No. 06/02

Welcome to FAO's NWFP-Digest-L. a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products. A special thank you to all those who have shared information with us.

1. Rattan Glossary
2. Bamboo Juice, Beer and Medicine
3. Rosewood, a sweet aroma that could fade away
4. Klabin Introduces World's First FSC-Certified Cosmetics and Medicines
5. Research on medicinal plants used by the Krao Indians, Brazil
6. Peruvian farmers and indigenous people denounce patents on maca extract
7. Biopharming
8. WIPO moves toward "World" Patent System
9. Forest Insects and food importance in Owo, Ondo State (Nigeria)
10. Prosopis juliflora and related arboreal species: A monograph, technical manual, database and training course
11. Brazilian Sustainable Tourism Council created
12. Women in forestry
13. Vast, wild forests in Russia protected in historic conservation measure
14. Ginseng
15. Abstracts - IUFRO All Division 5 Conference
16. Sustainable use and development of African plants
17. Hidden Bounty of the Urban Forest
18. Voices from the Forest
19. Journal of Forest and Livelihood
20. The International Journal of Forest Usufructs Management
21. New Masters Program in International Forest Ecosystem Information
22. Training Courses - ecotourism
23. Training Courses - Harvesting, Handling and Processing Wild Floral Greens
24. Web sites
25. Request for information - "hapon"
26. Help - medicinal plants markets
27. Events
28. NWFP Bibliography
29. Publications of interest
30. Dinamicas de la economia extractiva en la amazonia boliviana

1. Rattan Glossary

From: Paul Vantomme, FAO's NWFP Programme

A draft version of a glossary of terms and definitions used in rattan extraction, processing, grading, trade and research, and including a list of commercial species with vernacular and botanical names is available and can be downloaded from FAO's NWFP webpage at:

comments and/or additions are welcomed in order to expand the glossary's content and user-friendliness. Contributions received will be incorporated as relevant into this draft, which will be periodically updated. A printed version will be available later. Many thanks in advance for your much appreciated assistance. Kindly send your suggestions, comments and/or additions to:

Paul Vantomme
Non-Wood Forest Products Officer
Wood and Non-Wood Utilization Branch, FOPW
Forest Products Division,
Forestry Department
Via Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome - Italy
Tel.: (++39) 06 570 54064
Fax: (++39) 06 570 55618

2. Bamboo Juice, Beer and Medicine

From: Jinhe Fu,

In ancient China, the fresh culm of Phyllostachys glauca was roasted to produce fresh bamboo juice for medicine. Its output was as low as 9.3 lbs (3.5 kg) of juice per 268 lbs (100 kg) of fresh culms. So, in recent years, bamboo juice is being produced by pressure or cooking. The juice is also being used to make beverages and specific liquor.

Beer is a kind of low-alcoholic drink mainly made from barley. With the improvement of living standards and health care in China, there is an impetus towards research of new beers fortified with naturally occurring ingredients with specific health concerns. Bamboo is traditionally used in food and medicine in Southeast Asia.

The latest research showed that there are many different flavone glycosides in bamboo leaves, which have excellent physiological activities as anti-free radical, anti-oxidation and anti-ageing agents.

In this study, green-dry leaves from the Phyllostachys genus bamboo were picked in autumn and extracted. After boiling the bamboo leaves in water, the extract was concentrated in vacuum, and the impurities removed using the ethanol precipitation method, to give a fine bamboo leaf juice. The bamboo beer was prepared by adding the juice to the original beer, then mixed, filtered and bottled. The amount of the juice added, taking its total flavonoids (TF) amount as index, was between 0.3 to 1.7 fl. oz. (US) per 2 pints (US) (10 to 50 mg per litre) of beer, depending on requirements.

In addition to the general characteristics of beer, bamboo beer showed multiple health benefits, such as lowering blood lipids and preventing heart diseases. Furthermore, bamboo beer presents a typical delicate fragrance of bamboo to match the beer flavour. This health beer is available in Chinese markets. Note: Flavonoids made from bamboo leaves are also used to make medicine such as capsules.

For more information, please contact:

Jinhe Fu
International Network for Bamboo and Rattan
Mailing address: Beijing 100101-80,
P.R. China

3. Rosewood, a sweet aroma that could fade away

Source: Amazon News - 18 July

The tree from which the famous oil used in the manufacture of perfumes is extracted is in danger of extinction

The history of Chanel No. 5, the most famous perfume in the world, begins in the depths of the Amazonian rainforest, a long way from the boutiques of Europe. In the forest, Amazonian caboclos have to go ever deeper into the forest to find the rosewood tree, from which one of the perfume's principal ingredients is extracted. The tree is in danger of extinction.

