No. 08/2006

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

3) News on forests and climate change

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of interest



1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

Can carbon sequestration markets benefit low-income producers in semi-arid Africa? Potentials and challenges

Perez, C. - Roncoli, C. - Neely, C. - Steiner, J.L. (2006)

Agricultural Systems; Available online 19 October 2006

Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change allows a country that emits C above agreed-upon limits to purchase C offsets from an entity that uses biological means to absorb or reduce greenhouse emissions. The CDM is currently offered for afforestation and reforestation projects, but may apply subsequently to sequestration in agricultural soils. Additionally, markets outside of the Protocol are developing for soil C sequestration. In theory, C markets present win-win opportunities for buyers and sellers of C stocks. In practice, however, C markets are very complex. They presuppose the existence and integration of technical capacity to enhance C storage in production systems, the capacity for resource users to adopt and maintain land resource practices that sequester C, the ability for dealers or brokers to monitor C stocks at a landscape level, the institutional capacity to aggregate C credits, the financial mechanisms for incentive payments to reach farmers, and transparent and accountable governance structures that can ensure equitable distribution of benefits. Hence, while C payments may contribute to increasing rural incomes and promoting productivity enhancement practices, they may also expose resource users to additional social tensions and institutional risks.

Net ecosystem productivity of boreal aspen forests under drought and climate change: Mathematical modelling with Ecosys

Grant, R.F. - Black, T.A. - Gaumont-Guay, D. - Klujn, N. - Barr, A.G. –Morgenstern, K. – Nesic, Z. (2006)

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; Available online 26 September 2006

Abstract: The net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of boreal aspen is strongly affected by comparative rates of annual potential evapotranspiration (Ea) and precipitation (Pa). Changes in Ea versus Pa during future climate change will likely determine changes in aspen NEP and consequently the magnitude of the carbon sink/source of a significant part of the boreal forest. We hypothesize that the effects of Ea versus Pa on aspen NEP can be modelled with a soil–root–canopy hydraulic resistance scheme coupled to a canopy energy balance closure scheme that determines canopy water status and thereby CO2 uptake. As part of the ecosystem model ecosys, these schemes were used to model diurnal declines in CO2 and latent heat (LE) exchange during a 3-year drought (2001–2003) at the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network (FCRN) southern old aspen site (SOA). Ecosys was then used to predict changes in aspen net biome productivity (NBP = NEP − C lost from disturbance) caused by 6-year versus 3-year recurring droughts during 100-year fire cycles under current climate versus climate change projected under the IPCC SRES A1B scenario. Although NBP was adversely affected during recurring 6-year droughts under current climate, it recovered quickly during non-drought years so that long-term NBP was maintained at 4 g C m−2 year−1. NBP rose by 10, 108 and 126 g C m−2 year−1 during the first, second and third centuries under climate change with recurring 3-year droughts, indicating a gradual rise in sink activity by boreal aspen. However recurring 6-year droughts during climate change caused recurring negative NBP (C losses), gradually depleting aspen C reserves and eventually causing dieback of the aspen overstory during the third century of climate change. This dieback was followed by a large decline in NBP. We conclude that NBP of boreal aspen will rise gradually under current projections of climate change, except under prolonged (e.g. 6 years) recurring droughts, which would eventually cause aspen to die back and substantial amounts of C to be lost.

Viability of carbon offset-generating afforestation projects in boreal Ontario

Biggs, J. - Laaksonen-Craig, S. (2006)

The Forestry Chronicle 82 (1): 70-76

Abstract: Carbon offsets generated under the Kyoto Protocol (KP) should be included in the management options considered by resource managers. This paper investigates investments in afforestation for the generation of KP-compliant carbon offsets in the Timmins Management Unit, concentrating on the availability of quality carbon budget models, domestic carbon market concerns and the presence of an enabling environment. A modelling exercise is undertaken using GORCAMWC1, with ownership, leading species, investment horizon, site productivity and carbon price as variables.Under current institutional frameworks, afforestation projects with the purpose of generating carbon offsets in the TMU are not viable investments for the first commitment period, though such projects will be profitable under certain conditions if constraints are removed and investment is long term.

