CLIM-FO-L - AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTRY

No. 02/2007

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

3) News on forests and climate change

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of Interest

QUICK TIPS AND INFORMATION FOR CLIM-FO-L


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

Effects of rotation period on biomass production and atmospheric CO2 emissions from broadleaved stands growing on abandoned farmland

Eriksson, E. - Johansson, T. (2006)

Silva-Fennica 40 (4): 603-613

Abstract: The growth rates and carbon stocks of unthinned young and mature stands of broadleaved trees growing on abandoned farmland were determined to assess whether their management regimes should involve short (15 years) or long (45 years) rotations to maximize biomass production and reductions of CO2 emissions. Dry mass production and mean annual increment (MAI) were calculated for 28 young stands and 65 mature stands of European aspen (Populus tremula), common alder (Alnus glutinosa), grey alder (Alnus incana), silver birch (Betula pendula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens.) ranging in latitude from 57 degrees to 63 degrees N in Sweden. The potential for using biomass from the stands to replace coal as fuel and to store carbon was then evaluated both in short and long rotation scenarios. The results indicate that long rotations are beneficial if the objective is to maximize the average carbon stock in biomass. If, on the other hand, the intention is to optimize reductions in atmospheric CO2 emissions, rotations should be short for aspen, silver birch and grey alder stands. For downy birch and common alder, the MAI was higher for the mature stands than the young stands, indicating that in these species the mature stands are superior for both storing carbon and replacing fossil fuel. Stands of broadleaved trees grown to produce biofuel on abandoned farmland should be established on fertile soils to promote high MAI. If the MAI is low, the rotation period should be long to maximize the average carbon stock.

Agricultural production, greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential

Vergé, X.P.C. - De Kimpe, C. - Desjardins, R.L. (2006)

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; available online 13 November 2006

Abstract
: During the next three decades, Asia will remain the largest food consumer (increasing from 40 to 55% of the global consumption between 2000 and 2015) and the largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) from agriculture (about 50% of the total emissions). The growth of food demand in Africa and South America will cause substantial increase in GHG emissions by the agri-food sector, unless improved management systems are adopted. The higher food consumption rate (kJ person−1 day−1) around the world is primarily a result of improved crop production and higher percentage of animal products in diet. The latter will, however, result in more CH4 emissions. The growing use of N fertilizers is also a concern. The part not taken up by crops (more than 50%) is either lost through leaching or released to the atmosphere as N gases including nitrous oxide. Between 2000 and 2030, the total GHG emissions are expected to increase by about 50%, with further impact on weather and climate. Mitigation techniques such as improved feed quality for a better digestibility, improved manure management, greater N use efficiency, better water management of rice paddies and/or by increasing the role of agro-forestry in agriculture, have to be considered in order to minimize the impact of agriculture on climate.

How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration?

Jandl, R. - Lindner, M. - Vesterdal, L. - Bauwens, B. - Baritz, R. - Hagedorn, F. - Johnson, D.W. - Minkkinen, K. - Byrne, K.A. (2007)

Geoderma 137 (3-4): 253-268

Abstract: We reviewed the experimental evidence for long-term carbon (C) sequestration in soils as consequence of specific forest management strategies. Utilization of terrestrial C sinks alleviates the burden of countries which are committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Land-use changes such as those which result from afforestation and management of fast-growing tree species have an immediate effect on the regional rate of C sequestration by incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2) in plant biomass. The potential for such practices is limited in Europe by environmental and political constraints. The management of existing forests can also increase C sequestration, but earlier reviews found conflicting evidence regarding the effects of forest management on soil C pools. We analyzed the effects of harvesting, thinning, fertilization application, drainage, tree species selection, and control of natural disturbances on soil C dynamics. We focused on factors that affect the C input to the soil and the C release via decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The differentiation of SOM into labile and stable soil C fractions is important. There is ample evidence about the effects of management on the amount of C in the organic layers of the forest floor, but much less information about measurable effects of management on stable C pools in the mineral soil. The C storage capacity of the stable pool can be enhanced by increasing the productivity of the forest and thereby increasing the C input to the soil. Minimizing the disturbances in the stand structure and soil reduces the risk of unintended C losses. The establishment of mixed species forests increases the stability of the forest and can avoid high rates of SOM decomposition. The rate of C accumulation and its distribution within the soil profile differs between tree species. Differences in the stability of SOM as a direct species effect have not yet been reported.

