CLIM-FO-L_01-2007

CLIM-FO-L - AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTRY

No. 01/2007

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

3) News on forests and climate change

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of Interest

QUICK TIPS AND INFORMATION FOR CLIM-FO-L


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

Carbon sequestration through charcoal formation in Amazonian forest fires

Carvalho, J.A. - Soares Neto, T.G. - Veras, C.A.G. - Alvarado, E.C. - Sandberg, D.V. - Santos, J.C. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management 234 (Supplement 1): 154

Abstract: An important but poorly understood mechanism of carbon sequestration is the production of charcoal in forest biomass burning. Fires accelerate carbon cycling to the atmosphere by consuming at once what may take years or even decades to naturally decay in the absence of fire. On the other hand, a significant amount per hectare of charcoal can occur in forest fires, forming char layers on partially burned logs or as charcoal left on the ground. Charcoal is very stable in the environment, lasting decades or centuries in the soil after fires. This storage reduces the rate of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere from forested lands. Estimates vary widely as to how important this sequestration is in the atmosphere–biosphere carbon balance equation, and no model currently exists to predict the variation in char formation. Charcoal forms during combustion in the interval between the pyrolysis and combustion waves in solid or porous cellulosic fuels. Generally, the amount of char is greater in porous fuels where pyrolysis occurs far in advance of combustion, when the rate of preheating before combustion is slow, or when fuels have a high moisture or salt content but there is sufficient heat present to dry and pyrolise the biomass. Smouldering produces more charcoal than flaming combustion, but very few logs remain smouldering after flaming in forest clearing fires. This paper describes the results of two experiments, conducted in 2004 and 2005, respectively, to estimate the formation of charcoal from forest clearing fires. The test site for both experiments was located in a farm at approximately 30 km West of the town of Alta Floresta (09°52′S; 56°06′W), Brazil. Average charcoal mass for both tests was 2.49 t ha−1. The aboveground fresh biomass was 483 t ha−1. For an average biomass moisture content of 42% (in terms of mass of water per mass of fresh biomass), for an average biomass carbon content of 48% (dry basis), and considering the charcoal contains 75% of carbon, 1.39% of carbon was left on the ground as charcoal.

Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestation

Ramankutty, N. - Gibbs, H.K. - Achard, F. - Defries, R. - Foley, J.A. - Houghton, R. A. (2007)

Global Change Biology 13: 51–66

Abstract: An accurate estimate of carbon fluxes associated with tropical deforestation from the last two decades is needed to balance the global carbon budget. Several studies have already estimated carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, but the estimates vary greatly and are difficult to compare due to differences in data sources, assumptions, and methodologies. In this paper, we review the different estimates and datasets, and the various challenges associated with comparing them and with accurately estimating carbon emissions from deforestation. We performed a simulation study over legal Amazonia to illustrate some of these major issues. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of considering land-cover dynamics following deforestation, including the fluxes from reclearing of secondary vegetation, the decay of product and slash pools, and the fluxes from regrowing forest. It also suggests that accurate carbon-flux estimates will need to consider historical land-cover changes for at least the previous 20 years. However, this result is highly sensitive to estimates of the partitioning of cleared carbon into instantaneous burning vs. long-timescale slash pools. We also show that carbon flux estimates based on ‘committed flux’ calculations, as used by a few studies, are not comparable with the ‘annual balance’ calculation method used by other studies.

Appraising agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation potentials: effects of alternative assumptions

Schneider, U.A. - McCarl, B.A. (2006)

Agricultural-Economics 35 (3): 277-287

Abstract: There is interest in society in general and in the agricultural and forestry sectors concerning a land-based role in greenhouse gas mitigation reduction. Numerous studies have estimated the potential supply schedules at which agriculture and forestry could produce greenhouse gas offsets. However, such studies vary widely in critical assumptions regarding economic market adjustments, allowed scope of mitigation alternatives, and region of focus. Here, we examine the effects of using different assumptions on the total emission mitigation supply curve from agriculture and forestry in the United States. To do this we employ the U.S.-based Agricultural Sector and Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Model and find that variations in such factors can have profound effects on the results. Differences between commonly employed methods shift economic mitigation potentials from -55 to +85%. The bias is stronger at higher carbon prices due to afforestation and energy crop plantations that reduce supply of traditional commodities. Lower carbon prices promote management changes with smaller impacts on commodity supply.

