CLIM-FO-L - AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTRY

No. 03/2007

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

3) News on forests and climate change

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of Interest

QUICK TIPS AND INFORMATION FOR CLIM-FO-L


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

The rules for land use, land use change and forestry under the Kyoto Protocol—lessons learned for the future climate negotiations

Höhne, N. – Wartmann, S. – Herold, A. – Freibauer, A. (2007)

Environmental Science & Policy; available online 2 May 2007

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the rules for accounting emissions of land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. It first describes the rules in detail, it then provides an overview of the history of negotiations that led to these rules and provides resulting conclusions for future international climate negotiations. We conclude that the current rules can be better understood in the light of the negotiation history. For the future, we conclude that first an agreement on the objectives of including LULUCF in the future climate regime should be developed, e.g. to contribute significantly to the ultimate objective of the convention. Further, a solid set of data should be developed that can assess the magnitude of possible options. The rules should be scientifically sound, complete and balanced as well as unambiguous before the quantitative targets are defined. They should further be simple and inclusive to include all carbon pools, i.e. provide incentives to avoid deforestation and unsustainable logging in all countries.

Exploring socioeconomic impacts of forest based mitigation projects: Lessons from Brazil and Bolivia

Boyd, E. - May, P. - Chang, M. - Veiga, F.C. (2007)

Environmental Science & Policy; available online 2 May 2007

Abstract: This paper aims to contribute new insights globally and regionally on how carbon forest mitigation contributes to sustainable development in South America. Carbon finance has emerged as a potential policy option to tackling global climate change, degradation of forests, and social development in poor countries. This paper focuses on evaluating the socioeconomic impacts of a set of forest based mitigation pilot projects that emerged under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The paper reviews research conducted in 2001–2002, drawing from empirical data from four pilot projects, derived from qualitative stakeholder interviews, and complemented by policy documents and literature. Of the four projects studied three are located in frontier areas, where there are considerable pressures for conversion of standing forest to agriculture. In this sense, forest mitigation projects have a substantial role to play in the region. Findings suggest however, that all four projects have experienced cumbersome implementation processes specifically, due to weak social objectives, poor communication, as well as time constraints. In three out of four cases, stakeholders highlighted limited local acceptance at the implementation stages. In the light of these findings, we discuss opportunities for implementation of future forest based mitigation projects in the land use sector.

An integrated spatial assessment of the investment potential of three species in southern Ontario, Canada inclusive of carbon benefits

Yemshanov, D. - McKenney, D. - Fraleigh, S. - D'Eon, S. (2007)

Forest Policy and Economics; available online 25 April 2007

Abstract: This study explores the economic feasibility of several long-rotation afforestation scenarios for southern Ontario, Canada. Three species, red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) are examined. We integrate growth and yield models, site suitability maps, and several management scenarios to investigate the investment attractiveness of these species inclusive and exclusive of carbon sequestration values. We report net present values (NPV), internal rates of return (IRR) and two break-even price metrics. For wood value only scenarios the IRRs range from 4.3 to 4.6% for red pine and 3.4–3.6% for Norway spruce (for the most attractive 10,000 ha, in a single rotation scenario). Black walnut had rates of return 3.5–3.7% for the most attractive 10,000 ha area. Adding carbon valued at Cdn $3.4 per metric ton CO2 − e (roughly 2005 prices in the Chicago Climate Exchange) increases rates of return by about 0.6% for red pine and Norway spruce and 0.4% for black walnut scenarios. Perhaps surprisingly these returns are comparable and better than 20-year rotation hybrid poplar plantations. To achieve a 6% real rate of return break-even carbon prices were $10.7/t CO2 − e for red pine, $12.6/t CO2 − e for Norway spruce and $17.2/t CO2 − e for black walnut (again for the “best” 10,000 ha). Although somewhat unremarkable, the results suggest that these longer-rotation species may be a better investment than perhaps previously expected if landowners have the appropriate site conditions.