Linking carbon sequestration science with local sustainability: An integrated assessment approach

Yin, Y. - Xu, W. - Zhou, S. (2006)

Journal of Environmental Management; available online 13 November 2006

Abstract: This paper introduces an integrated assessment (IA) approach for a Canada-China joint research project that linked forest carbon sequestration, forest resource management, and local sustainability enhancement. The purpose of the IA was to improve the measurement of carbon in different land uses and vegetation covers, as well as to direct decision makers to those land uses or options as a CO2 emission reduction strategy while supporting rural sustainable development. In this connection, three questions are addressed in this paper:

1) How will forestry carbon sequestration land use policies affect regional sustainability prospects in rural China?

2) How could carbon sequestration land use plans be better integrated into sustainable development strategies?

3) How can the IA approach assist Chinese government agencies in design effective forestry land use policies?

The IA approach was applied in three rural sites of western China. These case studies are described in detail by following articles in this volume. The project improved the capacity of local resource managers in identifying the economic, social and environmental impacts of rural land use decisions that might increase carbon sequestration and enhance local livelihood.

Increase in carbon emissions from forest fires after intensive reforestation and forest management programs

Choi, S.-D. - Chang, Y.-S. - Park, B.-K. (2006)

Science of The Total Environment 372 (1): 225-235

Abstract: This paper shows an example of substantial increase in carbon emissions from forest fires after reforestation on a national scale. It is the first estimation of historical carbon emissions from forest fires in Korea during the last 40 years. Investigation was focused on the recent increase in large forest fires and its closely related factors. A simple modeling approach to estimate carbon emission was applied. The direct carbon emission from forest fires in 2000, ranging from 115 to 300 Gg C, corresponds to 1–3% of the annual carbon uptake by forests. The influence of forest fires on the carbon cycle in Korea is not so significant, but Korean forests have a large potential for generating severe local fires due to increasing forest carbon density and a high forest area ratio (forest area/total land area) of 65%. The carbon emission per area burned (Mg C ha− 1) clearly reflects the trend toward increases in the number of severe fires. Statistical analyses and the trends of annual temperature and precipitation show that the recent large increase in carbon emissions may be the negative consequences of intensive forest regrowth that is the product of successful reforestation and forest management programs rather than the effect of climate change. These results imply a need for further studies in other countries, where large-scale plantation has been conducted, to evaluate the role of plantation and forest fires on the global carbon cycle.

Biomass production and carbon sequestration potential in poplar plantations with different management patterns

Fang, S. - Xue, J. - Tang, L. (2006)

Journal of Environmental Management; available online 15 November 2006

Abstract: Biomass production and carbon storage in short-rotation poplar plantations over 10 years were evaluated at the Hanyuan Forestry Farm, Baoying County, China. Experimental treatments applied in a split-plot design included four planting densities (1111, 833, 625 and 500 stems ha−1) and three poplar clones (NL-80351, I-69 and I-72). Based on the model of total biomass production developed, total plantation biomass production was significantly different in the plantations. The ranking of the plantation biomass production by planting density was 1111>833>>625>500 stems ha−1, and by components was stem>root ≥branch>leaf for all plantations. At 10 years, the highest total biomass in the plantation of 1111 stems ha−1 reached about 146 t ha−1, which was 5.3%, 11.6% and 24.2% higher than the plantations of 833, 625 and 500 stems ha−1, respectively. The annual increment of biomass production over10 years differed significantly among initial planting densities and stand ages (p<0.01), but no significant difference was observed from age 7 to 10. Mean carbon concentration among all biomass components ranged from 42–50%, with the highest carbon concentrations in stems and the lowest in leaves. Over the study period, the dynamic pattern of total plantation carbon storage by planting density was similar to that of total biomass production. At age 10, the highest total plantation carbon storage in the plantation of 1111 stems ha−1 reached about 72.0 t ha−1, which was 5.4%, 11.9% and 24.8% higher than in the plantations of 833, 625 and 500 stems ha−1, respectively. The annual carbon storage increment over 10 years differed significantly among initial planting densities and stand ages (p<0.01), and it showed a pattern similar to the annual biomass production increment of the plantations. The results suggest that biomass production and carbon storage potential were highest for planting densities of 1111 and 833 stems ha−1 grown over 5- and 6-year cutting cycles, respectively. If 3- or 4-year cutting cycles are used, the planting density should be higher than 1111 stems ha−1 (e.g., 1667 or 2500 stems ha−1). Based on the mean annual carbon storage for the plantation of 625 stems ha−1, as estimation, the mean carbon storage in the biomass of poplar plantations (excluding leaves) amounts to 3.75×107 t ha−1 yr−1 in China.