Above- and belowground ecosystem biomass and carbon pools in an age-sequence of temperate pine plantation forests

Matthias Peichl, M. – Arain, M.A. (2006)

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; Available online 20 September 2006

Abstract: We assessed the successional development of above- and belowground ecosystem biomass and carbon (C) pools in an age-sequence of four White pine (Pinus strobus L.) plantation stands (2-, 15-, 30-, and 65-years-old) in Southern Ontario, Canada. Biomass and C stocks of above- and belowground live and dead tree biomass, understorey and forest ground vegetation, forest floor C (LFH-layer), and woody debris were determined from plot-level inventories and destructive tree sampling. Small root biomass (<5 mm) and mineral soil C stocks were estimated from soil cores. Aboveground tree biomass became the major ecosystem C pool with increasing age, reaching 0.5, 66, 92, and 176 t ha−1 in the 2-, 15-, 30-, and 65-year-old stands, respectively. Tree root biomass increased from 0.1 to 10, 18, 38 t ha−1 in the 2-, 15-, 30-, and 65-year-old stands, respectively, contributing considerably to the total ecosystem C in the three older stands. Forest floor C was 0.8, 7.5, 5.4, and 12.1 t C ha−1 in the 2-, 15-, 30-, and 65-year-old stands, respectively, indicating an increase during the first two decades, but no further age-effect during the later growth phase. Mineral soil C was age-independent with 37.2, 33.9, 39.1, and 36.7 t C ha−1 in the 2-, 15-, 30-, and 65-year-old stands, respectively. Aboveground ecosystem C increased with age from 3 to 40, 52, and 100 t C ha−1 in the 2-, 15-, 30-, and 65-year-old stands, respectively, due to an increase in aboveground tree biomass. Belowground ecosystem C remained similiar in the early decades after establishment with 37, 39, and 39 t C ha−1 in the 2-, 15-, and 30-year-old stands, but increased to 56 t C ha−1 in the 65-year-old stand due to an increase in root biomass. The difference in total ecosystem C between the 2- and 65-year-old stand was 116 t C ha−1. Our results highlight the importance of considering the successional development of forest ecosystem C pools, when estimating C sink potentials over their complete life cycle.

The methane sink associated to soils of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Italy

Castaldi, S. – Costantini, M. – Cenciarelli, P. – Ciccioli, P. – Valentini, R. (2006)

Chemosphere; Available online 18 September 2006

Abstract: In the present work, the CH4 sink associated to Italian soils was calculated by using a process-based model controlled by gas diffusivity and microbial activity, which was run by using a raster-based geographical information system. Georeferenced data included land cover CLC2000, soil properties from the European Soil Database, climatic data from the MARS-STAT database, plus several derived soils properties based on published algorithms applied to the above mentioned databases. Overall CH4 consumption from natural and agricultural sources accounted for a total of 43.3 Gg CH4 yr−1, with 28.1 Gg CH4 yr−1 removed in natural ecosystems and 15.1 Gg CH4 yr−1 in agricultural ecosystems. The highest CH4 uptake rates were obtained for natural areas of Southern Apennines and islands of Sardinia and Sicily, and were mainly associated to areas covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (259.7 ± 30.2 mg CH4 m−2 yr−1) and broad-leaved forest (237.5 mg CH4 m−2 yr−1). In terms of total sink strength broad-leaved forests were the dominant ecosystem. The overall contribution of each ecosystem type to the whole CH4 sink depended on the total area covered by the specific ecosystem and on its exact geographic distribution. The latter determines the type of climate present in the area and the dominant soil type, both factors which showed to have a strong influence on CH4 uptake rates. The aggregated CH4 sink, calculated for natural ecosystems present in the Italian region, is significantly higher than previously reported estimates, which were extrapolated from fluxes measured in other temperate ecosystems.

Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest

Li, Y. – Xu, M. – Zou, X. (2006)

Global Change Biology 12 (2): 284

Abstract: Wet tropical forests play a critical role in global ecosystem carbon (C) cycle, but C allocation and the response of different C pools to nutrient addition in these forests remain poorly understood. We measured soil organic carbon (SOC), litterfall, root biomass, microbial biomass and soil physical and chemical properties in a wet tropical forest from May 1996 to July 1997 following a 7-year continuous fertilization. We found that although there was no significant difference in total SOC in the top 0–10 cm of the soils between the fertilization plots (5.42±0.18 kg m-2) and the control plots (5.27±0.22 kg m-2), the proportion of the heavy-fraction organic C in the total SOC was significantly higher in the fertilized plots (59%) than in the control plots (46%) (P<0.05). The annual decomposition rate of fertilized leaf litter was 13% higher than that of the control leaf litter. We also found that fertilization significantly increased microbial biomass (fungi+bacteria) with 952±48 mg kg-1soil in the fertilized plots and 755±37 mg kg-1soil in the control plots. Our results suggest that fertilization in tropical forests may enhance long-term C sequestration in the soils of tropical wet forests.

