CLIM-FO-L 05-2006draft-I-changedDS

CLIM-FO-L - AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTRY

No. 05/2006

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

3) New Publications

4) Climate Change jobs

5) Websites of interest

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1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere

Cleveland, C.C. - Townsend, A.R. (2006)

PNAS 103 (27): 10316-10321

Abstract: Terrestrial biosphere–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are high, P fertilization drove large increases in soil respiration. Although the P-stimulated increase in soil respiration was largely confined to the dry-to-wet season transition, the seasonal increase was sufficient to drive an 18% annual increase in CO2 efflux from the P-fertilized plots. Nitrogen (N) fertilization caused similar responses, and the net increases in soil respiration in response to the additions of N and P approached annual soil C fluxes in mid-latitude forests. Human activities are altering natural patterns of tropical soil N and P availability by land conversion and enhanced atmospheric deposition. Although our data suggest that the mechanisms driving the observed respiratory responses to increased N and P may be different, the large CO2 losses stimulated by N and P fertilization suggest that knowledge of such patterns and their effects on soil CO2 efflux is critical for understanding the role of tropical forests in a rapidly changing global C cycle.

Altitudinal genetic variation among Pinus oocarpa populations in Michoacán, Mexico: Implications for seed zoning, conservation, tree breeding and global warming

Sáenz-Romero, C. - Guzmán-Reyna, R.R. - Rehfeldt, G.E. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management 229 (1-3): 340-350

Abstract: We investigated the patterning of genetic variation among P. oocarpa populations for quantitative traits along an altitudinal gradient by establishing a provenance/progeny test from wind-pollinated seeds collected along an altitudinal transect (1100–1500 m) near Uruapan, Michoacán, Mexico. Genetic variation was analyzed in relation to normalized climate records (temperature, precipitation, degree days >5 °C and annual moisture index) for the provenances and the test site for the contemporary climate and for climates projected for the decades beginning in 2030, 2060, and 2090. Estimates of future climates used output from the Canadian and Hadley General Circulation Models. Results of a field test suggested an altitudinal pattern of genetic differentiation in juvenile height among P. oocarpa populations. Seedlings from populations originating from lower altitudes tended to grow more than seedlings originating from populations at the higher altitudes. However, this trend abates at the lowest altitudinal limit of the species distribution, a probable conservative growth strategy for avoiding drought stress. Thus, the cline appeared to arise from selection along a climatic gradient reflecting in a moisture index (ratio of degree days to precipitation) and is dependent, therefore, on a balance between temperature and moisture. For guiding seed and seedling transfer in ecological restoration, conservation of genetic resources, tree breeding and mitigating the effects of global warming, we suggest guidelines based on delimitation of three altitudinal seed zones of about 200 m in breadth. Alternatively, one can limit transfer to three climatic zones of about 0.75 units of annual moisture index. Predictions of future climates indicate an average annual temperature increase of 3.8 °C by year 2090, and, judging from an increase of an annual moisture index of 26%, an increase in aridity by the end of the century. However, the more difficult period for adaptation of P. oocarpa populations to the new climate should be between 2030 and 2060, when the increase in aridity is expected to be most pronounced. Changes of this magnitude should alter the natural distribution of the species and would create an adaptational lag, as the adaptedness of extant populations deteriorates. Mitigating these effects will require seeds to be transferred upwards in altitude, perhaps as much as 150 m initially.

Controls over pathways of carbon efflux from soils along climate and black spruce productivity gradients in interior Alaska

Kane, E.S. - Valentine, D.W. - Michaelson, G.J. - Fox, J.D. - Ping, C.-L. (2006)

Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38 (6): 1438-1450

Abstract: Small changes in C cycling in boreal forests can change the sign of their C balance, so it is important to gain an understanding of the factors controlling small exports like water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fluxes from the soils in these systems. To examine this, we estimated WSOC fluxes based on measured concentrations along four replicate gradients in upland black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) productivity and soil temperature in interior Alaska and compared them to concurrent rates of soil CO2 efflux. Concentrations of WSOC in organic and mineral horizons ranged from 4.9 to 22.7 g C m−2 and from 1.4 to 8.4 g C m−2, respectively. Annual WSOC fluxes (4.5–12.0 g C m−2 y−1) increased with annual soil CO2 effluxes (365–739 g C m−2 y−1) across all sites (R2=0.55, p=0.02), with higher fluxes occurring in warmer, more productive stands. Although annual WSOC flux was relatively small compared to total soil CO2 efflux across all sites (<3%), its relative contribution was highest in warmer, more productive stands which harbored less soil organic carbon. The proportions of relatively bioavailable organic fractions (hydrophilic organic matter and low molecular weight acids) were highest in WSOC in colder, low-productivity stands whereas the more degraded products of microbial activity (fulvic acids) were highest in warmer, more productive stands. These data suggest that WSOC mineralization may be a mechanism for increased soil C loss if the climate warms and therefore should be accounted for in order to accurately determine the sensitivity of boreal soil organic C balance to climate change.

Net carbon dioxide emissions from alternative firewood-production systems in Australia

Paul, K.I. - Booth, T.H. - Elliott, A. - Kirschbaum, M.U.F. - Jovanovic, T. - Polglase, P.J. (2006)

Biomass and Bioenergy 30 (7): 638-647

Abstract: The use of firewood for domestic heating has the potential to reduce fossil-fuel use and associated CO2 emissions. The level of possible reductions depends upon the extent to which firewood off-sets the use of fossil fuels, the efficiency with which wood is burnt, and use of fossil fuels for collection and transport of firewood. Plantations grown for firewood also have a cost of emissions associated with their establishment. Applying the FullCAM model and additional calculations, these factors were examined for various management scenarios under three contrasting firewood production systems (native woodland, sustainably managed native forest, and newly established plantations) in low-medium rainfall (600–800 mm) regions of south-eastern Australia. Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of heat energy produced for all scenarios were lower than for non-renewable energy sources (which generally emit about 0.3–1.0 kg CO2 kWh−1). Amongst the scenarios, emissions were greatest when wood was periodically collected from dead wood in woodlands (0.11 kg CO2 kWh−1), and was much lower when obtained from harvest residues and dead wood in native forests (<0.03 kg CO2 kWh−1). When wood was obtained from plantations established on previously cleared agricultural land, use of firewood led to carbon sequestration equivalent to −0.06 kg CO2 kWh−1 for firewood obtained from a coppiced plantation, and −0.17 kg CO2 kWh−1 for firewood collected from thinnings, slash and other residue in a plantation grown for sawlog production. An uncertainty analysis, where inputs and assumptions were varied in relation to a plausible range of management practices, identified the most important influencing factors and an expected range in predicted net amount of CO2 emitted per unit of heat energy produced from burning firewood.

A comparison of avoided greenhouse gas emissions when using different kinds of wood energy

Petersen Raymer, A.K. (2006)

Biomass and Bioenergy 30 (7): 605-617

Abstract: In this study, micro-level data from wood energy producers in Hedmark County were gathered and analysed. The aim was to find how much greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions various kinds of wood energy cause (not only CO2, but also CH4 and N2O), which energy they substitute, their potential to reduce GHG emissions, and the major sources of uncertainty. The method was life cycle assessment. Six types of wood energy were studied: fuel wood, sawdust, pellets, briquettes, demolition wood, and bark. GHG emissions over the life cycle of the wood energy types in this study are 2–19% of the emissions from a comparable source of energy. The lowest figure is for demolition wood substituting oil in large combustion facilities, the highest for fuel wood used in dwellings to substitute electricity produced by coal-based power plants. Avoided GHG emissions per m3 wood used for energy were from 0.210 to 0.640 tonne CO2-equivalents. Related to GWh energy produced, avoided GHG emissions were from 250 to 360 tonne CO2-equivalents. Avoided GHG emissions per tonne CO2 in the wood are 0.28–0.70 tonne CO2-equivalents. The most important factors were technology used for combustion, which energy that is substituted, densities, and heating values. Inputs concerning harvest, transport, and production of the wood energy are not important. Overall, taking the uncertainties into account there is not much difference in avoided GHG emissions for the different kinds of wood energy.