The usefulness of stability concepts in forest management when coping with increasing climate uncertainties

Bodin, P. - Wiman, B.L.B. (2007)

Forest Ecology and Management; available online 22 February 2007

Abstract: Forest management is challenged by increasing needs to adapt practices to future climate change likely to be characterised by a changing frequency of extreme weather events, in turn in uncertain ways resulting in more pronounced disturbances on forests. In this paper, we explore the extent to which insights acquired by ecological theory, in particular with respect to stabilising properties, have been of use to forest management theory and practice, and whether these insights can be applied in a valuable way to forest managers in view of increasingly uncertain disturbance regimes. We find it highly unlikely that there exists one strategy option that can optimise for all types of disturbances and that can also maximise for all other demands placed on forest management. Therefore, management needs to be related to the most relevant disturbances; or, alternatively, a multitude of management options may be combined as an insurance strategy. Possibly, heterogeneous/mixed forest communities could insure against climate-change related pressures. We also note the importance of spatio-temporal scales when relating disturbance to stability, and thus the needs for advancing modelling in that field to assist in developing management strategies for the future.

Carbon sequestration in the U.S. forest sector from 1990 to 2010

Woodbury, P.B. - Smith, J.E. - Heath, L.S. (2007)

Forest Ecology and Management 241 (1-3): 14-27

Abstract: Forest inventory data supplemented with data from intensive research sites and models were used to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration rates in U.S. forests, including effects of land use change. Data on the production of wood products and emission from decomposition were used to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration rates in wood products and landfills. From 1990 through 2005, the forest sector (including forests and wood products) sequestered an average 162 Tg C year−1. In 2005, 49% of the total forest sector sequestration was in live and dead trees, 27% was in wood products in landfills, with the remainder in down dead wood, wood products in use, and forest floor and soil. The pools with the largest carbon stocks were not the same as those with the largest sequestration rates, except for the tree pool. For example, landfilled wood products comprise only 3% of total stocks but account for 27% of carbon sequestration. Conversely, forest soils comprise 48% of total stocks but account for only 2% of carbon sequestration. For the tree pool, the spatial pattern of carbon stocks was dissimilar to that of carbon flux. On an area basis, tree carbon stocks were highest in the Pacific Northwest, while changes were generally greatest in the upper Midwest and the Northeast. Net carbon sequestration in the forest sector in 2005 offset 10% of U.S. CO2 emissions. In the near future, we project that U.S. forests will continue to sequester carbon at a rate similar to that in recent years. Based on a comparison of our estimates to a compilation of land-based estimates of non-forest carbon sinks from the literature, we estimate that the conterminous U.S. annually sequesters 149–330 Tg C year−1. Forests, urban trees, and wood products are responsible for 65–91% of this sink.

When do replanted sub-boreal clearcuts become net sinks for CO2?