Measuring leakage from carbon projects in open economies: a stop timber harvesting project in Bolivia as a case study

Sohngen, B. - Brown, S. (2004)

Canadian journal of forest research 34 (4): 829-839

Abstract: This paper develops methods for estimating leakage from forest-based carbon projects that seek to reduce carbon emissions from timber harvesting in tropical forests. A theoretical framework is presented in which a specific country, in this case Bolivia, is treated as a supplier to the global timber market. Leakage is measured, over a 30- to 50-year time period, as the difference in net national carbon emissions from timber harvesting between the baseline case and a scenario in which some of the land is removed from the concession base. Estimates of timber leakage are made for several different assumptions about future global sequestration policies, capital constraints, demand elasticity, and deadwood decomposition rates. The results suggest that leakage could range from 5% to 42% without discounting carbon, and from 2% to 38% when carbon is discounted. Demand elasticity and wood decomposition rates have the largest effects on the leakage calculation. Leakage is lowest when demand is more elastic and wood decomposition rates are faster, and vice-versa when these conditions are reversed. Leakage appears to be sensitive to capital constraints only when project benefits are measured over a shorter time period.

Carbon dynamics in successional and afforested spruce stands in Thuringia and the Alps

Thuille, A. - Schulz, E.-D. (2006)

Global Change Biology 2 (12): 325

Abstract: Changes in the carbon stocks of stem biomass, organic layers and the upper 50 cm of the mineral soil during succession and afforestation of spruce (Picea abies) on former grassland were examined along six chronosequences in Thuringia and the Alps. Three chronosequences were established on calcareous and three on acidic bedrocks. Stand elevation and mean annual precipitation of the chronosequences were different. Maximum stand age was 93 years on acid and 112 years on calcareous bedrocks. Stem biomass increased with stand age and reached values of 250–400 t C ha-1 in the oldest successional stands. On acidic bedrocks, the organic layers accumulated linearly during forest succession at a rate of 0.34 t C ha-1 yr-1. On calcareous bedrocks, a maximum carbon stock in the humus layers was reached at an age of 60 years. Total carbon stocks in stem biomass, organic layers and the mineral soil increased during forest development from 75 t C ha-1 in the meadows to 350 t C ha-1 in the oldest successional forest stands (2.75 t C ha-1 yr-1). Carbon sequestration occurred in stem biomass and in the organic layers (0.34 t C ha-1 yr-1on acid bedrock), while mineral soil carbon stocks declined. Mineral soil carbon stocks were larger in areas with higher precipitation. During forest succession, mineral soil carbon stocks of the upper 50 cm decreased until they reached approximately 80% of the meadow level and increased slightly thereafter. Carbon dynamics in soil layers were examined by a process model. Results showed that sustained input of meadow fine roots is the factor, which most likely reduces carbon losses in the upper 10 cm. Carbon losses in 10–20 cm depth were lower on acidic than on calcareous bedrocks. In this depth, continuous dissolved organic carbon inputs and low soil respiration rates could promote carbon sequestration following initial carbon loss. At least 80 years are necessary to regain former stock levels in the mineral soil. Despite the comparatively larger amount of carbon stored in the regrowing vegetation, afforestation projects under the Kyoto protocol should also aim at the preservation or increase of carbon in the mineral soil regarding its greater stability of compared with stocks in biomass and humus layers. If grassland afforestation is planned, suitable management options and a sufficient rotation length should be chosen to achieve these objectives. Maintenance of grass cover reduces the initial loss.

Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

Breshears, R.D. – Cobb, N.S. – Rich, P.M. – Price, K.P. – Allen, C.D. – Balice, R.G. – Romme, W.H. – Kastens, J.H. – Floyd, M.L. – Belnap, J. – Anderson, J.J. – Myers, O.B. – Meyer, C.W. (2006)

PNAS 102 (42): 15144-15148

Abstract: Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and associated bark beetle infestations. At an intensively studied site within the region, we quantified that after 15 months of depleted soil water content, >90% of the dominant, overstory tree species (Pinus edulis, a piñon) died. The die-off was reflected in changes in a remotely sensed index of vegetation greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), not only at the intensively studied site but also across the region, extending over 12,000 km2 or more; aerial and field surveys confirmed the general extent of the die-off. Notably, the recent drought was warmer than the previous subcontinental drought of the 1950s. The limited, available observations suggest that die-off from the recent drought was more extensive than that from the previous drought, extending into wetter sites within the tree species' distribution. Our results quantify a trigger leading to rapid, drought-induced die-off of overstory woody plants at subcontinental scale and highlight the potential for such die-off to be more severe and extensive for future global-change-type drought under warmer conditions.