The rosewood oil extractors spend three months at a time in the forest. The women around the world who use Chanel No. 5 have no idea what lies behind the manufacture of the perfume. The trunks are cut by hand and then the trunks weighing 100 kilos are carried on the extractivists' backs. They earn very little for their labour.

The extraction of the oil from the tree's leaves could save the species.
A research project by the University of Campinas could allow production to continue without destroying the trees.

The disappearance of the species is not only causing concern among environmentalists. The cosmetics and perfume industries are also worried. Without the tree, which only exists in Amazonia, classic perfumes would have to modify their original formulas. Rosewood oil has a unique perfume and is rich in linalol, a substance that fixes the aroma on the body. Synthetic linalol has long been rejected by high-quality perfumiers. Research has been conducted on other plants such as sacaca and even basil (See Digest 5/02 for additional information.).
The University of Campinas is proposing the extraction of linalol from the leaves of the rosewood tree. Researchers have already presented the alternative product to perfumiers, who all approved the substitute. The advantage of the process is that the trees do not need to be felled to obtain the product. The 'ecologically correct' product should drive up the price of the oil. The research team are carrying out field tests on the plantation and extraction of rosewood. The research should help get the species off the endangered species list.

4. Klabin Introduces World's First FSC-Certified Cosmetics and Medicines

Source: FSC News+Notes, March,

With the certification of more than 221 000 ha of forest in Telemaco, Borba, in Parana state in Brazil, Klabin Industries is the first company in the world to get the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification for cosmetic and medicinal ingredients.

The rich biodiversity in these forests, with more than 80 000 ha of native forest, allows the extraction of raw materials for producing medicines and cosmetics. The company maintains species under a management system that integrates a complex set of strategies.

The program started in 1984 and earned FSC Certification in 2001. The production of medicines and cosmetics is based on more than 80 medicinal plants, and contributes to improving the quality of life of employees by providing income as well as social and medical assistance.

Today Kablin's medicines have a 97 percent acceptance rate by users (more than 40 000 treatments) because the products are guaranteed to be 95 percent effective, and they cost less than 50 percent of the cost of normal chemical medicines.

5. Research on medicinal plants used by the Krao Indians, Brazil

Source: Amazon News - 4 July 2002

Research has been paralysed for six months. The future of research on medicinal plants by the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) will be defined on Thursday when Professor Elisaldo Carlini meets the president of FUNAI, Otacílio Antunes dos Reis Filho, in Brasília. Carlini, who is director of the Brazilian Centre for Information on Psychotropic Drugs, has been seeking FUNAI's help for more than a year. The meeting with FUNAI was finally brought about by a media scandal.

The research project is the first in the country to share the profits of medicines developed from traditional indigenous knowledge with the Krao Indians. The team is studying their use of medicinal plants. UNIFESP was criticised in the Globo newspaper for practising biopiracy. The research team is negotiating with just 3 of 17 Krao villages.

The accusations have arisen out of a dispute between three associations which represent the Kraos, although they signed an agreement with UNIFESP which guaranteed that the Indians would receive royalties for any product resulting from the research. The plants are cultivated in the villages. Carlini said that "we made it clear from the beginning that we would not allow the research to go ahead if it does not benefit the whole Krao nation".

The delays have been caused by the fact that, according to Brazilian legislation, the Indians do not have autonomy to sign agreements of this nature. It is not clear who has the right to sign. It is hoped that this matter will be clarified during the meeting.

6. Peruvian farmers and indigenous people denounce patents on maca extract

From: Kat Morgenstern

Indigenous peoples' and farmers' organizations from the Andes and the Amazon gathered at the offices of the Ecological Forum in Lima, Peru on June 28 to formally denounce US patents on maca, the high-altitude Andean plant (of the Cruciferae [mustard] family) that has been grown for centuries by indigenous peoples in the Puna highlands of Peru, both as a staple food crop and for medicinal purposes.

Today, companies are selling maca-based products as natural enhancers of sexual function and fertility. While maca exports have the potential to create new markets and income for Peruvian farmers, recent US patents on maca may actually foreclose opportunity for the true innovators of the Andean crop.

"We are deeply offended by monopoly patents on our food crops and medicinal plants," said Efrain Zuniga Molina of the Association of Maca Producers of Valle del Mantaro (Peru). "The Andean region is becoming known as the 'biopiracy capital' of the world. We've seen patents on ayahuasca, quinoa, yacon, the nuña popping bean, and now maca," said Molina.