Using airborne laser scanning to monitor tree migration in the boreal–alpine transition zone

Næsset, E. - Nelson, R. (2007)

Remote Sensing of Environment; available online 25 April 2007

Abstract: The boreal tree line is expected to advance upwards into the mountains and northwards into the tundra due to global warming. The major objective of this study was to find out if it is possible to use high-resolution airborne laser scanner data to detect very small trees — the pioneers that are pushing the tree line up into the mountains and out onto the tundra. The study was conducted in a sub-alpine/alpine environment in southeast Norway. A total of 342 small trees of Norway spruce, Scots pine, and downy birch with tree heights ranging from 0.11 to 5.20 m were precisely georeferenced and measured in field. Laser data were collected with a pulse density of 7.7 m− 2. Three different terrain models were used to process the airborne laser point cloud in order to assess the effects of different pre-processing parameters on small tree detection. Greater than 91% of all trees > 1 m tall registered positive laser height values regardless of terrain model. For smaller trees (< 1 m), positive height values were found in 5–73% of the cases, depending on the terrain model considered. For this group of trees, the highest rate of trees with positive height values was found for spruce. The more smoothed the terrain model was, the larger the portion of the trees that had positive laser height values. The accuracy of tree height derived from the laser data indicated a systematic underestimation of true tree height by 0.40 to 1.01 m. The standard deviation for the differences between laser-derived and field-measured tree heights was 0.11–0.73 m. Commission errors, i.e., the detection of terrain objects — rocks, hummocks — as trees, increased significantly as terrain smoothing increased. Thus, if no classification of objects into classes like small trees and terrain objects is possible, many non-tree objects with a positive height value cannot be separated from those actually being trees. In a monitoring context, i.e., repeated measurements over time, we argue that most other objects like terrain structures, rocks, and hummocks will remain stable over time while the trees will change as they grow and new trees are established. Thus, this study indicates that, given a high laser pulse density and a certain density of newly established trees, it would be possible to detect a sufficient portion of newly established trees over a 10 years period to claim that tree migration is taking place.

Potential synergies between existing multilateral environmental agreements in the implementation of land use, land-use change and forestry activities

Cowie, A. - Schneider, U.A. - Montanarella, L. (2007)

Environmental Science & Policy; available online 24 April 2007

Abstract: There is potential for synergy between the global environmental conventions on climate change, biodiversity and desertification: changes in land management and land use undertaken to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions can simultaneously deliver positive outcomes for conservation of biodiversity, and mitigation of desertification and land degradation. However, while there can be complementarities between the three environmental goals, there are often tradeoffs. Thus, the challenge lies in developing land use policies that promote optimal environmental outcomes, and in implementing these locally to promote sustainable development. The paper considers synergies and tradeoffs in implementing land use measures to address the objectives of the three global environmental conventions, both from an environmental and economic perspective. The intention is to provide environmental scientists and policy makers with a broad overview of these considerations, and the benefits of addressing the conventions simultaneously.

Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation

Bala, G. - Caldeira, K. - Wickett, M. - Phillips, T. J. - Lobell, D. B. - Delire, C. - Mirin, A. (2007)

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; published online before print April 9, 2007

Abstract: The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. Deforestation releases CO2 to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, evapotranspiration, and cloud cover also affect climate. Here we present results from several large-scale deforestation experiments performed with a three-dimensional coupled global carbon-cycle and climate model. These simulations were performed by using a fully three-dimensional model representing physical and biogeochemical interactions among land, atmosphere, and ocean. We find that global-scale deforestation has a net cooling influence on Earth's climate, because the warming carbon-cycle effects of deforestation are overwhelmed by the net cooling associated with changes in albedo and evapotranspiration. Latitude-specific deforestation experiments indicate that afforestation projects in the tropics would be clearly beneficial in mitigating global-scale warming, but would be counterproductive if implemented at high latitudes and would offer only marginal benefits in temperate regions. Although these results question the efficacy of mid- and high-latitude afforestation projects for climate mitigation, forests remain environmentally valuable resources for many reasons unrelated to climate.

Influence of climate change factors on carbon dynamics in northern forested peatlands

Trettin, C.C. - Laiho, R. - Minkkinen, K. - Laine, J. (2006)

Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86 (2): 269-280

Abstract: Peatlands are carbon-accumulating wetland ecosystems, developed through an imbalance among organic matter production and decomposition processes. Soil saturation is the principal cause of anoxic conditions that constrain organic matter decay. Accordingly, changes in the hydrologic regime will affect the carbon (C) dynamics in forested peatlands. Our objective is to review ecological studies and experiments on managed peatlands that provide a basis for assessing the effects of an altered hydrology on C dynamics. We conclude that climate change influences will be mediated primarily through the hydrologic cycle. A lower water table resulting from altered precipitation patterns and increased atmospheric temperature may be expected to decrease soil CH4 and increase CO2 emissions from the peat surface. Correspondingly, the C balance in forested peatlands is also sensitive to management and restoration prescriptions. Increases in soil CO2 efflux do not necessarily equate with net losses from the soil C pool. While the fundamentals of the C balance in peatlands are well-established, the combined affects of global change stressors and management practices are best considered using process-based biogeochemical models. Long-term studies are needed both for validation and to provide a framework for longitudinal assessments of the peatland C cycle.