Potential changes in carbon dynamics due to climate change measured in the past two decades

Yarie,-J.; Parton,-B. (2005)

Canadian journal of forest research 35 (9): 2258-2267

Abstract: Evidence suggests that climate change dynamics have been occurring in the northern latitudes for the past two and a half decades. The CENTURY ecosystem model was used for a set of simulations related to the carbon dynamics of interior Alaska taiga forest types. The functional dynamics of three age-classes (young, middle, and mature) of three ecosystem types (white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), and hardwoods) were compared using an average climate that was present prior to 1980 and the climate record from 1980 to 2000. Estimates for total ecosystem production indicate a decrease in tree carbon capture for hardwood stands for all three age-classes summed across a 20-year climate change period. White spruce displayed increases in carbon capture for the three age-classes. Young and mid-aged black spruce stands showed a decrease in ecosystem productivity. The old-growth black spruce stand showed a small increase in carbon capture. Dynamics displayed for the entire ecosystem (soil organic matter, tree dynamics, dead wood, and forest litter) followed the same trends as vegetation productivity. For the same 20-year climate period and across all three age-classes, carbon capture decreased for hardwood ecosystems and increased for white spruce ecosystems. The young black spruce system showed a change from a positive carbon balance to a negative carbon balance. Based on the landscape area covered by each vegetation type, we suggest that the net effect of climate warming over the past 20 years has been a substantial decrease in carbon capture in the forests of interior Alaska.

Spatial and temporal variation of nitrous oxide and methane flux between subtropical mangrove sediments and the atmosphere

Allen, D. - Dalal, R.C. - Rennenberg, H. - Meyer, R.L. - Reeves, S. - Schmidt, S. (2006)

Soil Biology and Biochemistry; Available online 19 October 2006

Abstract: We quantified spatial and temporal variations of the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) and associated abiotic sediment parameters across a subtropical river estuary sediment dominated by grey mangrove (Avicennia marina). N2O and CH4 fluxes from sediment were measured adjacent to the river (“fringe”) and in the mangrove forest (“forest”) at 3-h intervals throughout the day during autumn, winter and summer. N2O fluxes from sediment ranged from an average of −4 μg to 65 μg N2O m−2 h−1 representing N2O sink and emission. CH4 emissions varied by several orders of magnitude from 3 μg to 17.4 mg CH4 m−2 h−1. On the basis of their global warming potentials, N2O and CH4 fluxes, expressed as CO2-equivalent (CO2-e) emissions, showed that CH4 emissions dominated in summer and autumn seasons (82–98% CO2-e emissions), whereas N2O emissions dominated in winter (67–95% of CO2-e emissions) when overall CO2-e emissions were low. Our study highlights the importance of seasonal N2O contributions, particularly when conditions driving CH4 emissions may be less favourable. For the accurate upscaling of N2O and CH4 flux to annual rates, we need to assess relative contributions of individual trace gases to net CO2-e emissions, and the influence of elevated nutrient inputs and mitigation options across a number of mangrove sites or across regional scales. This requires a careful sampling design at site-level that captures the potentially considerable temporal and spatial variation of N2O and CH4 emissions.

Land use context and natural soil controls on plant community composition and soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in urban and rural forests

Groffman, P.M. - Pouyat, R.V. - Cadenasso, M.L. - Zipperer, W.C. - Szlavecz, K. - Yesilonis, I.D. - Band, L.E. - Brush, G.S. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management; Available online 12 October 2006

Abstract: Forests embedded in an urban matrix are a useful venue for investigating the effects of multiple factors such as climate change, altered disturbance regimes and species invasions on forest ecosystems. Urban forests also represent a significant land area, with potentially important effects on landscape and regional scale nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) storage and flux. We measured forest community composition, litterfall, leaf area index, soil chemical properties, in situ net N mineralization and nitrification, soil and soil solution inorganic N pools, and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in eight forest stands that differed in their exposure to urban atmospheric conditions and natural soil conditions (high versus low fertility). Our objectives were (1) to compare the influence of urban land use context and natural soil controls on forest composition and C and N cycling processes and (2) to evaluate the importance of “natural” N cycle processes relative to anthropogenic N fluxes in the urban landscape. Forest productivity and N cycling varied more with soil type than with proximity to urban land use, while forest composition and soil:atmosphere fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were more strongly influenced by exposure to an urban land use matrix and atmosphere. The magnitude of natural processes was important in the context of urban and suburban landscapes, i.e. production of, and annual variation in, inorganic N in forest patches was large relative to watershed-scale atmospheric deposition, fertilizer use and food/sewage fluxes that have been measured in other studies in these study landscapes.

Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: A northern hemisphere perspective

Bytnerowicz, A. - Omasa, K. - Paoletti, E. (2006)

Environmental Pollution; Available online 10 October 2006

Abstract: Many air pollutants and greenhouse gases have common sources, contribute to radiative balance, interact in the atmosphere, and affect ecosystems. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects. We review the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on northern hemisphere forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests may result in more effective research, management and monitoring as well as better integration of local, national and global environmental policies. Simultaneous addressing air pollution and climate change effects on forests is an opportunity for capturing synergies in future research and monitoring.

Sensitivity analysis in calculating the social value of carbon sequestered in British grown Sitka spruce

Brainard, J. - Lovett, A. - Bateman, I. (2006)

Journal of Forest Economics; Available online 6 October 2006

Abstract: We describe a model that estimates the social benefits of carbon (C) sequestered in plantation Sitka spruce in Great Britain. Final net present values (NPV, base year=2003) resulting from plausible variations in model parameters are calculated. The discount rate, social value of C, timber yield, rate of gain into live wood, length of rotation, lifetime of products, amount of C displaced by products and the changes in C flux on afforested peat soils are the most influential model components. The study predicts that C fluxes in actively managed forests in second or subsequent rotations or planted on peat soils will tend to have low or (on average) negative NPV.

Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks as affected by topographic aspect and vegetation in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

Yimer, F. - Ledin, S. - Abdelkadir, A. (2006)

Geoderma 135: 335-344

Abstract: Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (total N) stocks in 0–0.3 and 0.3–1.0 m soil layers were estimated following the standard procedures for three vegetation communities; Schefflera-Hagenia, Hypericum-Erica-Schefflera, and Erica arborea (shrub size), at different topographic aspects (east-, west-, north- and south-facing) on the Bale Mountains in the south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia. The results showed that SOC and total N in the top 0.3 m depth varied significantly among vegetation communities (p < 0.001) and aspects (p = 0.003). At all aspects studied, the overall mean SOC and total N amounts to a depth of 1.0 m ranged from 32.67 to 46.03 kg C m− 2 and 2.89 to 3.61 kg N m− 2 among the vegetation communities. The overall mean SOC and total N stocks to a depth of 1.0 m varied from 35.13 to 44.97 kg C m− 2 and 2.90 to 3.75 kg N m− 2 among aspects. Topographic aspect induced microclimatic differences and vegetation community types were found to be important factors for the significant variations in SOC and total N stocks in the Bale Mountains. About 45% of the SOC stock in the 0–1.0 m layer of the mineral soil was held in the top 0.3 m of the soil, indicating the potentially large amount of CO2 that can be released from the top surface soils when these vegetations are deforested and converted into grazing and cultivation.

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events


Nairobi, Kenya, 06 to 17 November 2006

Kenya will host the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP 2), in conjunction with the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP 12), in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006.

The conference will also include, from 6 to 14 November, the twenty-fifth session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 25), the twenty-fifth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 25), and the second session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG 2).

The second workshop under the dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention (the Dialogue) will be held from 15 to 16 November.

Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries

The SBSTA, at its twenty-fifth session (November 2006), will continue the consideration of relevant scientific, technical and methodological issues, and the exchange of relevant information and experiences, including policy approaches and positive incentives, taking into account the outcome of the workshop and the submissions from Parties. At the same session, the SBSTA will determine the need for and, if appropriate, the scope of a second workshop on these matters.

For an official UNFCCC report of the workshop, please see:

For the annotated agendas of SBSTA 25, SBI 25, and COP/MOP 2, please go to:

Ad-hoc group for the modelling and assessment of contributions to climate change (MATCH)

The “Ad-hoc group for the modelling and assessment of contributions to climate change (MATCH)” will meet from 27 to 28 November 2006, Cologne, Germany. Since 2003, this group is undertaking research on historical contributions of countries and sources to climate change as response to the discussion in the SBSTA on the “scientific and methodological aspects of the proposal by Brazil”.