Definition of forests under the Kyoto protocol: choosing appropriate values for crown cover, area and tree height for India

Promode-Kant, P. (2006)

Indian-Forester 2006 132 (5): 632-634

Abstract: This paper presents the definitions of forests, afforestation and reforestation adopted by the Decision 11/CP.7 of the Marrakesh Accord, which were later extended to land use, land use change and forestry activities carried out under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol by Decision 19/CP.9 adopted at Milan, Italy. The Decision 19/CP.9 requires that a non-Annex 1 country may host an afforestation or reforestation activity under the CDM only after it has selected and reported a single minimum tree crown cover value between 10 and 30%, a single minimum land area value between 0.05 and 1 ha, and a single minimum tree height value between 2 and 5 m. This issue is examined for the purpose of making appropriate choices for crown cover, area and tree height values in order for India to host afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM.

Long-term CO2 production from deeply weathered soils of a tropical rain forest: evidence for a potential positive feedback to climate warming.

Schwendenmann, L. - Veldkamp, E. (2006)

Global Change Biology 12 (10): 1878-1893

Abstract: Currently, it is unknown what role tropical forest soils will play in the future global carbon cycle under higher temperatures. Many tropical forests grow on deeply weathered soils and although it is generally accepted that soil carbon decomposition increases with higher temperatures, it is not known whether subsurface carbon pools are particularly responsive to increasing soil temperatures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusing out of soils is an important flux in the global carbon. Although soil CO2 efflux has been the subject of many studies in recent years, it remains difficult to deduct controls of this flux because of the different sources that produce CO2 and because potential environmental controls like soil temperature and soil moisture often covary. Here, we report results of a 5-year study in which we measured soil CO2 production on two deeply weathered soil types at different depths in an old-growth tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. Three sites were developed on old river terraces (old alluvium) and the other three were developed on old lava flows (residual). Annual soil CO2 efflux varied between 2.8-3.6 micro mol CO2-C m-2 s-1 (old alluvium) and 3.4-3.9 micro mol CO2-C m-2 s-1 (residual). More than 75% of the CO2 was produced in the upper 0.5 m (including litter layer) and less than 7% originated from the soil below 1 m depth. This low contribution was explained by the lack of water stress in this tropical wet forest which has resulted in very low root biomass below 2 m depth. In the top 0.5 m CO2 production was positively correlated with both temperature and soil moisture; between 0.6 and 2 m depth CO2 production correlated negatively with soil moisture in one soil and positively with photosynthetically active radiation in the other soil type. Below 2 m soil CO2 production strongly increased with increasing temperature. In combination with reduced tree growth that has been shown for this ecosystem, this would be a strong positive feedback to ecosystem warming.

Role of bio-energy plantations for carbon-dioxide mitigation with special reference to India

Hooda, N. - Rawat, V.R.S. (2006)

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11 (2): 445-467

Abstract: Fuelwood plays an important role in the rural economy of the developing countries of Asia and Africa. Optimizing energy fixation in forest trees through high density energy plantations (HDEP), gasification of wood, and conversion of forest tree biomass, are some of the potential areas whereby additional research and development input for efficient management of atmospheric carbon in our energy system can be incorporated. For example, the photosynthetic efficiency of forest trees is rarely above 0.5%, which on the basis of theoretical considerations can be increased by up to 6.6%. Thus there is an ample scope to improve the efficiency up to 1%, which amounts to doubling of the productivity of the forests. Recent policy changes and experiences with wood-based bio-energy programmes in several countries indicate that woodfuels may become increasingly attractive as industrial energy sources. Use of biodiesel and the formulation of a project for undertaking 13.4 million ha of Jatropha plantations in India highlight the seriousness with which the Government of India is promoting carbon neutral energy plantations. The cost of establishment of plantations primarily for fuel production and its conversion to energy are major deterrents in this pursuit. Some of the issues in developing countries, like low productivity on marginal lands, degraded forest lands, and unorganized units for biomass energy conversion, result in cost escalation as compared to other energy sources. This paper revisits the scope for raising energy plantations, a comparison of the direct and indirect mitigation potential uses of plantations as an adaptation strategy through reforestation and afforestation projects for climate change mitigation and socio-economic issues to make this venture feasible in developing countries.

The Kyoto Protocol and private forest policy of local governments in Japan

Matsushita, K. - Taguchi, K. (2006)

Small scale forestry and rural development: the intersection of ecosystems, economics and society. Proceedings of IUFRO 308 Conference, Galway, Ireland, 18-23 June 2006.

