botanical and cultural resources of South Africa, concerning traditional medicine and control of plant exploitation. With the advent of a democratic government and calls for an improved health care system, better utilization of these resources is urgently needed. Past problems of communication between various research institutes, traditional and allopathic medicine, and traditional healing organizations can be overcome by the combined efforts of academics, health care professionals and traditional healers.

This paper outlines some recent developments in building bridges between the different partners involved. One important development has been the formation of a national association of researchers and practitioners involved in indigenous plant use. Arising out of this association is a collaborative research programme between the universities of the Witwatersrand, Zululand and Durban-Westville. The programme involves the biological screening of extracts from selected indigenous plants. Many of which are used traditionally. Information on indicated therapeutic and toxic properties of the plants will be communicated to healers. Contracts to ensure confidentiality and equitable profit sharing on developed products between researchers and healers in the partnership will be drawn up.

Other initiatives include collaboration between the University of Zululand, the Awnings' National Association and a local hospital involving recognition measures for healers, the role of healers in primary and mental health care, and the setting up of a traditional healing centre and community healing gardens.

23. A WWF International Discussion Paper on Prunus africana

Source: [cfc-news] CFRC Weekly Summary 12/13/02, cfc-news@iatp.org)

Prunus africana- Alternatives to the Unsustainable Exploitation of Wild Stocks in Africa and Madagascar

by Anthony B. Cunningham

This paper takes thePrunus africanabark trade as an example to describe the path towards workable solutions in medicinal plants conservation.

Although this case study only deals withPrunus africana, several issues raised are relevant to the exploitation of other medicinal species which are in trade.

For further information, please contact:

Clement Patient,
WWF International,
Avenue du Mont Blanc,
1196 Gland,
Switzerland,
tel: + 44 22 364 9533, fax: + 44 22 364 5829
E-mail: cpatient@wwfnet.org

24. Two new books from Earthscan on biodiversity aspects

From: earthscan books2 [ebooks2@kogan-page.co.uk]

The commercial use of biodiversity: access to genetic resources and Benefit-sharing

Kerry ten Kate and Sarah A Laird

The authors explain the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity on access and benefit-sharing, the effect of national laws to implement these, and aspects of typical contracts for the transfer of materials.

They provide a unique sector-by-sector analysis of how genetic resources are used, the scientific, technological and regulatory trends and the different markets in pharmaceuticals, botanical medicines, crop development, horticulture, crop protection, biotechnology and personal care and cosmetics products.

For more information visit:

http://www.earthscan.co.uk/asp/bookdetails.asp?key=3839

Biodiversity and traditional knowledge: equitable partnerships in practice

Edited by Sarah A Laird

This book offers practical guidance on how to arrive at equitable biodiversity research and prospecting partnerships. It draws upon experiences and lessons learned from around the world to provide case studies, analysis and recommendations in a range of areas that together form a new framework for creating equity in these partnerships.

For more information visit:

http://www.earthscan.co.uk/asp/bookdetails.asp?key=3595

Read a Sample Chapter:

http://www.earthscan.co.uk/samplechapters/1853836982Foreword.htm

This book is part of the People and Plants Conservation Series which is an initiative designed to enhance the role of communities in efforts to conserve biodiversity and use plant resources in ways that can be sustained. To view the books in the series and receive a 25% discount when buying the complete series visit:www.earthscan.co.uk/asp/bookdetails.asp?key=3588

25. Miscellaneous - New technique benefits both farmers and forests

From: Maas, J.B. [J.B.Maas@TROPENBOS.AGRO.NL]

While forests in Indonesia are gradually disappearing, the areas of coarse grasslands, dominated byImperata cylindrica(alang-alang), are increasing. Indonesian researcher Murniati has developed and implemented a technique for converting alang-alang into productive agroforestry ecosystems. Her results provide new elements for the struggle against deforestation in Indonesia. (On 17 December 2002 Ms. Murniati defended her thesis at Wageningen University.)

In the neighbourhood of Wanariset I Research Station, northeast of Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, a transmigration area, every family owns an average of 2 ha of land. In most cases, only 30% was farmland and 70% was abandoned land covered by alang-alang. A base line survey showed that nearly 50% of the community income was derived from forest activities, e.g. illegal cutting. Murniati expects that this alternative conversion technique would bring the farmers back to the land, providing them with a competitive source of on-farm income.

Murniati planted seedlings of four tree species that are locally preferred because of their economic value: mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), sungkai (Peronema canescens), candle nut (Aleurites moluccana) and breadfruit or sukun (Artocarpus altilis). These tree species are pioneer: light demanding, fast growing and drought tolerant. At the same time, she plantedPueraria javanica(tropical Kudzu, a legume cover crop) on alang-alang grasslands.
This cover crop is able to out-shade and prevent recovery of the alang-alang and able to improve the soil fertility. Six months before planting the trees in the field plots, the seedlings were prepared in a nursery, a part of them was inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi and other part was not inoculated. The crops appeared as dominant undergrowth species after one year, covering the alang-alang and repressed it as such. On subsequent time, the cover crop can be harvested and the biomass enrich the soil. Then inter-cropping between the trees can start with annual food crops like corn, soybean or chilli, which are light demanding species. After two to three years, these crops can be replaced for shadow tolerant crops like coffee, sweet potatoes or cacao, which can be cultivated along the life cycle of the tree species.

Important values of this technique are the costs (the techniques used require limited investments), ecologically sustainable, the quality of the system improves every year (direct benefit to the users) and the soil fertility is improved in a natural way (only low amounts of chemicals need to be used).

In this study, science meets the demands of local population. Local preferred tree species are used, limited investments are required and the results of the study are based on on-farm experiments, experience taken from farmer's lands and not from a research station. As such, this is a ready-to-use technique, which can be introduced worldwide taking into account local circumstances.

(Source: Murniati (2002) "From Imperata cylindrica grasslands to productive agroforestry" Tropenbos Kalimantan Series 9. Tropenbos International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 172p. ISSN: 1566-6522 ISBN: 90-5113-063-5. )

For review copies, images or additional information, please contact:

Mr. Jelle Maas, Tropenbos International, +31 (317) 495506; j.b.maas@tropenbos.agro.nl mailto:j.b.maas@tropenbos.agro.nl;
www.tropenbos.org

last updated:  Friday, August 28, 2009