I. In THE PRESS
15 July 2010
The Chatham House study, released today, says that illegal logging has dropped by between 50 and 75% across Cameroon, Indonesia and the Brazilian Amazon over the last decade; globally it has dropped by one-fifth since 2002.
15 July 2010
Efforts to pass a climate bill in the US Congress have moved to Plan D this month, as pro-climate lawmakers face a fast-closing window of opportunity for pushing through carbon emissions capping legislation in 2010.
15 July 2010
The world relies on a range of services nature provides - water filtration by forests, pollination by bees and a supply of wild plant genes for new food crops or medicines.
14 July 2010
An energy technology that has long been viewed as a clean and climate-friendly alternative to fossil fuels is facing tough new regulatory hurdles that could ultimately hamper its ability to compete with renewable power sources like wind and solar.
14 July 2010
Think it's hot this summer? Wait until you see Google's simulation of a world with an average global temperature rise of 4C. Using a map that was first launched by the former Labour administration in October 2009, the coalition government has taken temperature data from the Met Office Hadley Centre and other climate research centres and imposed it on to a Google Earth layer.
13 July 2010
A powerful storm destroyed about half a billion trees in the Amazon in 2005, according to a study on Tuesday that shows how the world's forests may be vulnerable to more violent weather caused by climate change.
13 July 2010
While the Indonesian government basks in a recent agreement with Norway to slow deforestation to the tune of a billion US dollars, a new report by Eyes on the Forest shows photographic evidence of largely government sanctioned deforestation that flouts several Indonesia laws.
11 July 2010
Some Annex I countries are seeking new rules under the UN climate convention that would allow them to account for 5% of their annual emissions through forest carbon credits. This 5% is roughly equal to the emissions reduction that developed countries pledged to make under the Kyoto Protocol. Opponents argue that these new rules would allow countries to circumvent their obligations. However, developed countries are not the only ones being accused of 'carbon cheating'
9 July 2010
Indonesia has drafted rules for a two-year ban on permits for forest clearing, after signing a $1 billion climate aid deal with Norway aimed at avoiding greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation.
2 July 2010
The UN-REDD Programme's Policy Board approved an additional US$8.7 million to fund global activities aimed at supporting national REDD+ readiness.
2 July 2010
Well this becomes more entertaining by the moment. Those who staked so much on the "Amazongate" story, only to see it turn round and bite them, are now digging a hole so deep that they will soon be able to witness a possible climate change scenario at first hand, as they emerge, shovels in hand, in the middle of the Great Victoria Desert.
II. UNFCCC negotiations and related discussions
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
No negotiations have taken place since the June newsletter. In the August issue we will be back with a report on the Bonn Climate Talks, 2 - 6 August.
The remaining UNFCCC negotiations in the lead up to COP 16 (Cancun, 29 November to 10 December) are:
III. Events & meetings
UNFCCC subsidiary bodies
2 - 6 August 2010. Bonn, Germany.
Bonn Climate Change Talks – August 2010 includes meetings of the thirteen session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties of the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP 13) and the eleventh sessions of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA 11). More information on the UNFCCC website.
XXIII 2010 IUFRO World Congress
23-28 August, 2010. Seoul, Korea
International Union of forest Research Organizations IUFRO congress with the theme of “Forests for the Future: Sustaining Society and the Environment”. More.
Workshop on Forest Governance, Decentralization and REDD+ in Latin America
30 August to 3 September 2010, Oaxaca, Mexico
A country-led CIFOR initiative in support of the UN Forum on Forests by the Governments of Mexico and Switzerland which will contribute both to COP 16 and the ninth session of the UN Forum on Forests. More.
UNFF ad hoc expert group on forest financing
13 September 2010 - 17 September 2010. Nairobi, Kenya.
A part of the UN Forum on Forest’s strategic plan on forest financing an open-ended intergovernmental ad hoc expert group on financing for sustainable forest management will meet. More information on UNFF website.