Fredeen, A.L. - Waughtal, J.D. - Pypker, T.G. (2007)

Forest Ecology and Management 239 (1-3): 210-216

Abstract: After forest harvesting, sites are initially sources of CO2, but eventually become sinks for CO2 after some period of years following reforestation. This period for boreal forests has been assumed to be 10 years, but this has not been validated empirically for most forest types including sub-boreal spruce-dominated forests of central British Columbia, Canada. Therefore, we sought to determine the timing of the source to sink transition for a sub-boreal clearcut. Clearcuts such as the one documented in this study occurring on glaciolacustrine deposits with relatively poor drainage represent about 20% of the 1.5 million ha in the Prince George area. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) for a clearcut was measured over four growing seasons in years 5, 6, 8 and 10 after harvest. A Bowen ratio approach in combination with a bottom-up modeled NEE based on ecosystem component CO2-flux measurements was used for years 5 and 6. In years 8 and 10, growing season NEE was measured using an open-path eddy covariance system. A cross comparison of Bowen ratio and eddy covariance systems was performed and measurements agreed relatively well (r2 = 0.58). The results demonstrated that while this clearcut was still a source for C (NEE of +336 to +487 g C m−2) after 6 years, it was most likely a sink for C between 8 (NEE of −189 to −52 g C m−2) and 10 (NEE of −185 to −48 g C m−2) years following harvest.

Satellite-based estimation of biomass carbon stocks for northeast China's forests between 1982 and 1999

Tan, K. - Piao, S. - Peng, C. - Fang, J. (2007)

Forest Ecology and Management 240 (1-3): 114-121

Abstract: Northeast China maintains large areas of primary forest resource and has been experiencing the largest increase in temperature over the past several decades in the country. Therefore, studying its forest biomass carbon (C) stock and the change is important to the sustainable use of forest resources and understanding of the forest C budget in China. In this study, we use forest inventory datasets for three inventory periods of 1984–1988, 1989–1993 and 1994–1998 and NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 1999, to estimate forest biomass C stock and its changes in this region over the last two decades. The averaged forest biomass C stock and C density were estimated as 2.10 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g) and 44.65 Mg C ha−1 over the study period. The forest biomass C stock has increased by 7% with an annual rate of 0.0082 Pg C. The largest increase in the C density occurred in two humid mountain areas, Changbai Mountains and northern Xiaoxing’anling Mountains. Climate warming is probably the key driving force for this increase, while anthropogenic activities such as afforestation and deforestation may contribute to variations in the C stocks.

Predicted soil organic carbon stocks and changes in the Brazilian Amazon between 2000 and 2030

Cerri, C.E.P. - Easter, M. - Paustian, K. - Killian, K. - Coleman, K. - Bernoux, M. - Falloon, P. - Powlson, D.S. - Batjes, N.H. - Milne, E. - Cerri, C.C. (2007)

Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 3018: pp 15

Abstract: Currently we have little understanding of the impacts of land use change on soil C stocks in the Brazilian Amazon. Such information is needed to determine impacts on the global C cycle and the sustainability of agricultural systems that are replacing native forest. The aim of this study was to predict soil carbon stocks and changes in the Brazilian Amazon during the period between 2000 and 2030, using the GEFSOC soil carbon (C) modelling system. In order to do so, we devised current and future land use scenarios for the Brazilian Amazon, taking into account: (i) deforestation rates from the past three decades, (ii) census data on land use from 1940 to 2000, including the expansion and intensification of agriculture in the region, (iii) available information on management practices, primarily related to well managed pasture versus degraded pasture and conventional systems versus no-tillage systems for soybean (Glycine max) and (iv) FAO predictions on agricultural land use and land use changes for the years 2015 and 2030. The land use scenarios were integrated with spatially explicit soils data (SOTER database), climate, potential natural vegetation and land management units using the recently developed GEFSOC soil C modelling system. Results are presented in map, table and graph form for the entire Brazilian Amazon for the current situation (1990 and 2000) and the future (2015 and 2030). Results include soil organic C (SOC) stocks and SOC stock change rates estimated by three methods: (i) the Century ecosystem model, (ii) the Rothamsted C model and (iii) the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for assessing soil C at regional scale. In addition, we show estimated values of above and belowground biomass for native vegetation, pasture and soybean. The results on regional SOC stocks compare reasonably well with those based on mapping approaches. The GEFSOC system provided a means of efficiently handling complex interactions among biotic-edapho-climatic conditions (>363,000 combinations) in a very large area (_500 Mha) such as the Brazilian Amazon. All of the methods used showed a decline in SOC stock for the period studied; Century and RothC simulated values for 2030 being about 7% lower than those in 1990. Values from Century and RothC (30,430 and 25,000 Tg for the 0–20 cm layer for the Brazilian Amazon region were higher than those obtained from the IPCC system (23,400 Tg in the 0–30 cm layer). Finally, our results can help understand the major biogeochemical cycles that influence soil fertility and help devise management strategies that enhance the sustainability of these areas and thus slow further deforestation.