"These patents claim novel inventions, but everyone knows they are based on the traditional knowledge and resources of indigenous peoples," said Gladis Vila Pihue, a representative of the maca growers association in the Department of Huancavelica (Peru).

The farmers are calling on two US companies to abandon patents related to maca, and they are asking the Peruvian government and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) to investigate and condemn monopoly claims related to maca that appropriate traditional knowledge of farming communities. (The Geneva-based WIPO promotes intellectual property as a means of protecting traditional knowledge.)

For more information, please contact: ETC Genotype,

7. Biopharming

Source: [BIO-IPR] Resource pointer, 18 July 2002

In early July, a US biotech company called Epicyte announced that it had won a broad patent on the production of antibodies in plants. The patent, assigned to Scripps Research Institute, allegedly covers any kind of antibody produced in any kind of plant.

For more information, please see: Epicyte Press Release "Epicyte Announces Broad Patent Covering Production of Antibodies in Plants: Scope Establishes Strong Licensing Potential, Barriers to Entry for Competitors", 9 July 2002.

8. WIPO moves toward "World" Patent System

Source: Extracted from Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN), BIO-IPR docserver July 2002,,

For quite some time, people have wondered about the possibility of having one patent system for the whole world. In other words, one bureau issuing "world patents" which are automatically valid in all countries. Such a system would replace the current situation where each country has its own laws, own patent office and own courts -- all of which have to be dealt with separately if you want your patent to have effect in more than one country. A unified world patent system has always seemed a very far off idea, an Orwellian mixture of dream (e.g. for global corporations, which get a "one-stop shop" to deal with) and nightmare (e.g. for local patent lawyers, who lose their jobs). In reality, the frame of such a system is starting to emerge.

Around the turn of this century, the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), a United Nations body mandated to promote intellectual property rights, started putting the pieces into place. The new system would take some time to complete, if indeed it pushes through, but it would totally revolutionize intellectual property systems as we know them today.

1. The Building Blocks

WIPO is currently working on three primary building blocks for a new world patent system.

1.1 A uniform set of procedures
1.2 A single international search tool
1.3 A uniform patent law
2. Core controversies in the Single Patent Law (SPLT)
2.1 The "technology" factor
2.2 Exclusions from patentability
2.3 No further conditions allowed

This treaty aims to de-territorialize court decisions among its signatories, so that judgments reached in one country will automatically be valid in the others. Up to now, the draft explicitly covered intellectual property rights. After extended controversy, the treaty has been sent back to the drafting table, so it is currently unknown whether the new proposal, due next year, will apply to patents. For further information, see, and also

· WIPO, "Progress on Discussions to Harmonize Patent Law", Update 164/2002, Geneva, 14 May 2002:

· Working documents of WIPO's Standing Committee on the Law of Patents, the body negotiating the SPLT:

· WIPO's Patent Agenda, a consultation process to define a "strategic blueprint" for the international patent system:

9. Forest Insects and food importance in Owo, Ondo State (Nigeria)

From: Michael Femi

Human beings require food to carry out essential functions which include growth, development and reproduction. A balanced diet is required to carry out all these processes in the body. In Nigeria and many other tropical countries protein energy malnutrition is endemic. This is because deficiency in the diet is common. The low-income rural dwellers who constitute the majority of the people in particular are at risk. This includes the people of Owo in Owo LGA.

The problem of food inadequacy and nutrition imbalance in Nigeria especially in Owo LGA is not the dearth of food resources but that of the use of and appreciation of food diversities provided by nature. The colonial influence and unstable government policies have contributed to the narrowing of the food resources base of the nation. In fact, the food resources have been narrowed to a few grains, maize, beans, cassava and yam.

However for centuries the people of Owo in Ondo State have depended on forest insects to supply part of the animal proteins essential to maintain a balanced healthy diet.

Insects are a group of non-conventional sources of cheap protein to the people. The population of insects has been estimated at between 2 and 80 million worldwide out of which 2 000 have been recorded edible; in Nigeria there are about 20 000 species of insects.

The forest provides non-timber products essential for human survival. It is suggested that forest policies in Ondo State and Nigeria should be holistic enough to cater for all sources from the forest, both timber and non-timber, especially forest edible insects.

For more information, contact

M. F. Adekunle
S. A. Oluwalana
(Associate Professor)
Dept. of Forestry & Wildlife Mgt.
University of Agriculture
P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria

10. Prosopis juliflora and related arboreal species: A monograph, technical manual, database and training course

From: Katel Cadoret, HDRA (

A project funded by the Department for International Development of the UK Government

Prosopis species form a major component in dryland ecosystems in the Americas, Africa and Asia. The main introduced species, P. juliflora, is now pantropical in arid and semi-arid zones. Introductions of inferior germplasm and little transference of processing technologies have limited the exploitation of Prosopis products. Although much has been published on the genus, no comprehensive synthesis exists.