Modeling carbon sequestration with CO2Fix and a timber supply model for use in forest management planning

Neilson, E.T. - MacLean, D.A. - Arp, P.A. - Meng, F. R. - Bourque, C.P.A. - Bhatti, J.S. (2006)

Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86 (2): 219-233

Abstract: Carbon (C) dynamics and forest management have become integrated in recent years, largely due to the Kyoto Protocol stipulating that forest C changes may be accountable in an emissions framework. A carbon stock modelling framework for forest managers is introduced. Empirical growth and yield models are used to develop sustainable timber supply for forest companies. These models use linear programming to solve the complex mathematical problem of timing and allocation of forest harvest and silviculture interventions. We evaluated the effects of "business as usual" forest management versus management objectives to maximize C sequestration. Goal programming was used to minimize the deviation of two goals for C forest management: maximizing C in the forest, and maximizing the return on investment (net present value of forest timber products). Species-specific wood-to-C content conversion factors were used to parameterize the amount of C in forest stands on Canadian Forces Base Gagetown forest lands in New Brunswick, Canada. Goal programming reduced the loss of revenue associated with increasing C stocks in the forest. Partial harvesting and high valued end-products tended to increase C stocks and provided a higher return on investment in the simulations.

The likely impact of elevated CO2, nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review

Hyvonen, R. et al (2007)

New Phytologist 173 (3): 463-480

Abstract: Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, in the form of both biomass and soil organic matter. Increasing atmospheric CO2, increasing temperature, elevated nitrogen deposition and intensified management will change this C store. Well documented single-factor responses of net primary production are: higher photosynthetic rate (the main CO2 response); increasing length of growing season (the main temperature response); and higher leaf-area index (the main N deposition and partly CO] response). Soil organic matter will increase with increasing litter input, although priming may decrease the soil C stock initially, but litter quality effects should be minimal (response to CO2, N deposition, and temperature); will decrease because of increasing temperature; and will increase because of retardation of decomposition with N deposition, although the rate of decomposition of high-quality litter can be increased and that of low-quality litter decreased. Single-factor responses can be misleading because of interactions between factors, in particular those between N and other factors, and indirect effects such as increased N availability from temperature-induced decomposition. In the long term the strength of feedbacks, for example the increasing demand for N from increased growth, will dominate over short-term responses to single factors. However, management has considerable potential for controlling the C store.

Climate change effects on Mediterranean forests and preventive measures

Dios, V.R. - Fischer, C. - Colinas,-C (2007)

New Forests 33 (1): 29-40

Abstract: This paper synthesizes and reviews literature concerning climate change effects on Mediterranean forest ecology and management as well as the restorative techniques necessary to maintain forest health, forest yield and biodiversity. Climate change compounded with trends of rural abandonment are likely to diminish forested areas within the Mediterranean basin that will be replaced by fire prone shrub communities. This could be favoured by outbreaks of pathogens, fire and other large-scale disturbances. Landscape fragmentation is expected to impede species migration. Annual increments and subsequent income from forests are expected to decrease. Re/afforestations are necessary to ensure the presence of propagates of forest species and their site-specific varieties best adapted to future climatic conditions even though they may be different from the present forest-plant community. Current challenges in biodiversity conservation can only be met by afforestations whose main objective is to maintain ecosystem functioning. A new silviculture must emerge encompassing these habitat displacement and economic concerns while maximizing carbon sequestration.