After the MATCH group had presented its first two papers at the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) in May this year, the SBSTA agreed that the scientific community to continue its efforts on this topic and to provide written reports about the results by 30 October 2007 (Document FCCC/SBSTA/2006/L.13).

The MATCH meeting in November will provide the opportunity to shape and plan the future work of MATCH until October 2007.

MATCH is an open group. New scientists that are interested in shaping and contributing to the new process are particularly welcome at this stage.

Developing country experts are particularly welcome at this meeting. Funding for travel may be available, but is limited to experts from developing countries, who are active in the field of climate modelling, can contribute substantively to the discussion and are committed to working on MATCH projects, particularly the preparation of scientific papers.

More information can be found at:

Gold Standard e Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo

Workshop de Treinamento

O WWF-Brasil, em parceria com o IT Power. Fundação Gold Standard e o Centro de Estudos em Sustentabilidade da Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV), convida para o workshop sobre o selo Gold Standard, padrão ouro em projetos de Mecanismos de Desenvolvimento Limpos (MDL). O evento é aberto a todos e gratuito com inscrições limitadas.

Os tipos de projetos de eficiência energética e energias renováveis elegíveis para o selo Gold Standard podem ser encontrados no site Caso veja seu projeto como potencial candidato para o selo, envie um e-mail para

QUANDO: 7 e 8 de dezembro de 2006 (quinta e sexta-feira)

ONDE: Centro de Estudos em Sustentabilidade da FGV-EAESP - sala 908

Avenida 9 de Julho, 2029 - 10º andar - São Paulo



A proposal to increase the small scale limit for A/R Projects

Schlamadinger, B. - Ratton, M. – Bird, N. (2006)

Executive Summary: At CoP 9 the certified emissions reductions generated by small scale A/R (SSC-AR) projects were limited to a maximum of 8,000 t CO2eq./year. The aim of this analysis is to briefly demonstrate how this limit acts as a barrier to SSC-AR implementation. Using Net Present Value (NPV) of project revenues and costs as a measure, we show that, at the current limit of 8,000 t CO2e/year, the costs of implementing an SSC-AR project are a significant portion of the CDM revenues generated by the project, and as a result, very little annual income could reach the low income land owner within an assumed crediting period of 10 years. We suggest that the 8000 tonne limit represents a key barrier to make small scale AR projects a realistic option. As well, we suggest that they are less financially attractive than energy related projects under the simplified modalities and procedures of the CDM. We further investigate the attractiveness of raising the limit to 30,000 t CO2eq./year.

The paper be downloaded from the ENCOFOR website at:

3) News on forests and climate change

Angola: Kyoto Protocol to Contribute to Natural Resources

The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol might contribute to the recovery of the country's forest resources and gas, said in Luanda the national director of the Ministry of Urbanisation and Environment (MINUA).

(from AllAfrica)

Global bioenergy partnership secretariat started

The Secretariat of the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP), launched at the 14th Session of the UN Commission for Sustainable Development in May 2006 in New York to promote the use of bioenergy, opened for business this week. Located at FAO headquarters and supported by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea, the Secretariat’s mandate is to facilitate a global political forum to promote bioenergy and to encourage the production, marketing and use of “green” fuels, with particular focus on developing countries.

(FAO press release)

Brazil to call for global fund to save rainforests and cut climate change

Plans for a global fund to help contain rainforest destruction and slash carbon emissions will be unveiled next month by the Brazilian government.

The project, by which rich nations would offer financial incentives to developing countries that combat deforestation, will be announced at a November convention on climate change in Nairobi.

(from The Guardian),,1926633,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=12

World Bank Advises Better Forest Governance and Use of Carbon Markets to save Tropical Forests

A majority of people in rural tropical areas — about 800 million — live in or around vulnerable forests or woodlands, depending on them heavily for survival. Yet deforestation at five percent a decade is steadily depleting this resource base, contributing to 20 percent of annual global CO2 emissions and seriously threatening biodiversity. Globally, this calls for strong financial incentives, says a new World Bank policy research report, "At Loggerheads? Agricultural Expansion, Poverty Reduction and Environment in the Tropical Forests."

(World Bank press release)

Find the press release as well as the link to the full report here:

4) New Publications

2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006)

Description: The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories were approved by the IPCC session in April 2006 and have now been published.

The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories build on the previous Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and the subsequent Good Practice reports in an evolutionary manner to ensure that moving from the previous guidelines to these new guidelines is as straightforward as possible. These new guidelines cover new sources and gases as well as updates to previously published methods where technical and scientific knowledge have improved.