Research and training activities

This project collated all published and `grey' literature to produce a monograph, a technical manual appropriate to the cultural, ecological and economic situation of India, and an electronic bibliographic database containing over 6400 entries. A course on the management of Prosopis was held in three locations in India.


Thorny Prosopis shrubs, widespread in Africa and India, came from the introductions of inferior germplasm that has led to a poor appreciation of the genus. Research trials have identified superior genetic material in a range of rainfall zones and soil types. There is a need for the dissemination of information concerning this material. In some areas Prosopis has spread from the low rainfall zones in which it was planted, invading watercourses, irrigated agricultural land, and adjacent higher rainfall areas. Information concerning the relative invasiveness of species, reproductive biology and methods for controlling the spread or eradication are highlighted in this study.

Details of the technologies in use, primarily in the native ranges, and the commercialisation of products, are described which will help to improve the use of Prosopis products in areas where they have been introduced. In the long term, this should allow for an increase in economic activity and an increase in the incomes of families living in the many arid and semi-arid areas where Prosopis species are widespread.

Much time and limited resources have been spent by researchers conducting work that has already been undertaken in other regions, leading to unnecessary duplication of research. The database, by collating the global knowledge on all Prosopis species, prevents further duplication, and allows for improved identification of future research and developmental needs.


Pasiecznik N M. (2001). The Prosopis juliflora - Prosopis pallida complex: A monograph. HDRA, Coventry, UK. ISBN 0 905343 30 1

Tewari J C; Harris P J C; Harsh L N; Cadoret K & Pasiecznik N M. (2001). Prosopis juliflora: A technical manual (Hindi version). HDRA, Coventry, UK. ISBN 0 905343 27 1.

Cadoret K; Pasiecznik N M; Harris P J C. (2000). The Genus Prosopis: A Reference Database (Version 1.0): CD ROM. HDRA, Coventry, UK. ISBN 0 905343 28 X.

For more information, please contact:

Katel Cadoret (Miss)
International Research Coordinator
Ryton Organic Gardens
Coventry CV8 3LG
Tel: +44 (0)24 7630 8200
Fax: +44 (0)24 7663 9229

11. Brazilian Sustainable Tourism Council created

Source: Amazon News - 4 July 2002

Environmentalists, businessmen and specialists in tourism are meeting in São Paulo to create the Brazilian Sustainable Development Council. The council aims to promote sustainable tourism by means of independent certification.

The council will establish standards for socio-environmental quality. The Minister for Sport and Tourism, Caio de Carvalho, said that the Federal Government wants to foster ecotourism in Brazil "but we need to guarantee development for local populations". He added that it is necessary to work to improve the quality of life of local people.

The council was launched during the 3rd Workshop of Sustainable Tourism Certification. It was created by a coalition of non-governmental organisations, private enterprise and area specialists. Since October 2000, WWF-Brazil and the SOS Atlantic Forest Foundation have been leading this coalition.

The primary aim of sustainable tourism certification is to identify the components of tourist activities or its products which are environmentally sound, economically viable and socially just. Projects that fulfil these criteria would receive a seal identifying it as a sustainable activity.

The certification of tourism will bring environmental, economic and social benefits. It will contribute towards the conservation of biodiversity, help in the maintenance of environmental quality and in the protection of threatened species. It will also safeguard good working conditions in the area of tourism and promote respect for workers' rights, indigenous peoples and local communities.

"Tourism is one of the most promising areas of the economy on the planet. It contributes to the socio-economic and cultural development of a country", said Serge Salazar Salivate, coordinator of WWW-Brazil's Tourism and Environment Programme. "But, if it is implemented with just an economic focus, without any planning based on the biological, physical, economic and social characteristics of the area, could generate ecological and social imbalance. Certification guarantees this balance", added Salvati.

12. Women in forestry

Source: Taiga News, Issue 39

The International Union of Forestry Researchers has established a working group on women in forestry, to provide a platform to discuss issues related to women's experiences of working in forestry or of being forest owners, and to initiate research into forest management from women's perspectives. Contact:

13. Vast, wild forests in Russia protected in historic conservation measure

Source: RECOFTC E-letter 2002.13 (July 1, 2002)

In a historic conservation measure, six areas of wild forestland in the Russian Far East totalling 1.7 million acres were designated as protected last week. These areas are now off-limits to all major industrial activity, with some of the land designated as "areas of traditional use" for the indigenous Evenk peoples. All of the protected areas are located in the vast Amur River watershed in the Russian Far East. The area hosts some of the most pristine forests and watersheds in the world.