Temporal variations and distribution of carbon stocks in aboveground biomass of radiata pine and maritime pine pure stands under different silvicultural alternatives

Balboa-Murias, M.A. - Rodriguez-Soalleiro, R. - Merino, A. - Alvarez-Gonzalez, J.G. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management 237 (1/3): 29-38

Abstract: In recent years, there has been considerable interest in evaluating carbon (C) budgets in forests because of the importance of these ecosystems as C sources and sinks. Quantifying forest net primary production (NPP) is critical to understanding the global C cycle because forests are responsible for a large portion of the total terrestrial NPP. The present study provides information about the temporal and spatial dynamics of C stored in aboveground tree biomass in even-aged, pure stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and radiata pine (P. radiata) managed under different silvicultural regimes in northwest Spain. C budgets (storage calculations) for tree biomass provide useful information for characterizing forests as important C sinks and allow assessment of the potential effects of harvesting and logging residue management on forest C status. Stand dynamic growth models were used to estimate the amount of C accumulated in the remaining stand and the amount removed in thinning treatments throughout the whole rotation. For radiata pine, C sequestration in total aboveground tree biomass at stand level in the whole rotation (thinnings and clear felling at 30 years) ranged from 3.4 t ha-1 year-1 (the lowest initial stocking density, the worst site quality and 35% of thinning intensity) to 5.9 t ha-1 year-1 (the highest initial stocking density, the best site quality and 15% of thinning intensity). For maritime pine, the amount of tree biomass at stand level was significantly lower than in radiata pine stands, and mean annual carbon storage ranged from 2.3 to 4.6 t ha-1 year-1 for the same rotation length. The total aboveground and stem wood biomass C pools in these stands can be increased by increasing the rotation age and site quality and decreasing thinning intensity. Selection of the best site qualities, reduction of the thinning intensity and perhaps extension of the rotation length are therefore possible strategies for sustainable management of pine stands in Spain when the main objective is biomass production and C sequestration.

Projecting land-use change processes in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico

Gomez-Mendoza, L. - Vega-Pena, E. - Ramirez, M.I. - Palacio-Prieto, J.L. - Galicia, L. (2007)

Applied Geography 26 (3/4): 276-290

Abstract: The objective of study was to explore short-term trends of processes that determine land-use change in Sierra Norte of Oaxaca (SNO), Mexico. Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) were estimated in a complex mosaic of vegetation in the SNO from 1980 to 2000, and projected them to 2020 through a Markovian model. SNO is highly vulnerable to climatic change according to a 2050 GCM scenario. However, 3% annual rate of tropical and temperate forest deforestation from agriculture and livestock encroachment, suggest the threat from land-use change is higher than that from climatic change for this study site. Productive land-use strategies are needed to reduce such high deforestation rates for tropical regions. Controlling deforestation would also reduce short-term effects of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Because of the necessity to evaluate anthropogenic ecosystem changes, it is imperative to separate short-term influences such as deforestation, from long-term influences such as climatic change.

Forest biomass estimation through NDVI composites - The role of remotely sensed data to assess Spanish forests as carbon sinks

Gonzalez Alonso, F. – Merino de Miguel, S. - Roldan-Zamarron, A. - Garcia-Gigorro, S. - Cuevas, J.M. (2006)

International Journal of Remote Sensing 27 (24): 5409 – 5415

Abstract: The present study is focused on the capabilities of remote sensing data and techniques to help in the monitoring of forest ecosystems as carbon sinks. It will attempt to find statistical relationships between satellite-derived NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data from SPOT-VEGETATION and NOAA-AVHRR and field measurements from the Spanish National Forest Inventory on the geographical basis of provinces. Statistically significant relationships were obtained when correlating the aforementioned datasets. These relationships were then used to predict forest biomass at a national level, in order to obtain updated forest information between consecutive National Forest Inventories.

State of vegetation, erosion, climatic conditions and re-vegetation technology in Mid Hill area of Nepal

Devkota, B.D. - Omura, H. - Kubota, T. - Morita, K. (2006)

Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 51 (2): 361-365

Abstract: Nepal is a mountainous country which is suffering from mass movements and surface erosion annually because of its steep terrain, fragile geology and high rainfall characteristics. The occurrence of shallow depth and translational landslides, gully erosion, bank erosion, surface erosion and flooding are the major erosional problems. In the case of Nepal, the constructions of larger hard structures are not affordable due to the poor economic condition and rugged terrain nature. Therefore, the use of revegetation technology is the cheapest and easy method for erosion control. Due to climatic variations the common hazards and vegetation types in each zone also differs. It is necessary to identify the suitable plant species and revegetation technology that can be used for erosion mitigation in Mid Hill region.