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

UNFCCC Workshop on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries

7-9 March 2007 in Cairns, Australia

Climate Change Convention Parties discuss approaches to reduce emissions from deforestation in developing countries

At the workshop governments presented the latest results of their activities to reduce emissions from deforestation, the lessons learned and elaborated on possible ways to move this issue forward.

“This second workshop identified areas of agreement as well as areas where there are divergent views and need to be resolved in order to ensure that progress is made on this important issue,” said Kishan Kumarsingh, Chair of the UNFCCC’s Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), who led the meeting. “Advancing work over the course of this year would help us agree, in Bali this year, on concrete and immediate actions to start immediately after COP 13 that would help developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation.”

The meeting helped improve the understanding of reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries and allowed for an open and constructive discussion on policy approaches and positive incentives as well as technical and methodological requirements related to their implementation and assessment of their results and reliability.

Updated proposals of approaches to reduce emissions from deforestation were presented at the workshop. These included calls for the establishment of a financial mechanism to provide positive financial incentives for developing countries that voluntarily reduce their emissions from deforestation.

The results of the meeting will be reported to the twenty-sixth session on the SBSTA starting 7 May, in Bonn, Germany.

For relevant documents, the submissions from parties and organisations as well as the presentations given during the workshop: http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/lulucf/items/3896.php

(from UNFCCC)

UNFCCC: New approved Afforestation and Reforestation methodologies baseline and monitoring available

Four new approved methodologies were made available for the following AR CDM project circumstances:

    • Reforestation or afforestation of land currently under agricultural use

    • Afforestation and reforestation project activities implemented for industrial and/or commercial uses

    • Afforestation/Reforestation with Trees Supported by Shrubs on Degraded Land

    • Afforestation and Reforestation of Land Currently Under Agricultural or Pastoral Use

They can be downloaded here: http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/ARmethodologies/approved_ar.html

The small scale methodology for AR CDM has been revised and can be found here: http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/SSCmethodologies/SSCAR/approved.html

Implications of possible changes to the limit for small-scale afforestation and reforestation clean development mechanism project activities

Submissions from Parties and accredited intergovernmental organizations

Description: Parties, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations were requested by UNFCCC COP/MOP 2 to submit their views on the implications of possibly changing the limit established for small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice at its twenty-sixth session.

A compilation of these submissions can be found here:
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/sbsta/eng/misc01.pdf

Research Project assesses the potential and dynamics of carbon sequestration in German forests and timber products

Last December the German government together with a couple of other Annex-I-countries decided to account for carbon sequestration in forest management under the Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. The research project “Potential and Dynamics of Carbon Sequestration in German Forests and Timber Products” was launched to provide quantitative information on the potential and the driving factors of carbon sequestration in forests and harvested wood products. The project will quantify the contribution of the German forestry and timber industry to the stabilisation of the GHG concentration in the atmosphere and related economic values under different management and utilization scenarios.

The project builds on a model that reproduces regional climate, forest soils, forest growth, forest management, timber markets, timber utilisation and national policy. Computer generated, virtual forest enterprises are utilized to show the effects of different framework conditions on forest management and to identify the impact of decisions under different objectives on carbon sequestration potentials. The time-series modelled covers the period from 2005 to 2035.

All implemented scenarios will be evaluated regarding the amount of carbon sequestered in the pools “forestry” and “timber products”. They will also be valued in economic terms. This will allow the evaluation of alternative decisions in the field of silviculture, timber use and different assumptions with respect to their impact on climate change. Thus the project will enable an informed dialogue on the multiple aspects of sustainable forest management and support political decisions in the field of environment, forestry and timber industry.