It was the culmination of years of advocacy by the local organization Amur Socio-Ecological Union (SEU), with assistance from the Oakland-based non-profit organization Pacific Environment, as well as the Russian Far East branch of the Worldwide Fund for Nature. Of the six areas, five are wildlife refuges that allow a limited amount of human influence while protecting large habitat areas for flora and fauna. One area was designated a natural monument, which protects a particular species in a small area in this case, the natural monument protects Siberian pine forests. This designation is the single largest in the history of the Amur region and one of the largest in the world. Local activists claim this designation is the culmination of two hard years of expeditions, mapping, public education, and advocacy. Svetlana Titova, Director of the Amur SEU, exclaimed, "At a time of unprecedented threat to the Russian taiga (or forest), this is an extraordinary day. Hundreds of miles of the Amur forests will now be protected from interference from industry, and with minimal effects of man."

The Amur River begins in Russia, runs along the Russia/China border, then through the Russian Far East, and empties into the Sea of Okhotsk. Flowing over 2,700 miles, it is considered one of the world's ten great rivers. It winds unencumbered by dams through a wide diversity of landscape, including desert, steppe, and temperate forests. The Amur region in the Russian Far East is home to a wealth of Russia's biodiversity.

For more information, please contact:

Contact: David Gordon,,
Catriona Glazebrook:,
Rory Cox:

14. Ginseng

From: David

Please note an article I recently wrote for the Smithsonian magazine about American ginseng, its traditional harvest and use as well as new efforts to re-establish it in its native forests. A summary of the article is at

You can also download a pdf file of the article text there.

15. Abstracts - IUFRO All Division 5 Conference

From: James Chamberlain, Coordinator, IUFRO Research Group 5.11 (Non-wood Forest Products)

It is not too late to submit your abstract for the IUFRO All Division 5 Conference "Forest Products Research Providing for Sustainable Choices", which will take place in Rotorua, New Zealand, from 11 to 15 March 2003. That's right, you still have time. The deadline for abstracts has been extended to July 2002.

In March 2003, this Research Group will organize a sub-meeting of the all Division 5 Conference. The theme of our session is "Research for sustainable production of non-wood forest products." Abstracts received so far, include:

· International Conventions and Trade Agreements

· Benefit Sharing Arrangements
· Certification of Medicinal Plants
· Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Sri Lanka

For more information, please visit the Conference Website:

16. Sustainable use and development of African plants

From: Dr Janice Limson, Science in

(See also Digest 5/02 for additional information.)

In a recent posting to phytomedica concerning an article at the magazine Science in Africa entitled: "The rape of the pelargoniums" at, Frank Muller wrote: "Let us leave the blame game for a while and see some articles supporting those throughout Africa who are here to make a creative and restorative contribution." David Scheinman also wrote in: "African governments should spend less time caterwauling about exploitation and being let off the debt hook -- and more time determining how to turn their vast plant wealth into viable affordable products."

Articles showing the sustainable use and development of Africa's plants into economically viable products are most welcome at Science in Africa. David Scheinman has already got the ball rolling. I encourage you to do the same.

Kindly contact myself, Janice Limson at for details or send a blank e-mail to . You may also subscribe at the magazine at

For more information, please contact:

Dr Janice Limson
Editor-in-chief, Science in Africa
Box 696
6140 Grahamstown
South Africa

17. Hidden Bounty of the Urban Forest

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

A recent edition of The Overstory (no. 106) introduces the importance of non-timber forest products from urban trees and forests, with examples from New England in the northeastern United States. Contents include:

· Defining "Urban Forest" and "Urban NTFPs"
· Sources of Urban NTFPs
· Use and Markets for Urban NTFPs
· Urban NTFP Collectors
· The Value of Urban NTFPs
· Urban advantages
· Web links
· Related editions of The Overstory

For more information, please contact:

18. Voices from the Forest


The fifth edition of the bulletin "Voices from the Forest" of the NTFP Exchange Programme in Southeast Asia is available on

The exchange programme, and the bulletin more in particular, aims to provide a platform for sharing forest community-based NTFP ideas and concerns, mainly through practical information and cases.