INTERREG IVB conference on "European Forestry - Fit for Climate Change?"
21-22 September 2010. Nancy, France
The European ForeStClim project (2008-2012) which develops transnationally harmonised forestry management strategies for Northwest Europe, invites to its mid-term conference. More.
Twentieth session of the FAO Committee on Forestry (COFO)
4-8 October 2010, Rome, Italy
The biennial sessions of COFO bring together heads of forest services and other senior government officials to identify emerging policy and technical issues, to seek solutions and to advise FAO and others on appropriate action. Other international organizations and, increasingly, non-governmental groups participate in COFO. Participation in COFO is open to all FAO member countries. More.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) COP 10
18-29 October 2010, Nagoya, Japan
The tenth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity is expected to, inter alia, assess the achievement of the 2010 target to reduce significantly the rate of biodiversity loss. It will be preceded by the fifth Meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. More.
Pilot International Conference on Global Sustainable Development
19-21 November 2010, Kampala Uganda
The conference will bring together leading experts from a wide range of disciplines to discuss the impact realities of climate change and sustainable development. Climate Change, A Challenge to Businesses in the 21st Century. More.
COP 16 of the UNFCCC
29 November to 10 December 2010, Cancún, Mexico
The 33rd meetings of the SBI and SBSTA will also take place as well as AWG-LCA 13 and AWG-KP. More.
Forest Day 4
5 December 2010, Cancun (Quintana Roo), Mexico
This event will be held alongside the 16th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and will be hosted by CPF and organized by a CIFOR and CPF members. More.
IV. Research Articles
Global outlook for wood and forests with the bioenergy demand implied by scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Forest Policy and Economics, Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 48-56
Analyzing the efficacy of subtropical urban forests in offsetting carbon emissions from cities
Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 13, Issue 5, August 2010, Pages 362-372
Urban forest management and policies have been promoted as a tool to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study used existing CO2 reduction measures from subtropical Miami-Dade and Gainesville, USA and modeled carbon storage and sequestration by trees to analyze policies that use urban forests to offset carbon emissions. Field data were analyzed, modeled, and spatially analyzed to compare CO2 sequestered by managing urban forests to equivalent amounts of CO2 emitted in both urban areas. Urban forests in Gainesville have greater tree density, store more carbon and present lower per-tree sequestration rates than Miami-Dade as a result of environmental conditions and urbanization patterns. Areas characterized by natural pine-oak forests, mangroves, and stands of highly invasive trees were most apt at sequestering CO2. Results indicate that urban tree sequestration offsets CO2 emissions and, relative to total city-wide emissions, is moderately effective at 3.4 percent and 1.8 percent in Gainesville and Miami-Dade, respectively. Moreover, converting available non-treed areas into urban forests would not increase overall CO2 emission reductions substantially. Current CO2 sequestration by trees was comparable to implemented CO2 reduction policies. However, long-term objectives, multiple ecosystem services, costs, community needs, and preservation of existing forests should be considered when managing trees for climate change mitigation and other ecosystem services.
Environmental Pollution, Volume 158, Issue 4, April 2010, Pages 1095-1104
The use of agroforestry crops is a promising tool for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel substitution. In particular, plantations characterised by high yields such as short rotation forestry (SRF) are becoming popular worldwide for biomass production and their role acknowledged in the Kyoto Protocol. While their contribution to climate change mitigation is being investigated, the impact of climate change itself on growth and productivity of these plantations needs particular attention, since their management might need to be modified accordingly. Besides the benefits deriving from the establishment of millions of hectares of these plantations, there is a risk of increased release into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted in large amounts by most of the species commonly used. These hydrocarbons are known to play a crucial role in tropospheric ozone formation. This might represent a negative feedback, especially in regions already characterized by elevated ozone level.
Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems
Forest Ecology and Management, Volume 259, Issue 4, Pages 698-709
This study compiles and summarizes the existing knowledge about observed and projected impacts of climate change on forests in Europe. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased variability with greater risk of extreme weather events, such as prolonged drought, storms and floods. Sensitivity, potential impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability to climate change are reviewed for European forests. The most important potential impacts of climate change on forest goods and services are summarized for the Boreal, Temperate Oceanic, Temperate Continental, Mediterranean, and mountainous regions. Especially in northern and western Europe the increasing atmospheric CO2 content and warmer temperatures are expected to result in positive effects on forest growth and wood production, at least in the short–medium term. On the other hand, increasing drought and disturbance risks will cause adverse effects. These negative impacts are very likely to outweigh positive trends in southern and eastern Europe. From west to east, the drought risk increases. In the Mediterranean regions productivity is expected to decline due to strongly increased droughts and fire risks. Adaptive capacity consists of the inherent adaptive capacity of trees and forest ecosystems and of socio-economic factors determining the capability to implement planned adaptation. The adaptive capacity in the forest sector is relatively large in the Boreal and the Temperate Oceanic regions, more constrained by socio-economic factors in the Temperate Continental, and most limited in the Mediterranean region where large forest areas are only extensively managed or unmanaged. Potential impacts and risks are best studied and understood with respect to wood production. It is clear that all other goods and services provided by European forests will also be impacted by climate change, but much less knowledge is available to quantify these impacts. Understanding of adaptive capacity and regional vulnerability to climate change in European forests is not well developed and requires more focussed research efforts. An interdisciplinary research agenda integrated with monitoring networks and projection models is needed to provide information at all levels of decision making, from policy development to the management unit.
Getting REDD to work locally: lessons learned from integrated conservation and development projects
Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 13, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 164-172
Principles of justice in proposals and policy approaches to avoided deforestation: Towards a post-Kyoto climate agreement
Global Environmental Change, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 82-95
This paper offers a normative analysis of the current negotiations on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Drawing on existing theories of distributive justice, we seek to determine which interpretations of equity are embodied in the key proposals and policy approaches to REDD in the run up to a post-Kyoto climate agreement. Our analysis indicates that whilst the various proposals are characterised by different and sometimes contradictory notions of equity, it is the ideas that are more consistent with neoliberal concepts of justice that tend to prevail. The result is that despite abiding contestations and controversies, emerging REDD policy solutions for the post-2012 climate regime looks very likely to reflect a commitment to market-based approaches to forest governance. However, whilst such market-based approaches might serve the preferences of powerful players, their effectiveness in terms of forest preservation, the protection of indigenous peoples and sustainable community development remains extremely dubious. On a broader note, our analysis reinforces the growing realization that the international arena is not beyond the pale of moral arguments but rather that the governance of global environmental change implicates elemental ethical questions regarding which ways of life human beings ought to pursue.
Thomas Sikor, Johannes Stahl, Thomas Enters, Jesse C. Ribot, Neera Singh, William D. Sunderlin, Lini Wollenberg
Global Environmental Change, Volume 20, Issue 3, August 2010, Pages 423-425
At Copenhagen, the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) was ready to endorse REDD-plus and to make explicit reference to the ‘‘rights of indigenous peoples and members of local communities’’ (UNFCCC, 2009). The reference is important because it acknowledges the historical background from which REDD-plus is developing: the historical dispossession, political exclusion and cultural marginalization of indigenous peoples and members of local communities (hereafter referred to as ‘‘forest people’’). Recent experience with the recognition of forest people’s rights suggests three broad principles for operationalizing rights under REDD-plus: participation in political decision-making, equitable distribution of forest benefits, and recognition of forest people’s particular identities. In addition, the emphasis on rights requires the development of decisionmaking processes at multiple scales and related across scales. Global-scale institutions will be important but not sufficient in themselves. Effective and equitable REDD-plus requires nested forest and climate governance.
What makes a ‘REDD’ country?
Global Environmental Change, Volume 20, Issue 2, May 2010, Pages 322-332
V. Publications, Reports and other media
Degraded forests: what is it, how much is there and can carbon retention policies help restore them?