Biomass estimation over a large area based on standwise forest inventory data and ASTER and MODIS satellite data: A possibility to verify carbon inventories

Muukkonen, P. - Heiskanen, J. (2006)

Remote Sensing of Environment 107 (4): 617-624

Abstract: According to the IPCC GPG (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Good Practice Guidance), remote sensing methods are especially suitable for independent verification of the national LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry) carbon pool estimates, particularly the aboveground biomass. In the present study, we demonstrate the potential of standwise (forest stand is a homogenous forest unit with average size of 1–3 ha) forest inventory data, and ASTER and MODIS satellite data for estimating stand volume (m3 ha− 1) and aboveground biomass (t ha− 1) over a large area of boreal forests in southern Finland. The regression models, developed using standwise forest inventory data and standwise averages of moderate spatial resolution ASTER data (15 m × 15 m), were utilized to estimate stand volume for coarse resolution MODIS pixels (250 m × 250 m). The MODIS datasets for three 8-day periods produced slightly different predictions, but the averaged MODIS data produced the most accurate estimates. The inaccuracy in radiometric calibration between the datasets, the effect of gridding and compositing artifacts and phenological variability are the most probable reasons for this variability. Averaging of the several MODIS datasets seems to be one possibility to reduce bias. The estimates obtained were significantly close to the district-level mean values provided by the Finnish National Forest Inventory; the relative RMSE was 9.9%. The use of finer spatial resolution data is an essential step to integrate ground measurements with coarse spatial resolution data. Furthermore, the use of standwise forest inventory data reduces co-registration errors and helps in solving the scaling problem between the datasets. The approach employed here can be used for estimating the stand volume and biomass, and as required independent verification data.

Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries

DeFries, R. - Achard, F. - Brown, S. - Herold, M. - Murdiyarso, D. - Schlamadinger, B. - Carlos de Souza, C. (2007)

Environmental Science & Policy; available online 9 April 2007

Abstract: In response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process investigating the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation in developing countries, this paper reviews technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation and estimating emissions. Implementation of policies to reduce emissions from deforestation require effective deforestation monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent results, meet standards for mapping accuracy, and can be implemented at the national level. Remotely sensed data supported by ground observations are key to effective monitoring. Capacity in developing countries for deforestation monitoring is well-advanced in a few countries and is a feasible goal in most others. Data sources exist to determine base periods in the 1990s as historical reference points. Forest degradation (e.g. from high impact logging and fragmentation) also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions but it is more technically challenging to measure than deforestation. Data on carbon stocks, which are needed to estimate emissions, cannot currently be observed directly over large areas with remote sensing. Guidelines for carbon accounting from deforestation exist and are available in approved Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and can be applied at national scales in the absence of forest inventory or other data. Key constraints for implementing programs to monitor greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation are international commitment of resources to increase capacity, coordination of observations to ensure pan-tropical coverage, access to free or low-cost data, and standard and consensual protocols for data interpretation and analysis.

Impact of climate change on radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in North-western Russia

Lopatin, E. – Kolström, T. – Spiecker, H. (2007)

Forest@ 4 (1): 28-41 online: http://www.sisef.it/

Abstract: When adapting forest management practices to a changing environment, it is very important to understand the response of an unmanaged natural forest to climate change. The method used to identify major climatic factors influencing radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine along a latitudinal gradient in north-western Russia is dendroclimatic analysis. A clear increasing long-term trend was identified in air temperature and precipitation. During the last 20 years, all meteorological stations experienced temperature increases, and 40 years ago precipitation began to increase. This is shown by the radial increment of Siberian spruce and Scots pine. Therefore, climate change could partly explain the increased forest productivity. The total variance explained by temperature varied from 22% to 41% and precipitation from 19% to 38%. The significant climatic parameters for radial increment in Komi Republic were identified, and the relation between temperature and precipitation in explained variance changes over time for Siberian spruce.

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

UNFCCC: 13th meeting of the afforestation and reforestation working group

UNFCCC Headquarters, Bonn, Germany, 19 - 21 March 2007

The AR Working Group gave the following recommendations to the CDM Executive Board:

    • On procedures to demonstrate the eligibility of lands for afforestation and reforestation project activities

    • Guidance on application of the A/R CDM definition of forest in stands with several storeys

    • Methodological tool for calculation of the number of sample plots for measurements within A/R CDM project activities

    • Tool for testing significance of GHG emissions in A/R CDM project activities

The 29 June 2007 was recommended as the deadline for the fourteenth round of submissions of proposed new methodologies.

The A/R WG reminded project proponents that baseline and monitoring methodologies can be submitted at any time.