Development of total aboveground volume equations for seven important forest tree species in France

Vallet, P. - Dhôte, J.-F. - Le Moguédec, G. - Ravart, M. - Pignard, G. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management 229 (1-3): 98-110

Abstract: In order to improve the estimation of carbon stored in the French forest biomass from National Forest Inventory data, we developed six species-specific equations for estimating the total aboveground volume of trees, including merchantable volume, branches and twigs. Equations use circumference at breast height and total height as independent variables. They were built from even-aged forests of the Landes massif, the northern half and the eastern mountain regions of France. The sample was selected within archives of volume measurements taken in growth and yield permanent plots between 1920 and 1955. It is made up of 4619 trees belonging to seven important species: 1222 Sessile Oak, 1293 Common Beech, 347 Douglas Fir, 309 Norway Spruce, 389 Scots Pine, 297 Maritime Pine and 762 Silver Fir. These trees were felled and measured in 26 different forests (62 stands). Tree form factor was analysed, rather than volume, to remove heteroscedasticity, and height was substituted by a hardiness coefficient to remove diameter–height correlation. The analysis identified species-specific modes of variation of tree form with respect to developmental stage and tree hardiness. Maritime and Scots Pine did not differ statistically, despite large differences between ecological and silvicultural situations of both species. This suggests the possibility to use identical volume equations for species belonging to the same genus. Regional variations of tree form were explored by a cross-validation technique. Prediction biases did not exhibit a clear geographic structure. A 5% overestimation for hardwoods in southern sites is possible, and would deserve further testing. The hypothesis that recent growth changes may have slightly altered tree form is also discussed. Finally, a national-scale application provided Biomass Expansion Factors consistent with former studies and suggested that these volume equations behave well in extrapolation to coppices, uneven-aged or mixed stands.

Optimal rotations on Eucalyptus plantations including carbon sequestration - A comparison of results in Brazil and Spain

Diaz-Balteiro, L. - Rodríguez, L.C.E. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management 229 (1-3): 247-258

Abstract: Economically optimal rotations are not frequently employed in Eucalyptus plantations management despite eucalypts’ economic importance to the pulp industry. The coppice regeneration method used to manage eucalypts leads to a simultaneous optimization problem. In such cases, the manager has to simultaneously define the optimal age in each coppice rotation and the optimal number of coppice rotations for each plantation full cycle. The dynamic nature of the problem of looking for the optimal set of coppice rotations for Eucalyptus plantations obliges managers to use the dynamic programming technique. In order to evaluate the economic loss occasioned when optimal rotations are not considered, two plantations are shown, one with Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake in Brazil and another with Eucalyptus globulus Labill in Spain. Different clearcut ages are established in each country, 5–9 years in Brazil, and 13–18 years in Spain. A multiple products context (wood and carbon) is considered in this paper. The results show different rotations and optimal number of coppice rotations for each site index and case considered. To repeat the seedling rotation in the following coppice rotations usually is not the best option. Besides, the optimal cycle and the land expectation value vary when carbon sequestration is evaluated for the two plantations considered. Finally, on some occasions the results are very sensitive to changes in parameters like the carbon price and discount rate.

Carbon allocation in a mixed-species plantation of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii

Forrester, D.L. - Bauhus, J. - Cowie, A.L (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management; available online 14 June 2006

Abstract: Aboveground biomass was twice as high in mixtures of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii when compared to E. globulus monocultures after 11 years. This was attributed to increased nutrient availability and accelerated rates of N and P cycling in mixtures. This study examined whether the increase in aboveground biomass production was associated with an increase in total productivity (both above- and belowground), a change in C partitioning (from below to aboveground) or both. Total annual belowground C allocation (TBCA) was determined during year 11 in a mixed-species trial near Cann River, southeastern Australia. Monocultures of E. globulus (100%E) and A. mearnsii (100%A) and mixtures of these species (50 % E : 50 % A) were planted in a replacement series. Using a conservation of mass approach, TBCA was estimated as soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in soil, roots and the forest floor litter layer. Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was also estimated to enable comparison of ratios of above and belowground fluxes between treatments. TBCA ranged from 14.6 to 16.3 Mg C ha−1 year−1 and was not significantly different in 100 % E, 50 % E : 50 % A and 100 % A. Higher ratios of ANPP : TBCA in the mixtures (0.41) than in either monoculture (100 % A : 0.28 100 % E : 0.31) indicated that trees in mixture partitioned a lower proportion of assimilated C belowground than those in monocultures. Since the mixture was as productive as monocultures belowground but more productive aboveground, it appears to be more productive overall and thus have the potential to increase C sequestration above that of monocultures.