The project is financed for a period of four years by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Five departments from three German universities representing scientific expertise in the field of forest growth, soil science, forest economics, timber technology, environmental policy, wood physics and biometrics are contributing to the project.

Further information is available on the project website: www.cswh.worldforestry.de/home_engl.htm

Comments and questions are welcome.

Please contact:

Prof. Dr. Michael Köhl
Mr. Bernhard Kenter
Section of Worldforestry, Department of Wood Science
University of Hamburg
Germany
Phone: +49 40 / 73962-120
Email: cswh@worldforestry.de

Second International Community-Based Adaptation Workshop

The second International Community-Based Adaptation Workshop took place in Dhaka, Bangladesh from 24-28 February 2007. The workshop, organised jointly by the Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS), the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the Regional and International Networking Group (RING), included a two-day field trip to allow participants to see some examples of community-based responses to climate risk, and three days of intense discussions on adaptation mainstreaming and partnerships.

Workshop outputs include a two-page summary of keypoints, a 10-15 page workshop report, an edited volume of collected papers presented at the workshop, and the creation of a community-based adaptation network for information sharing (CBA Network).

IISD Reporting Services' summary report of the workshop can be viewed here: http://www.iisd.ca/ymb/sdban/

QUEST Earth System Open Science Conference

26 - 28 March 2007, Paramount Hotel, Oxford, UK

QUEST, the UK Natural Environment Research Council’s directed programme for Earth System Science, is pleased to announce the first Open Science Conference to be held on 26 – 29 March 2007 in Oxford, UK.

The programme will showcase a broad cross-section of international science that contributes to the three “big questions” being pursued by QUEST:

    • How important are feedbacks for 21st century climate change?

    • How are climate and atmospheric composition regulated on time scales up to a million years?

    • How much climate (change) is dangerous? (b) How much climate change can be avoided by managing the biosphere?

This conference is intended to present exciting new research, while continuing to build an interdisciplinary collaborative community. We welcome all scientists and users of science including policy makers and NGOs. The whole QUEST community will be represented, along with many internationally renowned scientists, so there will be a critical mass of scientists to share their latest findings. We also have speakers and attendees from UK Government (DEFRA, Environment Agency), IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), NGOs and science journalists.

Information about the programme and how to register is available on http://quest.bris.ac.uk/workshops/OSC/index.html

FAO Committee on Forestry 18 (COFO 18)

Forum and Dialogue on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation

During the 18th session of FAO’s Committee on Forestry, a forum and dialogue on the issue of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (RED-DC) was held on Friday, March 16. The event was jointly organized by the Joint Research Centre of the EC and FAO, with contributions from the UNFCCC secretariat.

4 Presentations were given on various aspects of the topic, including on the latest developments within the UNFCCC, the use of the FAO forest resource assessment 2010 framework for the purpose of RED-DC and the question of accurate or conservative data needs to estimate carbon stocks preserved in the context of reducing emissions from deforestation.

The presentations will be made available shortly on the website: www.fao.org/forestry/site/17827/en

3) News on forests and climate change

World's Largest Field Experiment Examines Long-term Effects of Global Change on Forest Dynamics

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) has received an $8 million grant from HSBC to fund the world’s largest field experiment on the long-term effects of global change on forest dynamics. A new Global Earth Observatory system will compare climate change and forest carbon data from 17 countries around the world.

(from Science Daily)

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070215165501.htm

World Bank needs $10 bln climate fund

The World Bank wants to breathe life back into a mooted $10 billion-plus fund to combat climate change which would need public and private sector backing, its Chief Scientist Robert Watson told Reuters.

(from Reuters)

http://in.today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=worldNews&storyID=2007-02-20T235900Z_01_NOOTR_RTRJONC_0_India-288505-1.xml&archived=False

Bangladesh: At the mercy of climate change

It is more exposed than any other country to global warming. And a series of unusual events - from dying trees to freak weather - suggest its impact is already being felt. The Sundarbans nature reserve in Bangladesh's south-west is one of the last untouched places on Earth - and home to the largest population of tigers left in the wild. But the trees in the Sundarbans have suddenly started dying. And not just that: they have started dying in a way nobody has seen before, from the top down.