Abstract: The policies of the national government for global warming prevention are increasing in importance in Japan, especially after the Kyoto Protocol went into effect in February of 2005. The national government wants to use domestic forest resources at the maximum level permitted for the calculation of CO2 emission reduction. Forestry Agency has strongly combined the domestic forestry promotion policies to the global warming prevention policies, and has made a 10-year action plan. In this paper, the problem relating to the forest resource database and related statistics, which is one of several serious problems in the forestry management system in Japan, is clarified, as well as the problem relating to the administrative works of prefectural governments which manage the database. The database has much incorrect data, which is difficult to correct due to the lack of both budget and staff. The budget problem has seriously affected the entire administrative section since the 1990s. Regional environmental tax relating to forest has recently begun in several prefectures; however the total revenue is very small. The basic reason of the problem in relation to the database is that the National Land Survey is as yet incomplete, thus the land size, which is one of the basic data in forest resource database, is unreliable. Because of the insufficiency of the Cutting Reporting System in forest planning and the lack of the statistics regarding timber cutting, the true cutting volume shown by each municipality is unclear. Considering these situations, without change it seems to be difficult for the private forest sector to contribute greatly to the Kyoto Protocol. Though the private forestry promotion measures and the global warming prevention measures differ from each other, the problems relating to forest resource database and forestry statistics are common to both and therefore, must be addressed immediately.

A method for integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change in Siberian forests: example of Larch area

Venevsky, S. (2004)

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11 (1): 241-268

Abstract: The conceptual scheme of integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change in Siberian forests is elaborated and applied to the extensive area in Siberia covered by Larch forests. Forest stakeholders on the provincial level are identified to be the most relevant for an integrated impact assessment. Organisation of the assessment study as a combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches is suggested. Major biophysical vulnerability indexes and regional syndromes are identified as the growing stock and current increment averaged by administrative unit. Models and data suitability and quality for an analysis of biophysical vulnerability in conditions of climate change are studied for Siberian forests and future development trends are identified. An application of the elaborated conceptual scheme, which employs two models of different type and forest inventory data, is presented for the Larch area.

Small-scale forest carbon projects: Adapting CDM to low-income communities

Emily Boyd, E. – Gutierrez, M. – Chang, M. (2007)

Global Environmental Change; available online 5 January 2007

Abstract: Given the decision to include small-scale sinks projects implemented by low-income communities in the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, the paper explores some of the basic governance conditions that such carbon forestry projects will have to meet if they are to be successfully put in practice. To date there are no validated small-scale sinks projects and investors have shown little interest in financing such projects, possibly to due to the risks and uncertainties associated with sinks projects. Some suggest however, that carbon has the potential to become a serious commodity on the world market, thus governance over ownership, rights and responsibilities merit discussion. Drawing on the interdisciplinary development, as well as from the literature on livelihoods and democratic decentralization in forestry, the paper explores how to adapt forest carbon projects to the realities encountered in the local context. It also highlights the importance of capitalizing on synergies with other rural development strategies, ensuring stakeholder participation by working with accountable, representative local organizations, and creating flexible and adaptive project designs.

Effects of forest conversion to pasture on soil carbon content and dynamics in Brazilian Amazonia

Desjardins, T. - Barros, E. – Sarrazin, M. – Girardin, C. – Mariotti, A. (2004)

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 103 (2): 365-373

Abstract: Soils play an important role in the carbon cycle, and deforestation in the tropics affects both soil carbon storage and CO2 release into the atmosphere. The consequences of deforestation and conversion to pasture for soil carbon content and dynamics were examined in two soil types differing mainly by their texture. Two chronosequences were selected, each consisting of an intact forest and three pastures of different ages (4, 8, 15 years and 3, 9, 15 years, respectively). One chronosequence is located in the central part of the Brazilian Amazon basin, where the soils are clayey ferralsols, and the second in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon Basin, where the soils are sandy clayey acrisols. In the upper layer the C content of clayey soils was three times higher than in the sandy soils, but despite the differences in soil texture, the C distribution in the particle-size fractions was quite similar. In the two chronosequences, the conversion to pasture induced a slight increase in C content. Bulk density increases were greater on soils with lower clay contents. The 13C measurements, which allowed to calculate the distribution of C derived from forest and from pasture, showed that all the particle-size fractions incorporated C derived from pasture and that a significant proportion of the young organic matter is rapidly trapped in the finest fractions. Although the proportions of pasture-derived C were higher in the sandy soils than in the clayey soils, the amounts of pasture-derived C in the particle-size fractions were 2–3 times larger in the clayey soils than in the sandy soils.