This side event on forest degradation was held at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change talks in Bonn. CIFOR scientist Markku Kanninen chaired the discussion which brought together three speakers with different perspectives on the issue. Summary of the Event.
The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise
This publication provides a tool for classifying and prioritizing potential REDD+ sub-national activities and for assessing critical constraints to project development, especially those associated with the legal, political, and institutional framework for carbon finance. The ROSE tool was developed and refined during 2009 in the course of conducting case studies in Tanzania, Uganda, and Ghana. The Tool.
A Nested Approach to REDD+
The Nature Conservancy
This report from recommends the nested approach as a way to structure effective and transparent incentive mechanisms for REDD+ implementation. The report highlights ways to structure a nested approach to REDD+ and recommends options for including this approach in an international agreement. More.
Our Land, Our Future - Promoting Indigenous Participation and Rights in Mining, Climate Change and other Natural Resources Decision-making in Guyana
Forest Peoples Programme
Final report of the Amerindian Peoples Association/Forest Peoples Programme/North-South Institute project on 'Indigenous perspectives on consultation and decision-making about mining and other natural resources: toward community strengthening, dialogue and policy change'. The Report.
Does the Opportunity Cost Approach Indicate the Real Cost of REDD+ ? : Rights and Realities of Paying for REDD+
Rights and Resources Initiative
The focus of this paper is that the contextual issues influencing the adequacy and appropriateness of opportunity cost as a proxy for payments required to obtain successful REDD+ can be major ones in most tropical developing countries; and resolving them can be expensive and time consuming. The Report.
Indigenous Peoples and Sustainable Livelihoods in Guyana: an overview of experiences and potential opportunities
Forest Peoples Programme
A summary report of research carried out by the Amerindian Peoples Association (APA) and the Forest Peoples Programme (FPP), in collaboration with the North-South Institute (NSI. The Report
Investing in REDD-plus?
The Forests Dialogue
This Review presents the synthesis of discussions and recommendations from TFD's three multi-stakeholder dialogues and one workshop on the topic. The Initiative engaged more than 100 leaders from a wide spectrum of forest stakeholders between April and September 2009. The Review.
REDD+ in dryland forests: Issues and prospects for pro-poor REDD in the miombo woodlands of southern Africa
The International Institute for Environment and Development
The lessons from Community-based natural resources management in the miombo ecoregion provide a basis on which REDD+ in dry-land forests can build. Three country case studies covering Zambia, Mozambique and Namibia were used to draw lessons from Community-based natural resources management that could inform pro-poor REDD as well as providing the likely opportunity costs of REDD+. The Report.
Programme Coordinator: Civil Society Capacity Building for Preventive Anti-Corruption measures in REDD (PAC REDD)
Transparency International, Berlin, Germany
The project is a component of TI’s five year Forest Governance Integrity (FGI) Programme. The coordinator must facilitate the smooth day-to-day operation of the project, Ensure all project deliverables are completed and coordinate with partners. More.
Post Doctoral Fellow with the Global Comparative Study on REDD
CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia
The Post Doctoral Fellow will be responsible for measuring the effectiveness of REDD project sites in reducing carbon emissions. The work will contribute deliverables for components 2 and 3, therefore the Fellow will report to the leaders of both components. The work will be largely based on field measurements at 20–30 REDD project sites in Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. More.
Scientist, REDD-Carbon Monitoring
CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia
The Scientist will undertake a comparative research project on carbon monitoring in countries participating in REDD. More.
FAO opens up database to help fight world hunger
FAOThe UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation has opened a free access to its database, the world's major data source on food, agriculture and hunger, to help global efforts to fight hunger. FAOSTAT includes data on agricultural and food production, use of fertilisers and pesticides, food aid shipments, food balance sheets, forestry and fisheries production, irrigation and water use, land use and trade in agricultural products. The Database.