(from The Independent)

http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/article2283929.ece

Few funds yet for U.N.'s new Africa carbon plan

A host of plans could help Africa gain from booming investment in clean energy projects, but only modest funds have been committed to them by rich nations so far, officials said.

(from Reuters)

http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/CrisesArticle.aspx?storyId=L08210190&WTmodLoc=World-R5-Alertnet-4

China prepares to launch climate adaptation plans

China will soon release its first comprehensive national programme to mitigate and adapt to climate change. This follows the release of two reports with dire predictions for China's food production and coastal cities due to global warming.

(from Science and Development Network)

http://www.scidev.net/content/news/eng/china-prepares-to-launch-climate-adaptation-plans.cfm

4) New Publications

Land-use Changes and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes: Scientific Understanding and Contribution to Improving Methodologies for Greenhouse Gas Inventory in Benin

Description: The document is the report of a project implemented in the IPCC NGGIP TSU within the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) in Japan. The project is a contribution to the development of GHG inventories in Developing Countries as it demonstrates how the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and the subsequent IPCC Good Practice can be applied in the situation of a country where resources and data are limited. It also demonstrates how the uncertainty estimates can be used to identify parameters that need to be reviewed to improve the quality of the inventories.

The report can be downloaded from the following link:

http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/tsu/intern_report/TSU_InternshipReportSabin.pdf

Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change in Drought-Prone Bangladesh - Developing institutions and options

Selvaraju, R. - Subbiah, A.R. - Baas, B. – Juergens, I. (2006)

FAO, Institutions for Rural Development (5)

Description: The impacts of climate variability and change are global concerns, but in Bangladesh, where large parts of the population are chronically exposed and vulnerable to a range of natural hazards, they are particularly critical. Agriculture is the largest sector of the Bangladesh economy, accounting for some 35 percent of the GDP and 63 percent of the labour force. Agricultural production is already under pressure from increasing demands for food and the parallel problem of depletion land and water resources caused by overuse and contamination. Impacts of climate variability and change cause an additional risk for agriculture. Within this context, FAO and the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) are guiding an assessment of livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in the drought- prone areas of Northwest Bangladesh. The project specifically looks at: characterization of livelihood systems; profiling of vulnerable groups; assessment of past and current climate impacts; and understanding of local perceptions of climate impacts, local coping capacities and existing adaptation strategies. It also is developing a good practice adaptation option menu, evaluating and field testing locally selected options, and introducing long-lead climate forecasting, capacity building and training of DAE extension staff and community representatives.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0820e/a0820e00.htm

Climate change and water adaptation issues

Briefing No 1/2007

European Environment Agency

Abstract: The impact of climate change on Europe's water resources is a critical issue for people’s lives and the economy. Even if emissions of greenhouse gases were stabilised today, increases in temperature and the associated impacts, including water availability and flooding, will continue for many decades to come. Countries are aware of these impacts and have started to adapt to them but there is still much to do.

Published at http://reports.eea.europa.eu/briefing_2007_1

State of the World’s Forests 2007

FAO (2007)

Description: This seventh edition of State of the World’s Forests examines progress towards sustainable forest management. Part I reviews progress region by region. Each regional report is structured according to the seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management agreed by international fora as a framework for sustainable forest management: extent of forest resources; biological diversity; forest health and vitality; productive functions of forest resources; protective functions of forest resources; socio-economic functions; and legal, policy and institutional framework. These summaries are based on the most current information available, including new data, more comprehensive than ever, from the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 (FRA 2005). Part II presents selected issues in the forest sector, probing the state of knowledge or recent activities in 18 topics of interest to forestry. Climate change, forest landscape restoration, forest tenure, invasive species, wildlife management and wood energy are just a sampling of the subjects covered. State of the World’s Forests 2007 will be a useful reference for policy-makers, foresters, academics and all readers concerned with the major issues affecting the forest sector today.