Climate-induced boreal forest change: Predictions versus current observations

Soja, A.J. et al. (2006)

Global and Planetary Change, 56 (3-4)

Abstract: For about three decades, there have been many predictions of the potential ecological response in boreal regions to the currently warmer conditions. In essence, a widespread, naturally occurring experiment has been conducted over time. In this paper, we describe previously modeled predictions of ecological change in boreal Alaska, Canada and Russia, and then we investigate potential evidence of current climate-induced change. For instance, ecological models have suggested that warming will induce the northern and upslope migration of the treeline and an alteration in the current mosaic structure of boreal forests. We present evidence of the migration of keystone ecosystems in the upland and lowland treeline of mountainous regions across southern Siberia. Ecological models have also predicted a moisture-stress-related dieback in white spruce trees in Alaska, and current investigations show that as temperatures increase, white spruce tree growth is declining. Additionally, it was suggested that increases in infestation and wildfire disturbance would be catalysts that precipitate the alteration of the current mosaic forest composition. In Siberia, 7 of the last 9 yr have resulted in extreme fire seasons, and extreme fire years have also been more frequent in both Alaska and Canada. In addition, Alaska has experienced extreme and geographically expansive multi-year outbreaks of the spruce beetle, which had been previously limited by the cold, moist environment. We suggest that there is substantial evidence throughout the circumboreal region to conclude that the biosphere within the boreal terrestrial environment has already responded to the transient effects of climate change. Additionally, temperature increases and warming-induced change are progressing faster than had been predicted in some regions, suggesting a potential non-linear rapid response to changes in climate, as opposed to the predicted slow linear response to climate change.

Enhancing forest carbon sequestration in China: Toward an integration of scientific and socio-economic perspectives

Chen, J.M. et al. (2006)

Journal of Environmental Management; available online 19 December 2006

Abstract
: This article serves as an introduction to this special issue, “China's Forest Carbon Sequestration”, representing major results of a project sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. China occupies a pivotal position globally as a principle emitter of carbon dioxide, as host to some of the world's largest reforestation efforts, and as a key player in international negotiations aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emission. The goals of this project are to develop remote sensing approaches for quantifying forest carbon balance in China in a transparent manner, and information and tools to support land-use decisions for enhanced carbon sequestration (CS) that are science based and economically and socially viable. The project consists of three components: (i) remote sensing and carbon modeling, (ii) forest and soil assessment, and (iii) integrated assessment of the socio-economic implications of CS via forest management. Articles included in this special issue are highlights of the results of each of these components.

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

UNFCCC Workshop on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries

7-9 March 2007 in Cairns, Australia

Background: The SBSTA decided to continue discussing the range of topics considered at the first workshop, including the submissions by Parties, at the second workshop, that will focus on:

    • Discussions of ongoing and potential policy approaches and positive incentives,

    • Technical and methodological requirements related to their implementation; assessment of results and their reliability;

    • Improving the understanding of reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries.

To facilitate discussions at the workshop, the SBSTA invited Parties and accredited observers to submit to the secretariat, by 23 February 2007, their views on the topics referred to above. In their submissions, Parties were invited to consider, as appropriate, relevant provisions of other conventions and also the work of multilateral organizations.

The SBSTA invited Non-Annex I Parties that are in a position to do so, and on a voluntary basis, to submit to the secretariat, by 23 February 2007, any updated information and data additional to that provided in their latest national communications and synthesized in the background paper prepared for the first workshop, on emissions and trends in deforestation, data needs, and policies and programmes in place or being considered to address deforestation and its root causes.

For further information go to: http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/lulucf/items/3896.php

For the report on the first workshop: http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/lulucf/items/3745.php

For SBSTA 25 conclusions: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2006/sbsta/eng/l25.pdf

Call for public input on eligibility of lands for AR CDM project activities

In accordance with the decision by the COP/MOP at its second session (“Further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism” - paragraph 26), the CDM Executive Board has launched a call for public input on new procedures to demonstrate the eligibility of lands for afforestation and reforestation project activities under the clean development mechanism. The call for inputs will be open from 1 January 2007 until 21 February 2007. The CDM Executive Board has also requested the secretariat to prepare a first draft of the new procedures for consideration by the A/R Working Group at its thirteenth meeting.