Carbon Storage of Forest Vegetation in China and its Relationship with Climatic Factors

Zhao, M. - Zhou, G.-S. (2006)  

Climatic Change 74 (1-3): 175

Abstract: Estimates of forest vegetation carbon storage in China varied due to different methods used in the assessments. In this paper, we estimated the forest vegetation carbon storage from the Fourth Forest Inventory Data (FFID) in China using a modified volume-derived method. Results showed that total carbon storage and mean carbon density of forest vegetation in China were 3.8 Pg C (about 1.1% of the global vegetation carbon stock) and 41.32 Mg/ha, respectively. In addition, based on linear multiple regression equation and factor analysis method, we analyzed contributions of biotic and abiotic factors (including mean forest age, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and altitude) to forest carbon storage. Our results indicated that forest vegetation carbon storage was more sensitive to changes of mean annual temperature than other factors, suggesting that global warming would seriously affect the forest carbon storage.

Temporal Assessment of Growing Stock, Biomass and Carbon Stock of Indian Forests

Manhas, R.K. - Negi, J.D.S. - Kumar, R. - Chauhan, P.S. (2006)

Climatic Change 74 (1-3): 191

Abstract: The dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems depends on interactions between carbon, nutrient and hydrological cycles. Terrestrial ecosystems retain carbon in live biomass (aboveground and belowground), decomposing organic matter, and soil. Carbon is exchanged naturally between these systems and the atmosphere through photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and combustion. Human activities change carbon stock in these pools and exchanges between them and the atmosphere through land-use, land-use change, and forestry. In the present study we estimated the wood (stem) biomass, growing stock (GS) and carbon stock of Indian forests for 1984 and 1994. The forest area, wood biomass, GS, and carbon stock were 63.86 Mha, 4327.99 Mm 3 , 2398.19 Mt and 1085.06 Mt respectively in 1984 and with the reduction in forest area, 63.34 Mha, in 1994, wood biomass (2395.12 Mt) and carbon stock (1083.69 Mt) also reduced subsequently. The Conifers, of temperate region, stocked maximum carbon in their woods, 28.88 to 65.21 t C ha -1, followed by Mangrove forests, 28.24 t C ha -1, Dipterocarp forests, 28.00 t C ha -1, and Shorea robusta forests, 24.07 t C ha -1. Boswellia serrata, with 0.22 Mha forest area, stocked only 3.91 t C ha -1. To have an idea of rate of carbon loss the negative changes (loss of forest area) in forest area occurred during 1984-1994 (10yrs) and 1991-1994 (4yrs) were also estimated. In India, land-use changes and fuelwood requirements are the main cause of negative change. Total 24.75 Mt C was lost during 1984-1994 and 21.35 Mt C during 1991-94 at a rate of 2.48 Mt C yr -1 and 5.35 Mt C yr -1 respectively. While in other parts of India negative change is due to multiple reasons like fuelwood, extraction of non-wood forest products (NWFPs), illicit felling etc., but in the northeastern region of the country shifting cultivation is the only reason for deforestation. Decrease in forest area due to shifting cultivation accounts for 23.0% of the total deforestation in India, with an annual loss of 0.93 Mt C yr -1.

The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

Arroja, L. - Dias, A. - Capela, C. I. (2006)

Climatic Change 74 (1-3): 123

Abstract: This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. They are applied to the Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus forest sector. To achieve this objective, the fluxes of wood removed from the forest are tracked through its life cycle, which includes products manufacture (mainly pulp and paper), use and final disposal (landfilling, incineration and composting). This study develops a framework to the estimation of carbon sequestration in the forest of E. globulus, a fast growing species, more specifically, in the calculation of the conversion factors such as bark and foliage percentages and densities, used to convert wood volumes into total biomass. A mass balance approach based on real data from mills is also proposed, in order to assess carbon emissions from wood processing. The results show that E. globulus forest sector was a carbon sink, but the magnitude of the carbon sequestration differs substantially depending on the accounting approach used. The contribution of the forest ecosystem was smaller than the aggregated contribution of wood products in use and in landfills (including industrial waste), which reinforces the role that wood products play in national carbon budgets.