19. Journal of Forest and Livelihood

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

The subject of the latest issue of Journal of Forest and Livelihood is community forestry processes and impact in Nepal and includes information on NTFP:

· Conflicts Between Policy and Local People in Valuing Non-timber Forest Products: Perspectives from Nepal
· Issues and options of sustainable management of Himalayan medicinal herbs
· Non-Timber Forest Products: an alternative source of rural income Shambhu Dangal
· Bamboo research and development in Nepal

For more information, please contact:

20. The International Journal of Forest Usufructs Management

From: Alka

We are pleased to inform you about our new Journal entitled "International Journal of Forest Usufructs Management" which was launched in 2001. The Journal will be published half yearly from 2001 onwards. Volume 2, No. 1 is already ready for press.

I would like to request all Forest Officers, Scientists, Researchers, Entrepreneurs to send 10-15 pages long review/research articles on the following different issues/aspects of NTFP:

· Conservation of NTFP genetic resources and biodiversity.
· Exploitation of different categories of NTFPs.
· Management of NTFP.
· Joint Forest Management.
· Community Development through NTFPs.
· Participatory Forest Management.
· Gender issues.
· Ownership rights.
· Medicinal and Aromatic plants.
· Genetic improvement of NTFP species.
· Production/yield of NTFPs.
· Marketing of NTFPs.
· Biofertilizers/biopesticides etc.

For more information, please contact:

Ms. Alka Shiva
President & Managing Director
Centre of Minor Forest Products
HIG - 2, No. 8, Indirapuram,
Dehra Dun - 248 171, India
Phone 91-135-621302, 629936
Fax : 91-135-629936
E-mail :

21. New Masters Program in International Forest Ecosystem Information

Source: [cfc-news] CFRC Weekly Summary 6/21/02

In the winter Semester 2002/2003, the University of Applied Sciences of Eberswalde, Germany, launches the new Master Degree Program (M.Sc.) International Forest Ecosystem Information Technology (IFEIT). This innovative and international program offers scientific training for collecting, processing and communicating environmental data in the field of global forest ecosystems and related issues.

For more information, please contact:

Ms. Astrid Schilling
University of Applied
Sciences of Eberswalde, Faculty of Forestry, International Forest
Ecosystem Information Technology Program
Alfred-Möller-Str. 1,
16225 Eberswalde
Phone: +49 (0) 33 34 6 54 17;
Fax: +49 (0) 33 34 6 54 28;

22. Training Courses - ecotourism

Source: H. Gyde, FIU 24 JUN 02

The following courses will take place in Georgetown, Guyana:

25-30 November 2002. Visitor interaction skills for ecotourism

10-15 December 2002. Community ecotourism mapping.

For more information, please contact the Training Coordinator:

Iwokrama International Centre
67 Bel Air
Tel: 592-225-1504
Fax: 592-225-9199.
Email: or

23. Training Courses - Harvesting, Handling and Processing Wild Floral Greens

From: Diane Carley

Two NTFP training sessions will be held in Port McNeill, BC, Canada in September 2002.

Harvesting and Handling Floral Greens (Module 1)

14 and 15 September 2002

(Register by 15 August 2002)

If you are interested in harvesting floral greens such as salal, conifer boughs, ferns and mosses, Module 1 will provide the skills you need to be sure your products meet market requirements and to ensure that you harvest these products in a safe, sustainable and efficient manner

Adding Value to Floral Greens (Module 2)

21 and 22 September 2002

(Register by 21 August 2002)

Module 2 will provide hands-on training in designing and producing value-added products such as wreaths, garlands and moss baskets. (Registration in Module 1 is advised

For more information, please contact:

Diane Carley
Communications Coordinator
NTFP Demonstration Project
Sointula, BC, Canada

24. Web sites

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Herb Research Foundation

A source of accurate, science-based in-formation on the health benefits and safety of herbs that contains more than 300 000 scientific articles.

A href="file:///C:/digest/6-2002/">

Macrofungi of Costa Rica


Archives are available from 2000 (1 064 messages and documents). Phytomedica now has 800 members (French and English speaking groups combined) and is managed by Conserve Africa Foundation.
The ginseng page

25. Request for information - "hapon"

From: Tom Headland

To those of you who have done research in SE Asia or Melanesia:

My colleague anthropologist Larry Lake, a professor at Messiah College, USA, is seeking information about a plant called *hapon* (meaning 'Japan') by the Balangao people in the northern Philippines. It is said that this plant was seeded from aircraft by the Japanese during around WW2 in anticipation of their occupation of certain areas, where it was to be used as a food. Larry has heard almost identical anecdotes about such a plant in West New Guinea (where his parents were missionaries and where he has carried out research in literacy and ethnobotany for many years) and he is now seeking a botanical (scientific Latin) name for and information about the Japanese use of this plant, for a paper he is writing about various food crop introductions in New Guinea. Can you help him? Have any of you ever heard of anything like this? His email address .