Direct link to the call for inputs page: http://cdm.unfccc.int/public_inputs/Eligibility_lands4AR_PA

Two new Afforestation/reforestation methodologies submitted to UNFCCC

The following proposals on new Afforestation/Reforestation baseline and monitoring methodologies have been submitted to the CDM Executive Board for its review and are available for public input from 10 January - 30 January 2007:

ARNM0031: The Namwasa Forestation Project
ARNM0032: “San Carlos” Land Restoration Through Silvopastoral Systems


The submitted documents are available under the following link: http://cdm.unfccc.int/goto/ARpropmeth

UNFCCC expert meeting on adaptation for Small Island Developing States (SIDS)

As mandated by decision of UNFCCC COP 10, the expert meeting on adaptation for SIDS is organized under the guidance of the chair of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to facilitate information exchange and integrated assessments to assist Parties in identifying specific adaptation needs and concerns. The expert meeting will be held in two parts.

Part I for Caribbean and Atlantic ocean SIDS
5 to 7 February 2007, Kingston, Jamaica

Part II for Pacific and Indian ocean SIDS
26 to 28 February 2007, Rarotonga, Cook Island

Please find information for participants, the tentative agenda and a background paper here: http://unfccc.int/adaptation/adverse_effects_and_response_measures_art_48/items/3897.php

18th Session of the Committee on Forestry (COFO)

"Weaving knowledge into development"

The 18th session of the Committee on Forestry (COFO) as the most important of the FAO Forestry Statutory Bodies will be held in Rome, Italy during 12 - 16 March 2007. During the session, substantive items will include:

    • State of the World’s Forests 2007

    • Forests and energy: new challenges in sustainable forest management

    • Forest protection

    • Putting forestry to work at the local level

    • Progressing towards sustainable forest management
    In-session seminar: regional action on sustainable forest management

    • Shaping an action programme for FAO in Forestry

    • XIII World Forestry Congress – Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 2009

During COFO 18, a Side event on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries will be offered on 16 March, 2007. This event is organized jointly by the UNFCCC the Joint Research Centre of the EC and FAO.

For detailed information on COFO 18 please go to: http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/cofo/en/

E-conference on Climate change, Adaptation and Pastoralism

Organizer: World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism (IUCN)

Background: Most of the climate change models are predicting that climate change will result in either increased droughts in drylands, or temporary wetness leading to floods. We would expect that the cultivation “line” will expand into rangelands even more so than before. If this were to happen, we could very well predict this century’s greatest catastrophe as pastoralist and farmer conflicts increase. How can the pastoralist’s livelihood resilience be enhanced so that he can change his land use according to the capabilities of the land?

The e-conference comes right after the UNFCCC COP 12 where the issue adaptation to climate change was front and center. It comes before a series of events planned in 2007 to highlight at the global scale, the need for greater attention to supporting sustainable pastoralism. The e-conference will also help to bring to the fore case studies and examples from pastoralists and development practitioners for the local and global community to better understand the impact of climate change on a significant segment of the dryland society. UNDP will undertake to use the results of the e-conference as input into the Human Development Report of 2007.

Time: The e-discussion is starting from 22 January and lasting for three weeks. From that day you can send your contributions and related materials to the address wisp-net@groups.undp.org.

For more information on the World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism: ( http://www.iucn.org/wisp)

Workshop “Climate Change in South-Eastern European Countries: Causes, Impacts, Solutions”

Joanneum Research would like to inform that the workshop „Climate Change in South-Eastern European Countries: Causes, Impacts, Solutions“ in Graz, Austria has changed by one week to 26th and 27th of March 2007.

Information regarding this workshop (accommodation, programme) is provided at the webpage www.joanneum.at/climate. Also, information about possibly granted subsidies will be provided at this page soon.

Although the organization of the workshop is proceeding, we would kindly encourage interested people to attend as speaker, poster or mere participant. Beside to our webpage, please find also information about registration procedure and requirements at http://www.joanneum.at/climate/Docs/pbf07102ief_climate_cfa_v1.pdf

For further questions please contact Daniel Steiner at climate@joanneum.at

Funding opportunities in Forestry and Bioenergy

The Natural Environment Research Council has announced two funding opportunities.

(1) QUEST Funding Opportunity: Forestry-based climate mitigation project

Proposals are invited for research projects to examine and test the principles for forestry-based climate mitigation projects that will identify verification methods, design principles and guidelines intended to maximise benefits for climate, social welfare, the environment and biodiversity.