Effects of non-native grass invasion on aboveground carbon pools and tree population structure in a tropical dry forest of Hawaii

Litton, C.M. - Sandquist, D.R. - Cordell, S. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management; available online 14 June 2006

Abstract
: Hawaiian tropical dry forests are a unique and highly endangered ecosystem. Remaining fragments are heavily impacted by invasive plant species, particularly the perennial bunchgrass Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. (fountain grass). Little is known about the impact of invasive species on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Biomass estimates are a critical first step in understanding the effects of invasive species on carbon dynamics. Biomass data can be used to quantify carbon pools and fluxes, as well as the impacts of land cover change on carbon sequestration. The objectives of our work were to compare: (1) population structure of the dominant native tree species and (2) carbon pools in aboveground live biomass among three land cover types: native—native dominated, largely intact dry forest; invaded—intact overstory, but understory heavily invaded by P. setaceum; and converted—a formerly forested site that has been converted to grassland dominated by P. setaceum. Invasion of Hawaiian tropical dry forest by P. setaceum leads to an unsustainable population of native trees characterized by a conspicuous absence of saplings and smaller diameter individuals. Aboveground tree biomass did not differ between native (108.1 Mg ha−1) and invaded (107.0 Mg ha−1) forests due to the preponderance of wood biomass in large Diospyros sandwicensis trees at both sites. Grass invaded forest had ~7× more understory biomass than the native forest, but no differences were observed in total aboveground live biomass (tree + understory) between native (108.9 Mg ha−1) and invaded forests (112.1 Mg ha−1). However, total aboveground live biomass was ~ 93% lower at the converted site (7.8 Mg ha−1), which is the eventual fate of invaded forests with no natural regeneration of native canopy species. Native forests contained significantly more individuals and leaf biomass for the mid-canopy tree Psydrax odorata, which increased overall stand leaf area index. This structural difference appears to have prevented P. setaceum from invading the native site by reducing understory light levels. These results indicate that large changes in the sequestration of carbon in aboveground biomass have occurred across the landscape following widespread grass invasion and conversion of Hawaiian dry forests to grasslands. These large losses of carbon have important implications for quantifying the effects of invasive species and land cover change on ecosystem carbon storage at landscape and regional scales.

Regional variation in soil carbon and 13C in forests and pastures of north-eastern Costa Rica

Powers, J.S. - Veldkamp, E. (2006)

Biogeochemistry 72 (3): 315 - 336

Abstract: Recent studies suggest that the direction and magnitude of changes in soil organic carbon (soil C) pools following forest-to-pasture conversion in the tropics are dependent upon initial soil conditions and local factors (e.g. pre-conversion soil C content, soil texture, vegetation productivity, and management practices). The goal of this study was to understand how landscape-scale variation in soil-forming factors influenced the response of soil C pools to forest clearing and pasture establishment in northeastern Costa Rica. We measured soil C and its stable isotopic composition in 24 paired pasture and reference forest sites distributed over large gradients of edaphic characteristics and slope throughout a 1400 km2 region. We used the large difference in stable C isotopic signatures of C3 vegetation (rain forest) versus C4 vegetation (pasture grasses) as a tracer of soil C dynamics. Soil C pools to 30 cm depth ranged from 26% lower to 23% higher in pastures compared to paired forests. The presence of non-crystalline clays and percent slope explained between 27 and 37% of the variation in the direction and magnitude of the changes in soil C storage following pasture establishment. Stable carbon isotopes (13C) in the top soil (0–10 cm) showed a rapid incorporation of pasture-derived C following pasture establishment, but the vegetation in these pastures never became pure C4 communities. The amount of forest-derived soil C in pasture topsoils (0–10 cm) was negatively correlated to both pasture age and the concentrations of non-crystalline iron oxides. Together these results imply that site factors such as soil mineralogy are an important control over soil C storage and turnover in this region.