Published at http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/sofo/en/

Definitional issues related to reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries

Schoene, D. - Killmann, W. - von Lüpke, H. - LoycheWilkie, M. (2007)

Forests and Climate Change Working Paper 5

FAO, Rome

Abstract: The paper provides background on definitional issues related to reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries (RED-DC). It reflects the FAO presentation on “Definitional issues, including those relating to links between deforestation and degradation” given during a UNFCCC-organised workshop on RED-DC, held from 30 August to 1 September 2006. The ad hoc use of the forest-related terms in the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol and other processes has, in some instances, complicated negotiations, implementation, monitoring and reporting. This paper analyses existing definitions for forest, deforestation and forest degradation and other forest-related terms and the issues related to their use in the context of the Convention and the Protocol. It discusses the definitions with regard to key criteria for their use in the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol processes, i.e. they should be unambiguous, allow for assessment of carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas emission and removals, include measurable parameters and be compatible with definitions used in other international forest-related processes. The paper concludes that, in order to facilitate efficient negotiations and implementation, as well as streamlined future reporting, Parties to UNFCCC might consider, ex ante, a comprehensive set of definitions for the negotiations on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries. Widely used and accepted definitions should be applied wherever possible in their correct meaning. There is an opportunity to select from already established definitions from multilateral agreements, parallel processes, or international bodies, in particular IPCC or FAO. New terms should be clearly defined at an early stage and their use standardized. Consistent terminology will be crucial for efficient negotiations, implementation and future monitoring and reporting.

Published at http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/j9345e/j9345e00.HTM

5) Climate Change jobs

Ecofys Netherlands BV: Senior consultant energy modelling

Ecofys Netherlands BV is seeking a senior consultant energy modelling within the Energy and Climate Strategy group.

For the full description of the position: http://www.ecofys.com/nl/werk/vacatures/seniorconsultantenergymodelling.htm

See http://www.ecofys.com/com/work/vacancies.htm for a complete overview of all vacancies.

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) is due to start its Fourth Phase Strategic Programme from April 2007 following the conclusion of the Third Phase (from April 2004 to March 2007).

With this in mind, IGES is recruiting researchers for two projects starting from April 2007 as follows:

1.Project on Integrated Waste Management and Resource Efficiency
- One Senior Policy Researcher or one Researcher

2.Project on Sustainable Use of biofuels in transport in Asia
- One Senior Policy Researcher or one Researcher

For more details, please refer to http://www.iges.or.jp/en/news/saiyo/index.html

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) based in Austria is offering a position as a Research Scholar in its Atmospheric Pollution and Economic Development (APD) Program to further develop – in an interdisciplinary team – the GAINS model, a widely used integrated assessment modelling framework to analyze various aspects of climate change mitigation and air pollution control.

Closing date for applications: 1 April 2007.

For further information about the Program, please visit the full announcement http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Admin/PE/Jobs/2007-01-apd-rs-mod.html

6) Websites of Interest

Forestry Commission of Great Britain: Website on Forests and climate change

The Forestry Commission of Great Britain has launched a new website, looking at the interaction between forests and climate change.

Globally, forest ecosystems play a key role in addressing climate change by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it in growing vegetation and soil. Deforestation caused by the unsustainable harvesting of timber and the conversion of forests to other land-uses leads to significant emissions of this stored carbon back to the atmosphere. Deforestation and land use change currently account for 18% of global emissions of carbon dioxide. Forests and woodlands can also be managed as a sustainable source of wood – an alternative and less polluting energy source to fossil fuels, and a low-energy construction material.

The new website aims to share current knowledge and experience gained in the UK and will be linked to ongoing research and case studies.

The launch comes at the beginning of a three-day conference, Forestry: A Sectoral Response to Climate Change, in the UK. The conference is organised by Forest Research and the Forestry Commission of Great Britain in co-operation with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. It brings together leading experts from around the world to consider practical proposals on the way forward. Details of the conference are available on the website.

Website: www.forestry.gov.uk/climatechange

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Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Hans Albrecht Wiehler

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last updated:  Tuesday, November 18, 2008