For further information: http://www.nerc.ac.uk/research/programmes/quest/events/ao070130-forestry.asp

(2) QUEST Funding Opportunity: Sustainable Forestry and Bioenergy


Proposals are invited for research projects to quantify the worldwide potential of different plant-based options to mitigate climate change, accounting for their environmental, biodiversity, economic and social consequences; a primary objective will be to provide information to decision makers involved in international climate policy negotiations.

For further information: http://www.nerc.ac.uk/research/programmes/quest/events/ao070130-bioenergy.asp

Conference: Global Challenge, Global Climate Solidarity

Climate Change and Vulnerability Conference

Venue and date: The UN-mandated University for Peace in Costa Rica is organizing a conference to be held 13-14 February 2007 at the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands.

Goals: The conference addresses the need to build capacities for proactive local leadership to address the risks of climate warming, particularly in vulnerable island and coastal states.

The goals of the conference are to:

    • Increase understandings of the risks of climate change and options for adaptation

    • Design university curricula that build climate leadership and foster local adaptation

    • Develop partnerships among education, research and training institutions

For more details about our conference, including a preliminary programme with confirmed speakers, and registration information, please visit our conference website:

www.upeace.org/climate

Climate Change: Science, Impacts and Responses

26-30 March 2007 at Imperial College London

A 5-day modular programme to help professionals to understand the business impact of climate change from underlying science to business responses. It will provide an in-depth understanding of various aspects of climate change in a concentrated period and gives those attending an opportunity to discuss the issues relevant to them.

Topics will include:
- Climate Science
- Mitigation Technologies and Policies
- International Negotiations, Emissions Trading and the project-based mechanisms
- GHG Mitigation in Agriculture and Forestry
- Impacts and Adaptation

For further information please visit web site on www.imperial.ac.uk/cpd/climate

For information please contact
Ulrika Wernmark at the Centre for Professional Development at Imperial College London on
Tel: +44 (0)20 7594 6886,
Fax: +44 (0)20 7594 6883 or
Email: u.wernmark@imperial.ac.uk

3) News on forests and climate change

Landmark UN study backs climate theory

2,000 scientists all but end the debate: Human activity causes global warming

The new United Nations report shows global scientists are more convinced than ever that human activity is causing climate change. The rate of warming between now and 2030 is likely to be twice that of the previous century, it says. And it concludes that most of the global warming since the middle of the last century has been caused by man-made greenhouse gases. The report, to be released in Paris Feb. 2, should all but end any debate on climate change and compel governments and industries to take urgent measures to deal with it, scientists say.

(from Toronto Star)

http://www.thestar.com/News/article/172778

WMO Statement on the Status of the global Climate in 2006

The global mean surface temperature in 2006 is currently estimated to be + 0.42°C above the 1961-1990 annual average (14°C/57.2°F), according to the records maintained by Members of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The year 2006 is currently estimated to be the sixth warmest year on record. Final figures will not be released until March 2007.

(WMO Press release)

http://www.wmo.ch/web/Press/PR_768_English.doc

Carbon Emissions up one-Quarter Since 1990 - Study

Global carbon emissions rose nearly 3 percent in 2005, up more than a quarter from 1990 levels despite many governments' pledges of cuts to fight global warming, a scientist who provides data for the US Department of Energy said.

(from Planet Ark)

www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/39407/story.htm

Fires and global warming threaten river

Global warming and Eucalypt regrowth in the alpine region could drastically reduce mountain water supplies crucial to Australia's biggest river system, new research suggests. Studies from the Australian Greenhouse Office and the CSIRO already predict snow will no longer fall on the Snowy Mountains and bushfires will become more frequent and severe by 2050.

(from News.com.au)

http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,21047959-29277,00.html?from=public_rss

China Report Warns of Agriculture Problems from Climate Change

Climate change will harm China's ecology and economy in the coming decades, possibly causing large drops in agricultural output, said a government report made public recently. The report, issued by six government departments including the State Meteorological Bureau, the China Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Technology, comes several days after state media said 2006 was hotter than average with more natural disasters than normal.

(from ENN)

http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=11957

Researchers Say Warming May Change Amazon

Global warming could spell the end of the world's largest remaining tropical rain forest, transforming the Amazon into a grassy savanna before end of the century, researchers said. Jose Antonio Marengo, a meteorologist with Brazil's National Space Research Institute, said that global warming, if left unchecked, will reduce rainfall and raise temperatures substantially in the ecologically rich region.