A method for measuring above- and below-ground C stocks in hillside landscapes

Monreal, C.M. - Etchevers, J.D. - Acosta, M. - Hidalgo, C. - J. Padilla, J. - López, R.M. - Jiménez, L. – Velázquez (2006)

Can. J. Soil Sci. 85: 523-530

Abstract: Information on C stocks in agriculture and forest ecosystems in hillside landscapes is limited. The objective of this study was to develop and test field methods to measure above- and below-ground C stocks in hillside landscapes. Above-ground biomass in agricultural system was determined by measuring weight of residues left after crop harvest. In degraded secondary forests, tree biomass was estimated using allometric equations developed from in situ measurements. Herbs + bushes and litter dry weight were measured in two 0.25-m2 quadrats located within one 100-m2 treed plots. Carbon stocks were determined after chemical analysis of plant tissue and soil samples by dry combustion. Geo-referenced cores were taken inside a 1-m-diameter soil sampling clock that allows for spatial and temporal monitoring of soil C changes. The clock was marked with 12 divisions to establish the exact location of present and future sampling points. The below-ground fraction of C (mineral soil and fine roots) amounted to nearly 95% of the total C stock in agricultural systems and between 57 and 82% in the case of forest systems. Soil C stocks in hillside agricultural soils were higher than those found in forested soils with 70% of the C stored below-ground residing in the 0-45 cm of soil. The field method detected differences in C stocks in pools associated with various vegetations and soils in hillside ecosystems.

The Effect of Carbon Revenues on the Rotation and Profitability of Loblolly Pine Plantations in East Texas

Huang, C.-H. - Kronrad, G.D. (2006)

Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 30 (1): 21-29

Abstract: This study determined the profitability and financially optimal thinning and final harvest rotation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) managed exclusively for timber production or for dual products of timber production and carbon sequestration. The results suggest that 1) depending on landowner's alternative rate of return, the inclusion of carbon revenues in forest management may shorten or prolong the optimal timber-carbon rotation length, compared to the optimal rotation that maximizes timber value only; 2) the effect of carbon revenues on the optimal rotation length and the percentage gain in soil expectation value is larger on low-productivity sites than on high-productivity sites, and is larger for high interest rates than for low interest rates; and 3) low-productivity, unprofitable sites may become profitable when carbon revenue is included and optimized together with the timber revenue.

Climate is affected more by maritime than by continental land use change: A multiple scale analysis

van der Molen, M.K. - Dolman, A.J. - Waterloo, M.J. - Bruijnzeel, L.A. (2006)

Global and Planetary Change; available online 22 June 2006

Abstract: Tropical deforestation appears to have larger impacts on local, regional and global climate when it occurs under maritime conditions rather then under continental conditions. At the local scale, we compare results from a field experiment in Puerto Rico with other long-term studies of the changes in surface fluxes after deforestation. Changes in surface fluxes are larger in maritime situations because a number of feedback mechanisms appear less relevant (e.g. the dependency of soil moisture on recycling of water and the larger reduction of net radiation in the wet season due to clouds in continental regions). Pastures may evaporate at similarly high rates as forests when soil moisture is sufficient, which has a strong reducing effect on the sensible heat flux after deforestation. At the regional scale (~ 102 km2), model simulations show that the meso-scale sea breeze circulation under maritime conditions is more effective in transporting heat and moisture to the upper troposphere than convection is in the continental case. Thus islands function as triggers of convection, whereas the intensity of the sea breeze-trigger is sensitive to land use change. At the global scale, using satellite-derived latent heating rates of the upper troposphere, it is shown that 40% of the latent heating associated with deep convection takes place in the Maritime Continent (Indonesia and surroundings) and may be produced mostly by small islands. Continents contribute only 20% of the latent heating of the upper troposphere. Thus, sea breeze circulations exert significant influence on the Hadley cell circulation. These results imply that, from a climate perspective, further deforestation studies would do well to focus more on maritime conditions.