This guidance assists countries in compiling complete, national inventories of greenhouse gases. The guidance has been structured so that any country, regardless of experience or resources, should be able to produce reliable estimates of their emissions and removals of these gases. In particular, default values of the various parameters and emission factors required are supplied for all sectors, so that, at its simplest, a country needs only supply national activity data.

The 2006 IPCC Guidelines are available at:

Choosing a forest definition for the Clean Development Mechanism

Neeff, T. – von Luepke, H. - Schoene, D. (2006)

FAO Forests and climate change working paper No. 4

Abstract: Developing countries must define “forest” before they can host afforestation and reforestation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. To do so, they must chose country-specific values from a range provided in the Marrakech Accords for minimum area, crown cover and tree height. Good practice involves choosing also a minimum strip width. Definitions in the Marrakech Accords and in the 2003 IPCC Good Practice Guidance leave some ambiguities. Existing country definitions of “forest” do not contain all or, sometimes, any quantitative parameters; simply adopting them for the CDM is not an option. Therefore, all developing countries vying for forestry projects under the CDM will have to choose parameter values. Only few have done so up to now. Parameter values affect land eligibility for the CDM, feasibility of project types and match with national policy goals. Choosing parameter values that maximize eligibility and feasibility may conflict with those that match economic and socio-environmental expectations. Given a multitude of goals and project types, a large spectrum of sites, current land-uses and ownership patterns, there are no generally valid, optimal choices. A stepwise decision process and simple graphical techniques provided here may aid NAI countries in choosing optimal parameter values for the forest definition.

To download the paper:

Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2006

EEA Report No. 9/2006

Abstract: The latest projections from pre-2004 EU Member States (EU-15) show that greenhouse gas emissions could be brought down to 8.0 % below 1990 levels by 2010. If all existing and planned domestic policy measures are implemented and Kyoto mechanisms as well as carbon sinks are used, the EU-15 will reach its Kyoto Protocol target. This projection relies on figures from several Member States which suggest that they will cut emissions by more than is required to meet their national targets. Existing domestic policies and measures will reduce total EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions by a net effect of 0.6 % from 1990 levels. When additional domestic policies and measures (planned but not yet implemented) are taken into account, the EU-15 could reduce emissions by 4.6 %. The projected use of Kyoto mechanisms by ten of the EU-15 will reduce emissions by a further 2.6 % at a cost of EUR 2 830 million. The use of carbon sinks, such as planting of forests to remove CO2, would contribute an additional 0.8 %. All ten new EU Member States are on track to achieve their individual Kyoto targets, despite rising emissions. This is largely due to economic restructuring in the 1990s.

Published at:

UNFCCC workshop on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries

Workshop report, UNFCCC, 2006

Summary: The secretariat organized a workshop on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, taking place in Rome, Italy, from 30 August to 1 September 2006. The workshop should provide an opportunity for Parties to share experiences and consider relevant aspects relating to reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries. Participants heard technical presentations on the theme of scientific, socio-economic, technical and methodological issues as well as presentations by representatives of Parties and international organizations on the theme of policy approaches and positive incentives. Participants also exchanged views and discussed in detail issues relating to the topics and addressed possible links between the two themes. Several possible next steps were proposed to advance the work of the SBSTA and to allow the body to report at its twenty-seventh session. The SBSTA may wish to consider the information in this report, in particular the information on possible next steps, and provide additional guidance on further action.

Find the full report at:

Carbon losses and sequestration following land use change in the humid tropics

Palm, C.A. - van Noordwijk, M. - Woomer, P.L. - Alegre, J.C. - Arévalo, L. - Castilla, C.E. - Cordeiro, D.G. - Hairiah, K. - Kotto-Same, J. - Moukam, A. - Parton, W.J. - Ricse, A. – Rodrigues, V. - Sitompul, S.M. (2005)

In: Slash and Burn Agriculture: The Search for Alternatives.

Palm, C.A. – Vosti, S.A. – Sanchez, P.A. – Ericksen, P.J. (Eds.)

Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA. p.41-63

Greenhouse gas fluxes in slash-and-burn and alternative land-use practices in Sumatra, Indonesia

Murdiyarso, D. - Tsuruta, H. - Ishizuka, S. – Hairiah, K. - Palm, C.A. (2005)

In: Slash and Burn Agriculture: The Search for Alternatives.