Thanks so much.

26. Help - medicinal plants markets

From: R. Sugandhi,

We are going to hold International Seminar on Marketing of medicinal plants for poverty alleviation in India. Any information on leading buyers, companies of herbal medicine and international markets for these products would be highly appreciated.

If you can help please contact me at:

Dr. R. Sugandhi
President, People For Animals
179, Kalpana Nagar,
Bhopal -
462 021 M.P. INDIA
Tele:+91 -755- (O) 752727, 713713, (R) 754941

27. Events

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Forests of the Northern Lights

20-22 September 2002

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

An international conference titled: "Forests of the Northern Lights - Current and Future Boreal Forest Values - Conservation Goals and Market Trends" will be hosted by the Boreal Forest Network, the North American affiliate of the Taiga Rescue Network. This will be the sixth biennial conference organized by the network since its inception.

The theme of the conference reflects the complexity of the issues that NGOs, scientists, government, Indigenous Peoples, industry and consumers are attempting to understand regarding the boreal forests of the world.

For more information, please contact:

Boreal Forest Network
2-70 Albert Street,
Winnipeg, Manitoba
Canada R3B 1E7
Tel: (+1) 204-947-3081
Fax: (+1) 204-9473076

Symposium on history and forest biodiversity - challenges for conservation

13-15 January 2003

Leuven, Belgium

The symposium wants to focus on the effects of history on the species composition and richness of forests. It will show how the integration of historical work, vegetation science, zoology, ecology and others result in an added value for understanding forests, their management, conservation and expansion

For more information, please contact:

Sofie Bruneel
Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research
Catholic University of Leuven
Vital Decosterstraat 102
B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
Tel: +32-16-32- 97-21
Fax +32-16-32-97-60
E-mail: or

28. NWFP Bibliography

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

The bibliography page of FAO's NWFP Programme's Web site has just been updated and includes publications listed in all past issues of Non-Wood News.

29. Publications of interest

From: FAO's NWFP Programme

Coppen, John J.W. (ed.) 2002. Eucalyptus. The genus Eucalyptus .Taylor and Francis, London, UK. ISBN 0415278791

Eucalyptus, a genus of over 800 species, is a multiproduct crop par excellence. Not only is it grown for timber, pulp and fuelwood but also, as the Aborigines discovered thousands of years ago, it has numerous medicinal and aromatic properties. Since the first commercial distillation of eucalyptus oil 150 years ago, a vast array of eucalyptus-based products has entered the marketplace, mainly for pharmaceutical, fragrance and flavour use.

This book provides an invaluable reference for all those with an interest in Eucalyptus - in academia and industry alike, for researchers as well as producers, processors, importers and end users - but there are also issues discussed and lessons learnt which extend to medicinal and aromatic plants generally.

For more information, please contact: Taylor & Francis Group, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, UK
E-mail: Taylor & Francis Group plc

Embaye, K. 2000. The indigenous bamboo forests of Ethiopia: an overview. Ambio 29(8):518-521

Maas, J.B. and Ros-Tonen, M.A.F. 2001. NTFP certification: challenges for research. ETRFN News 32: 69-71.

Melkani, V.K. 2001. Involving local people in biodiversity conservation in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve - an overview. Curr. Sci.80(3):437-441.

Mukherjee, Pulok K. 2002. Quality Control of Herbal Drugs. Business Horizons, India. ISBN 81-900788-4-4. An invaluable source of information on the often overlooked field of quality standards for medicinal herbs/botanicals.

Narendran, K.; Murthy, I.K.; Suresh, H.S.; Dattaraja, H.S.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Sukumar, R. 2001. Nontimber forest product extraction, utilization and valuation: a case study from the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. Econ bot. Bronx, N.Y.: New York Botanical Garden. Oct/Dec 2001. v. 55 (4) p. 528-538.

On, T.V., Quyen, D., Bich, L.D., Jones, B., Wunder, J., and Russell-Smith, J. 2001. A survey of medicinal plants in BaVi National Park, Vietnam: methodology and implications for conservation and sustainable use. Biol. Conserv. 97:295-304.

Pahlen, M.C. von-der.; Grinspoon, E. 2002. Promoting traditional uses of medicinal plants as efforts to achieve cultural and ecological sustainability. J sustain for. Binghamton, NY : Food Products Press, c1993-. 2002. v. 15 (1) p. 81-93.