Warming and Earlier Spring Increases Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity

Westerling, A.L. - Hidalgo, H.G. - Cayan, D.R. – Swetnam, T.W. (2006)

Science 6 July 2006; E-pub ahead of print

Abstract: Western United States forest wildfire activity is widely thought to have increased in recent decades, but surprisingly, the extent of recent changes has never been systematically documented. Nor has it been established to what degree climate may be driving regional changes in wildfire. Much of the public and scientific discussion of changes in western United States wildfire has focused rather on the effects of 19th and 20th century land-use history. We compiled a comprehensive database of large wildfires in western United States forests since 1970 and compared it to hydro-climatic and land-surface data. Here, we show that large wildfire activity increased suddenly and dramatically in the mid-1980s, with higher large-wildfire frequency, longer wildfire durations, and longer wildfire seasons. The greatest increases occurred in mid-elevation, Northern Rockies forests, where land-use histories have relatively little effect on fire risks, and are strongly associated with increased spring and summer temperatures and an earlier spring snowmelt.

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

UNFCCC: Proposed new A/R methodologies

Technical clarifications to the following proposed new A/R methodologies have been provided:

ARNM0019: Reforestation around Pico Bonito National Park, Honduras

ARNM0020: Afforestation for Combating Desertification in Aohan County, Northern China

Three proposed new methodologies have been submitted and are available for public comments until 28/07/2006:

ARNM0028: Reforestation on degraded land for sustainable wood production of woodchips in the eastern coast of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar

ARNM0027: “Treinta y Tres” afforestation on grassland

ARNM0026: Carbon Sequestration in Small and Medium Farms in the Brunca Region, Costa Rica (COOPEAGRI- Project)

The submitted documents are available under the following link: http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/ARmethodologies/process

Call for Comments: Bottlenecks, challenges and potentials for afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM in Africa

Latin America and Asia appear to attract most CDM investment, while Africa seems to lag behind. To analyze challenges and potentials for forestry CDM projects, particularly in Africa, I seek input from involved colleagues. Comments will enter a forthcoming update of an existing FAO publication on “Forestry projects under the CDM: procedures, experiences and lessons learnt” ( Forest and Climate Change Working paper No. 3).

Thank you very much.

Franziska Haupt
Forest and Climate Change, FORC, FAO
Please send your contributions to Franziska.Haupt@fao.org

International workshop on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): opportunities and challenges for the forest sector in Sub-Saharan tropical Africa

Date: 2.-5. October 2006

Place: Accra, Ghana

ITTO, the Ghana Forestry Commission (GFC) and the Forest Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG) are pleased to host this event, which will cover a wide range of issues related to investment opportunities in afforestation and reforestation under the CDM in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Topics to be covered include:

    • Policy framework for CDM projects;

    • Experiences, Lessons and Challenges from CDM projects using case studies from North America, South and Central America, Europe and Asia-Pacific;

    • Markets for Carbon Credits from CDM Projects;

    • Reducing emissions from deforestation

    • Requirements for carbon credits projects;

    • Capacity building requirements for CDM projects in Africa

    • Needs and requirements for implementing CDM projects in Africa

    • Speakers to the workshop will be drawn internationally from agencies with reputation as having expertise and experience in CDM projects and carbon forestry activities.

The major outcome will be the creation of awareness for CDM projects in Africa, as well as an analysis and understanding of the opportunities and challenges for the effective participation of sub-Saharan African tropical timber producing countries in CDM projects and carbon forestry activities, including building appropriate capacity and strategic alliances with energy producing and ethical investment companies in Northern countries.

Sponsors: Common Fund for Commodities, Governments of Finland and Ghana, Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (seco), Swiss Intercooperation Agency, ITTO, FAO

Contact:

Mr. Ben Gyamfi
Project Co-ordinator
Ghana Forestry Commission
4 Third Avenue Ridge, Accra
P. O. Box MB 434
Accra-Ghana
Tel:+233 21 221315
Fax:+233 21 220818
Email: bengyamfi@yahoo.com or bgyamfi@hq.fcghana.com

Website: http://www.carbontradinginafrica.com/

UNFCCC Workshop on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries

Venue: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy

Date: 30 August - 1 September 2006

Specific topics to be discussed in the workshop will include:

    • Scientific, socio-economic, technical, and methodological issues, including the role of forests, in particular tropical forests, in the global carbon cycle; definitional issues, including those relating to links between deforestation and degradation; data availability and quality; scale; rates and drivers of deforestation; estimation of changes in carbon stocks and forest cover; and related uncertainties;

    • Policy approaches and positive incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation in developing countries, including causes; short- and long-term effectiveness with respect to emission reductions; the displacement of emissions; bilateral and multilateral cooperation; activities of other relevant international bodies; enhancing sustainable forest management; capacity-building; and financial mechanisms and other alternatives – basing discussions on experiences and lessons learned;

    • Identification of possible links between relevant scientific, socio-economic, technical and methodological issues and policy approaches and positive incentives that may arise from the consideration of the topics in subparagraphs (1) and (2) above.