Palm, C.A. – Vosti, S.A. – Sanchez, P.A. – Ericksen, P.J. (Eds.)

Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA. p.41-63

There are no abstracts available for both articles above, but for additional information please refer to the book information: and

Or contact Sandra Velarde at:

For more information on the Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Programme (ASB) of the World Agroforestry Centre ((ICRAF) visit:

5) Climate Change jobs

Positions at EcoSecurities

Chinese Speaking Monitoring Managers, Senior CDM Project Managers and CDM Project Managers – Implementation team

Ecosecurities is offering several experienced Monitoring Managers, CDM Project Managers and Senior CDM Project Managers the opportunity to become valued members of the Implementation Group, with positions based in Oxford and in Bejing or Chengdu in China.

The closing date for applications is 25th November 2006

If you wish to apply for any of these vacancies then please visit the careers section of our website,, where you can complete an online application form and upload your CV.

Scientist for tropical deforestation

The Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany, is offering a Scientist position for one year in the Department of Biogeochemical Processes in the frame of a project for the German Federal Environment Agency.

The overall aim of this position is to quantify past and future CO2 emissions from deforestation. Specifically, the carbon stocks in the major tropical forest types of the world prone to deforestation and degradation should be estimated by collecting data from literature, national forest inventories in tropical countries and international data bases. Algorithms should be developed to scale up information about carbon stocks from pilot countries with detailed information to all tropical forest regions of the world.

Application should be sent by e-mail to:

Dr. Annette Freibauer, Your application should include a Curriculum Vitae including your personal key skills, copies of your certificates, a publication list, and the names and contact information of two reference persons.

Deadline for applications is 3 November, 2006.

Center for Clean Air Policy: 2 positions

(1) The Center for Clean Air Policy is seeking a Development Manager to serve as the primary fundraising professional in the organization.

(2) The Center is seeking a Climate Change Policy Analyst to play a leading role in its European program initiatives. The Policy Analyst—based in Brussels, Belgium—will work with other Center staff in Europe and the U.S. on a major new initiative on European climate policy.

Initial consideration will be given to applications received prior to November 20, 2006; applications received later will be reviewed on an as needed basis.

Please email (indicate the position title) your resume, cover letter, a short writing sample and salary history to:

Mr. Steven Kallan

Center for Clean Air Policy
Attn: Climate Change Policy Analyst - Brussels
750 First St., NE, Suite 940
Washington, DC 20002

Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research

The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, a research think tank in Karlsruhe, Germany, is offering a job opportunity in the field of environmental and climate policy, particularly in designing and evaluating EU Emission Trading and the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol.

The position is open to graduates with a Master's (or equivalent) degree in Economics or Environmental Science, and to be filled asap. For details, please refer to the website below. If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact:

Karoline Rogge
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI)

Department of Sustainability and Infrastructures

Breslauer Strasse 48
76139 Karlsruhe

Phone: +49 - 721 - 68 09 126
Fax: +49 - 721 - 68 09 135



6) Websites of interest

Carboafrica Initiative

This project aims at setting up a first attempt of a GHG fluxes monitoring network of Africa, in order to quantify, understand and predict, by a multi-disciplinary integrated approach, GHG emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa and its associated spatial and temporal variability. It is build on the state of the art of the carbon studies in Africa, filling the gaps of knowledge, and then we will utilize and expand existing carbon observing systems, together with the establishment of new infrastructures, improving the required monitoring systems. Specific regional studies in key areas, considering both carbon sources and sinks will be conducted.

The CARBOAFRICA network will contribute to the enhancement of an Earth observations system, strengthening the capacity of Europe to understand global change process. The scientific and technological results, in addition to the capacity building activities foreseen by this project, will promote the integration of the environmental dimension in the social and economic context, supporting Sub-Saharan African countries on the path of a sustainable development.



BIOCAP is Capturing Canada’s Green Advantage by building research partnerships to encourage productive, competitive and sustainable methods for using our country’s biological capital to create clean, sustainable forms of energy, fight climate change and encourage rural economic development.

BIOCAP’s mandate is to establish, encourage and capitalize on research partnerships to enable the transformation to a sustainable bioeconomy in Canada.

The website features also many reports and presentations on issues related to Bioenergy and Bioproducts; Synthesis and Integration; Agricultural GHG Management; Forestry and Natural Ecosystems.



Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Neil Bird, Jasmine Hyman, Mark Johnston, Joyce Kasyoki, Pieter von Lierop, Sandra J. Velarde-Pajares


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