(from ENN)

http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=11952

Fishbone Deforestation Pattern Affecting Environment, Research Shows

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are studying the environmental impact that unique patterns of deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil, have on the land and climate.

(from Science Daily)

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/061211221216.htm

New greenhouse gas scheme pays farmers for carbon rights

Queensland farmers are being paid to keep their trees in a move that could help combat global warming. A new project aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions will enable industrial companies to buy carbon rights from farmers with clearing permits who agree not to clear their land. The companies can then use the carbon to offset their greenhouse gas emissions.

(from ABC)

http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200611/s1790841.htm

4) New Publications

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Handbook

UNFCCC Secretariat, December 2006

Description: This 220-page handbook is intended as a “reference document linking the Convention and the decisions through which it has been implemented.” It aims to assist Parties, researchers and others interested in the international climate change regime and negotiations.

Find the Handbook here:

http://unfccc.int/essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/items/2625.php

Community Forest Management as a Carbon Mitigation Option: Case Studies

D. Murdiyarso, D. – Skutsch, M., Eds. (2006)

Published by CIFOR

Abstract: The book presents 13 case studies of community forest management as this relates to climate change mitigation, in Asia and Africa. The first six document carbon stock increases as a result of management of natural forest, and describe the participatory carbon measurement methods used. Measurement by the local community means that the costs of forest inventory are kept low, thus increasing the potential finanical returns to the community, if the carbon were to be credited and marketed under a future climate policy permitting forest management. The remaining seven cases are concerned with small scale afforestation and reforestation. None of these have yet been submitted under CDM, largely because of the technical difficulties of preparing PDDs, but they demonstrate the potential for this both in terms of carbon and in terms of sustainable development. Several of the cases analyse the possibilities for bundling environmental services.

It can be downloaded from www.cifor.cgiar.org or from www.communitycarbonforestry.org

Climate Change issue of Options (IIASA)

The latest issue of the magazine Options from the international scientific institute, IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis) focuses on climate change and features articles on:

    • Dealing with uncertainties in climate change research

    • The impact of climate change on food production and fresh water supply

    • Biofuels: Running cars on methanol

    • ‘Interim targets’ to strengthen climate policy

    • An emergency measure that would slow global warming

    • The role of Siberia in the global carbon cycle

Download the magazine at http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Options/

5) Climate Change jobs

UNFCCC Secretariat: 15 vacancy announcements

For more detailed information on the vacancy announcements, please navigate to: http://unfccc.int/secretariat/employment/vacancies/items/1216.php

Institute of Development Studies: Research Fellow – Climate Change

The IDS Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team seek to appoint a Fellow to strengthen our work with specific reference to climate change. Applications are invited from experienced economists or social scientists with relevant expertise that can contribute to developing further the Climate Change and Disasters Group’s rapidly expanding academic research and advisory work on climate change and disasters.

Closing date: 05 March 2007

For more information, please visit: http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/recruit/179_CCFell_Ad.htm

Principal/Senior Climate Change Policy Consultant

At Environmental & Engineering Consultancy, UK

Please find a job opportunity for a Principal/Senior Climate Change Policy Consultant in the UK at http://81.171.180.23/web/webrecrt.nsf/($All)/DBD3BAB7A4AA5978802572180034115C?OpenDocument or www.entecuk.com -> careers.

Ecofys: 2 vacancy announcements

The department Energy and Climate Strategies at Ecofys Netherlands has a vacancy for a:

Consultant CDM and JI

For further information please visit:

http://www.ecofys.nl/nl/werk/vacatures/consultantcdmandji.htm

The department Energy and Climate Strategies at Ecofys Germany (Nürnberg) has a vacancy for a

Junior Consultant Energy and Climate Strategies

For further information please visit:

http://www.ecofys.com/nl/werk/vacatures/juniorconsultantenergyandclimatestrategies

For all Ecofys vacancy announcements see: http://www.ecofys.com/com/work/vacancies.htm

CICERO vacancy announcements for Researchers and consultants

CICERO is now seeking to fill several positions. We are accepting applications for research assistants, research fellows, senior research fellows, and research consultants. Part-time associate positions for university faculty are also available. We are looking to increase our staff in all three of our research programs:

    • Scientific basis and international agreements

    • Mitigation and costs

    • Impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation

Higher education is required for all positions. A PhD is required for research fellow positions and part-time university associates.