Prasad, R.; Kotwal, P.C.; Mishra, M. 2002. Impact of harvesting of Emblica officinalis (Aonla) on its natural regeneration in central Indian forests. J sustain for. Binghamton, NY : Food Products Press, c1993-. 2002. v. 14 (4) p. 1-12.

Raipul, V. 2002. Standardization of Botanicals. Testing and extraction methods of medicinal herbs. Eastern Publishers, India. ISBN 81-900181-6-7.

Sankaran, R. 2001. The status and conservation of the edible-nest swiftlet (Collocalia fuciphaga) in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):305-318.

Sugandhi R. 2002. Funding Sources World-wide, 166 pp

For more information, please contact: Dr. R. Sugandhi, President, People For Animals, 179, Kalpana Nagar, Piplani, Bhopal - 462 021 M.P. INDIA Email.

Forest Certification: Pending Challenges for Tropical Timber by Richard Eba'a Atyi and Markku Simula. This new paper produced for the International Tropical Timber Organization provides up-to-date facts, figures, and analysis on the different certification schemes, the relations between them, and the impact they are having in the tropics.

To request free electronic copies or to send comments or queries to the authors, please contact Markku Simula at: MARKKU.SIMULA@INDUFOR.FI

Forest Ecosystem Services: Can They Pay Our Way Out of Deforestation?
by Robert Nasi and Sven Wunder of CIFOR and Jose Joaquin Campos from CATIE

To request free electronic copies, please contact Levania Santoso at: To send comments or queries to the author write to Robert Nasi at:

Links between Biodiversity Conservation, Livelihoods and Food Security - the sustainable use of wild species for meat. This joint FAO/IUCN/TRAFFIC publication can be accessed from:

Who owns the world's forests? by Andy White and Alejandra Martin from Forest Trends.

To request free electronic copies of the paper in a pdf file or to send comments to the authors you can write Whitney Painter at:

(From POLEX listserve)

30. Dinamicas de la economia extractiva en la amazonia boliviana

Source: Lista Bosques

Son escasos los trabajos que analizan la dinámica económica de la economía extractiva que se desarrolló en la Amazonia boliviana desde fines del siglo pasado hasta el presente. Un trabajo de indiscutible valor para ayudar a entender la evolución de la economía amazónica del norte boliviano es la tesis de doctorado de Dietmar Stoian titulada "Variaciones y dinámicas en las economías extractivas: los vínculos urbano-rurales del uso de recursos forestales no maderables en la Amazonia boliviana", defendida en la Universidad de Freiburg, 2000 (versión en inglés). Esta investigación fue realizada en el marco de un acuerdo de colaboración entre el proyecto PROMAB y CIFOR.

Este trabajo realiza un recorrido por los distintos ciclos de la economía extractiva identificando las condiciones que dieron lugar a la emergencia, a fines del siglo pasado, de la economía gomera y la posterior transición de tres ciclos gomeros hasta mediados de la década de los 1990s, cuando se producen importantes cambios en la economía regional impulsados por el rápido desarrollo de procesos extractivos de castaña, palmito y madera, y la expansión de la base industrial para el procesamiento de esos productos. Esa transición de la economía extractiva regional es acompañada simultáneamente por la diferenciación de los asentamientos rurales, crecientes procesos de urbanización y la expansión de la frontera agrícola. Acompañando esos procesos se produce un intenso cambio en la reestructuración de las diferentes estrategias de subsistencia de los hogares como resultado de una mayor articulación entre los espacios urbano y rural.

El autor alerta que pese a los cambios en la economía de no maderables a lo largo del tiempo, ella ha demostrado una gran capacidad de adaptación a esos cambios. En ese marco, el trabajo considera necesario explorar cuáles son los factores que garantizan un cierto grado de estabilidad de la economía de no maderables y cuáles de esos factores podrían ser controlados al nivel regional.

Por un lado, los productos no maderables son parte de los sistemas de subsistencia de las poblaciones rurales y peri-urbanas que combinan agricultura y extractivismo, lo que les permite articular actividades de subsistencia con otras orientadas a la generación de ingresos monetarios. Factores que pueden ayudar a reforzar la importancia de los no maderables en esas estrategias son la seguridad de tenencia junto con una mas equitativa distribución de beneficios para las poblaciones. Por otro lado, se indica que algunos factores que pueden poner en riesgo la importancia de este sistema en las estrategias de vida de la población así como la estabilidad de la economía extractiva en su conjunto, constituyen la volatilidad de los mercados, las relaciones laborales de explotación así como la sobre-explotación de la base de recursos naturales.

Para obtener una copia electrónica de este documento puede ponerse en contacto con Dietmar Stoian a:


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last updated:  Friday, August 28, 2009