The report and annexes of the meeting is available at: http://cdm.unfccc.int/Panels/ar

UNFCCC: 31st meeting of the CDM Executive Board

Date of meeting: 2 − 4 May 2007

Location: UNFCCC HQ, Bonn, Germany

Following the recommendations of the 13th meeting of the afforestation and reforestation working group, the EB took note of the Draft procedure to demonstrate the eligibility of lands for A/R project activities under the CDM and agreed to launch an additional call for public input, as requested by COP/MOP 2, on comments to the draft procedure as contained in annex 14 to the EB31 report. The call shall start on 7 May 2007 and end on 18 June 2007 at 17:00 GMT.

Direct link to the call for inputs page: http://cdm.unfccc.int/public_inputs/EB31_ARWG_Land_egibility

The Board considered and approved the Draft methodological tool for the calculation of the number of sample plots for measurements within A/R CDM project activities.

Further, the EB considered and approved the draft tool for testing the significance of GHG emissions in A/R CDM project activities

Please find the full report and annexes at: http://cdm.unfccc.int/EB/index.html

LULUCF: Joint Implementation, Green Investment Schemes, and other domestic LULUCF activities by Annex I countries

Workshop Announcement

Place and date: Budapest, 21-22 May 2007

Venue: Monument Building, Popper Room, Nádor 9, District 5, 1051 Budapest, Hungary

Organized by JOANNEUM RESEARCH (Austria)

Hosted by the Central European University (Budapest)

Co-sponsorship by COST Action 639, Carbon-Pro, QUEST and TerraCarbon

The workshop announcement can be found at: www.joanneum.at/climate/ji-gis-lulucf-workshop.pdf

E-conference on "Climate Change and the Himalayan Glaciers"

The Environmentalists' Association of Nepal (EAN) in association with the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MoEST), Government of Nepal, is organising an e-conference on "Climate Change and the Himalayan Glaciers" form 7th May 2007 to 28th May 2007, to celebrate the World Environment Day in Nepal and the Himalaya.

The objective of this e-conference is to facilitate a series of dialogues on the e-conference theme between different stakeholders. Synthesis of the first event in this series will be released on 5 June 2007, to mark the World Environment Day 2007. The e-conference is being organised to realise a need to promote knowledge sharing mechanism on the e-conference theme.

More information is available online at: http://www.freewebs.com/climatehimalaya/index.htm

Call for papers - First announcement "Managing Alpine Future" 15-17.10.2007

The international Conference "Managing Alpine Future" on the topics of regional impact of Climate Change and aspects of globalization for alpine regions takes place from the 15-17 October 2007 at the convention centre "Congress Innsbruck".

For further details please download this leaflet from: http://www.alp-s.at/alpinefuture/docs/pdf/first_announcement.pdf

3) News on forests and climate change

Seeing the trees for the forest: WHRC scientists creating national biomass and carbon dataset

After completing a two-year pilot phase, scientists at the Woods Hole Research Center are expanding the scope of the "National Biomass and Carbon Dataset" for the year 2000 (NBCD2000) by moving into the production phase. Through a combination of NASA satellite datasets, topographic survey data, land use/land cover data, and extensive forest inventory data collected by the U.S. Forest Service – Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA), NBCD2000 will be an invaluable baseline data set for the assessment of the carbon stock in U.S. forest vegetation and will improve current methods of determining carbon flux between vegetation and the atmosphere.

(from Eureka alert)

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-04/whrc-stt043007.php

Satellites Play Vital Role In Understanding The Carbon Cycle

The global carbon cycle plays a vital role in climate change and is of intense importance to policy makers, but significant knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of it. Several scientists at the Envisat Symposium this week have highlighted research projects using ESA satellites to understand better this complex process.

(from Space daily)

http://www6.lexisnexis.com/publisher/EndUser?Action=UserDisplayFullDocument&orgId=1925&topicId=100002042&docId=l:603931238&start=1&dateId=20070426

UN adopts new International Agreement to protect world’s forests

After 15 years of discussions and negotiations on a global approach to protect the world’s forests, countries meeting at United Nations Headquarters in New York have adopted a landmark agreement on international forest policy and cooperation following two weeks of intense negotiations. The new agreement, although not legally binding, sets a standard in forest management that is expected to have a major impact on international cooperation and national action to reduce deforestation, prevent forest degradation, promote sustainable livelihoods and reduce poverty for all forest-dependent peoples.