For more information see www.cicero.uio.no/index_e.asp. and http://www.cicero.uio.no/webnews.asp?id=10764&lang=en

Application, CV and copies of references and transcripts must be posted by 31 January 2007.

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Programme Officer

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan wishes to recruit a Programme Officer (1 Post) for the technical support unit of the IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme

Please find the details at; http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/tsu/povacancy.htm

IIASA: 3 vacancy announcements

The Transitions to New Technologies (TNT) Program at IIASA is seeking applications for researchers with expertise in the modeling area. The TNT Program investigates patterns and possible impacts of the diffusion of new technologies in information, communication, transport and energy systems.

For a detailed description of the vacancy announcements please visit the web sites listed below.

Senior Research Scholar (Modeler)

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Admin/PE/Jobs/2006-19-tnt-srs-mod.html


Research Scholar (Spatial Modeler)

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Admin/PE/Jobs/2006-18-tnt-rs-spamod.html


Research Scholar (Technology Analyst)

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Admin/PE/Jobs/2006-17-tnt-rs-tecana.html


Closing date for applications: 31 January 2007.

For further information about the Program, please visit its homepage http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/TNT/index.html
or contact the Program Leader, Prof. Nebojsa Nakicenovic ( naki@iiasa.ac.at) or Prof. Arnulf Grübler ( gruebler@iiasa.ac.at).

6) Websites of Interest

Global Observation for Forest and Land Cover Dynamics

Global Observation for Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC/GOLD) is a coordinated international effort working to provide ongoing space-based and in-situ observations of the land surface for the sustainable management of terrestrial resources and to obtain an accurate, reliable, quantitative understanding of the terrestrial carbon budget. The role of GOFC GOLD is to establish the link between space agencies, science community and the users of earth observation data and data products. The primary function of the Land Cover Implementation Team (LC-IT) is to develop and evaluate methods, tools and products for land cover measurements and monitoring using space-borne and in-situ observations. The LC-IT assesses current needs and deficiencies for global and regional monitoring to support Global Change research, national and regional forest inventories and international policy.

Land Cover Datasets: This is an overview of currently available land cover datasets. Each land cover product is available from the web address provided. This document gives an overview of available global datasets, some regional/continental and national land cover products.

The GOFC/GOLD webiste can be accessed here http://www.fao.org/gtos/gofc-gold/index.html or at: http://www.gofc-gold.uni-jena.de/

AFOLU DATA

Green House Gases in Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses in Europe

Joint Research Centre of the EU (JRC)

This web site represents the Information System of the Project GHG AFOLU. Its aim is to offer data, models and other tools to promote transparent, complete, consistent and comparable greenhouse gas estimates for the AFOLU sector in Europe.

Target users are both greenhouse gas inventory practitioners and scientists.

In particular, the AFOLU DATA information system provides:

    • an overview on climate change related policy and bodies, with special attention to the European level and to the AFOLU sector;

    • information on research projects aimed at understanding and quantifying the GHG balance of European terrestrial ecosystems and the associated uncertainty at different scales;

    • a collection of databases and tools for the assessment of GHG fluxes in the AFOLU sector in Europe, using different methods and at different scales; most of the database are downloadable and updatable.

Website: http://afoludata.jrc.it/index.cfm

*************************************************************

Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Michele Bernardi, Jane Ross, Margaret Skutsch, Ulrika Wernmark, Monika Zurek

The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Resources Division, Forest Conservation Service (FORC).

QUICK TIPS AND INFORMATION FOR CLIM-FO-L

    - To join the list, please send an e-mail to mailserv@mailserv.fao.org containing the message (leave the subject line blank)
    SUBSCRIBE CLIM-FO-L

    - Once on the list, to make a contribution, please contact the following address: CLIM-FO-Owner@fao.org

    - To retrieve past postings, send an e-mail to mailserv@mailserv.fao.org containing the message (in lower case):

    get listlog/clim-fo-l.mmmyyyy (For example, "get listlog/clim-fo-l.feb2001" will retrieve postings of February 2001)

    - For technical help or questions contact CLIM-FO-Owner@fao.org

    - To unsubscribe, please send an e-mail to mailserv@mailserv.fao.org leaving the subject line blank and containing the following message: UNSUBSCRIBE CLIM-FO-L

- Your information is secure - We will never sell, give or distribute your address or subscription information to any third party.

CLIM-FO-L List Owner

last updated:  Tuesday, November 18, 2008