(United Nations statement)

http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=22389&Cr=forests&Cr1=

Indonesia's Aceh, Papua Pledge to Protect Forests

Governors from three Indonesian provinces which are home to most of the country's rainforests pledged on Thursday to conserve them as part of efforts to mitigate the impact of climate change.

(from ENN)

http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=12664

Ottawa changes mind about factoring in forests as carbon sinks - for now

Canadian forests inhale huge amounts of greenhouse gases and, about seven years ago, federal negotiators were pushing to allow industrialized countries to use forests in calculations linked to the Kyoto protocol to control greenhouse gas emissions. But now Ottawa has quietly decided not to use Canada’s forests in initial emissions calculations.

(from Canwest News Service)

http://www.canada.com/topics/news/national/story.html?id=fb1ac035-87ce-45f7-b970-ce71869df48b&k=7616

US joins Australia on forests project

The United States has agreed to work with Australia on the federal government's global forests initiative to address climate change. The federal government announced the launch of an international fund to prevent deforestation in the developing world and committed $200 million targeting Australia's northern neighbours.

(from Sydney Morning Herald)

http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/us-joins-australia-on-forests-project/2007/04/07/1175366512024.html

East Africa establishes climate monitoring centre

East African countries have strengthened the region's capacity to predict climate-related disasters by establishing a regional climate monitoring institution.

(from Science and Development Network)

http://www.scidev.net/content/news/eng/east-africa-establishes-climate-monitoring-centre.cfm

First Two Carbon Forestry Projects Certified under ‘CCB Standards’

Demonstrate Potential of Land-Management to Generate Climate, Local Community and Biodiversity Benefits

The Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA) announced the first two forestry projects to be independently certified under its Climate, Community & Biodiversity (CCB) Standards. The projects, in Panama and China, go beyond the Kyoto Protocol requirements and demonstrate how well-designed land-management projects can deliver compelling environmental and sustainable development benefits in addition to combating climate change.

(from www.climate-standards.org )

4) New Publications

Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change

Fourth Assessment Report, Summary for Policymakers

Working Group III contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Description: The Summary for Policymakers was formally approved at the 9th Session of

Working Group III of the IPCC, Bangkok, Thailand, 30 April – 4 May 2007. The Working Group III contribution focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on COB2B Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC). The following summary is organised into six sections after this introduction:

    • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends

    • Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030)

    • Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030)

    • Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change

    • Sustainable development and climate change mitigation

    • Gaps in knowledge

The summary for policy makers can be downloaded here: http://www.ipcc.ch/SPM040507.pdf

Report on the second workshop on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Note by the secretariat (2007)

Abstract: The secretariat organized a second workshop on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, which too place in Cairns, Australia, from 7 to 9 March 2007. The discussions at this workshop focused on ongoing and potential policy approaches and positive incentives, and technical and methodological requirements related to their implementation; the assessment of results and their reliability; and improving the understanding of reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries. Participants heard technical presentations and updated proposals on potential policy approaches and positive incentives. They exchanged views and discussed in detail issues related to technical and methodological requirements, the establishment of baselines, permanence, leakage, definitions, and emissions from degradation. They also discussed various financing options to support positive incentives, including market-based mechanisms and non-market financial resources. While participants reached agreement on several areas, such as the need for capacity-building and pilot activities, they also identified several issues requiring further consideration. Possible next steps were proposed to advance the work of the SBSTA and of the Conference of the Parties on this issue. The SBSTA may wish to consider the information in this report and provide guidance on further action.

Find the report here: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/sbsta/eng/03.pdf

Guidebook to markets and commercialization of forestry CDM projects

Neeff, T. - Henders, S. (2007)

Technical manual / CATIE (65): 42 p

Description: This guidebook is directed towards the developer of afforestation and reforestation project activities under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It provides an overview of forestry CDM projects, a description of the carbon markets, and it gives recommendations to the project developer. The information contained in this guidebook is based on experience by major market players, in-depth interviews with key market actors, a review of secondary information, and on a survey among market actors. The guidebook lists minimum requirements that CDM forestry projects need to meet, outlines steps of the CDM project cycle, gives an overview of risks, looks at forestry CDM projects from a financial viewpoint, and discusses quality standards. The present state of the markets is outlined and some of the mechanics and policy processes underlying them are described. The fourth section is dedicated to the procedures for commercialization of carbon credits and analyzes buyers’ preferences, and project success criteria. Finally, recommendations are given for strategies for carbon credit commercialization. The project developer is provided with a check-list to checking concrete initiatives against the data and the insights that this guidebook compiles.

You can access the guidebook here: http://www.proyectoforma.com/Documentos/GuidebooktoMarketsandCommercializationofCDMforestryProjects.pdf

Carbon 2007 - A new climate for carbon trading

Report on the state of the carbon market

Point carbon (2007)

Description: The report draws upon the world’s largest ever carbon market survey as well as Point Carbon’s databases. The report provides an in-depth analysis of the global carbon markets in 2006 and outlook for 2007 and the first Kyoto periods from 2008 onwards. It also includes a section on the increasingly converging energy and carbon markets.

To download the report, please go to: http://www.pointcarbon.com/Research%20&%20Advisory/category365.html

Responsible management of planted forests: voluntary guidelines

FAO (2006)

Planted Forests and Trees Working Paper 37/E

Description: This working paper reports on issues and activities in the planted forests sector. The guidelines and implementation considerations assist policy, legal, planning and management decision-makers and managers in making better long-term decisions and in undertaking more responsible actions to maximise the positive and minimise the negative impacts in planted forest investments and management. The scope of the guidelines is global: they may be adopted and applied to planted forests in all eco-geographical zones and to countries, regions and landscapes in all stages of economic development. The objectives of these guidelines are to:

    • promote the positive contribution that planted forests can make to livelihood needs

    • codify generally accepted principles for strengthening the policy, legal and institutional enabling framework for sound investment in and management of planted forests

    • contribute to an improved understanding of planted forests, in order to aid the formulation and implementation of national and subnational planted forest policies and programmes

Available online at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/j9256e/j9256e00.pdf

5) Climate Change jobs

UNFCCC: 4 vacancies

Information Systems Officer (P3), Integrated Information Systems (IIS)

Reporting, Data and Analysis Programme

Deadline 04 Jun 2007

Programme Officer (P3), CDM/Accreditation Unit

Sustainable Mechanisms (SD) Programme

Deadline: 21 May 2007

Information Systems Officer (P3), Integrated Information Systems

Reporting, Data and Analysis Programme

Deadline: 05 June 2007

Associate Programme Officer (P2), Integrated Information Systems

Reporting, Data and Analysis Programme

Deadline: 04 June 2007

Find the vacancy announcements here: http://unfccc.int/secretariat/employment/vacancies/items/1216.php

Job offers in the CDM market

A compilation of various job offers in the CDM market can be found at http://www.carbon-financeonline.com/index.cfm?section=jobs

Global carbon project: Announcement for research position

The Global carbon project is looking for one researcher to work on a project which started in April 2007 as part of a larger team (about 40 researchers) that includes members from a number of key research institutions in Japan. The goal of the overall project is to conduct a synthetic study on next-generation climate change scenarios. The successful candidate will provide input on a component of this research, entitled “spatially-explicit emission and land use change scenarios”. In particular, the sub-component on which the researcher will work is entitled “Research on validating spatially-explicit scenarios and building an international network”. The researcher will also be required to contribute to research and activities related to the Urban and Regional Carbon Management initiative (www.gcp-urcm.org) of the Global Carbon Project (www.globalcarbonproject.org).

Interested applicants are requested to submit a CV, a cover letter expressing interest/relevant experience, a list of publications, and the names and contact information of two referees (preferably by e-mail) to:

Dr. Shobhakar Dhakal
Executive Director
Global Carbon Project - Tsukuba International Office
National Institute for Environmental Studies
16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan 305 8506
Tel: +81 29 850 2672, Fax: +81 29 850 2960
E-mail: shobhakar.dhakal@nies.go.jp (please cc to: ojima.yukako@nies.go.jp)

Applicants are encouraged to contact for any queries regarding the position. Selection process will begin on 15 June, 2007 until position is filled.

6) Websites of Interest

Carbon tracker: A system to keep track of carbon dioxide uptake and release at the Earth's surface over time

Carbon Tracker is designed for policy makers, industry, scientists, and the public need Carbon Tracker information to make informed decisions to limit greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere. The website gives information on a system that calculates carbon dioxide uptake and release at the Earth's surface over time. It estimates the carbon dioxide exchange from an 'atmospheric point of view'.

Website: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/carbontracker/overview.html


Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Eugene Lopatin, Christel Palmberg-Lerche, Bernhard Schlamadinger, Susanne Woess-Gallasch

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last updated:  Tuesday, November 18, 2008