A background paper by the UNFCCC on “Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries” is currently under preparation.

For more information: http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/lulucf/items/3745.php

Workshop on pan-European recommendations for afforestation and reforestation in the context of UNFCCC

Dates: October 24-26, 2006

Place and venue: Vilnius, Lithuania, Reval Hotel Lietuva

Introduction: In its Vienna Resolution 5, the MCPFE aims to enhance the contribution of forests to reducing net greenhouse-gas emissions and to encourage SFM practices in carbon sequestration measures. One of the actions planned in line with implementation of the Vienna Resolution 5 is elaboration of pan-European recommendations for afforestation and reforestation in the context of UNFCCC. The workshop is also organized in the context of implementation of the Framework for Cooperation between MCPFE and Environment for Europe/PEBLDS process.

Organizers: MCPFE Liaison Unit Warsaw; PEBLDS Joint Secretariat, Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania

Target group: Experts designated by the MCPFE and PEBLDS member countries as well as observer countries and organizations

Aims of the workshop: (1) to provide the latest knowledge on ecological, social, and economic aspects of and policy settings for afforestation and reforestation in Europe, including climate change and biodiversity issues; (2) to review and discuss a proposal for pan-European Recommendations for afforestation and reforestation in the context of UNFCCC

Further information: O. Zyrina ( o.zyrina@lu-warsaw.pl) MCPFE, LU-Warsaw

R. Michalak ( r.michalak@lu-warsaw.pl) MCPFE, LU-Warsaw

I. Higuero ( ivonne.higuero@unep.ch) UNEP-ROE

Registration deadline: 18 September, 2006

Open Science Conference on the GHG Cycle in the Northern Hemisphere

The Open Science Conference on the GHG Cycle in the Northern Hemisphere organised by CarboEurope-IP, CarboOcean and NitroEurope-IP, is taking place from November 14-18, 2006 in Sissi-Lassithi, Crete, Greece.

Call for abstracts

The organizers invite papers for oral presentations or posters. Abstracts should be submitted per e-mail in English by August 1, 2006.

Deadlines:

For registration for the Open Science Conference: September 22, 2006

For registration for the Soil Respiration Database Workshop: August 20, 2006

For data submissions for this workshop: September 15, 2006

Conference Web Page: http://www.carboeurope.org/conference/

International Conference "Ecosystem Changes and Implications on Livelihoods of Rural communities in Africa"

The Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar Es Salaam will be hosting an International Conference on "Ecosystem Changes and Implications on Livelihoods of Rural communities in Africa". The aim of this conference is to collate sets of information generated through a number of research undertaking for the purpose of sharing such information and experiences, establishing the current state of the art and drawing policy issues related to land use/land cover changes.

You can get all relevant information at the University of Dar Es Salaam Website: http://www.udsm.ac.tz/

Seeking investment partners in AR CDM

The Tamilnadu Forest Department in India is intending to raise short rotation fuelwood plantations under CDM over more than 50000 hectares of community owned tank (small water reservoirs) foreshore lands spread across the state. The institutions and logistics required for such an effort are already in place as the department had earlier successfully raised fuelwood plantations over these lands which have since been harvested thrice under coppice system and the lands have now become available for replanting. It is proposed to utilize frontline technology to enhance productivity and reduce rotation. The use of genetically modified planting material under the scheme would be subject to approval by the appropriate national authority. There is a ready market for the fuelwood to replace fossil fuel in the industries thus ensuring carbon credits. The requirements of additionality, conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development would be met easily while leakages would be minimal and easily assessable. The department has internal capacity to prepare Project Design Document and Baseline Methodology and obtain approval for the same.

This is to seek investment partners in this venture. Annex 1 countries, their entities and representatives and others are requested to submit their Statement of Interest in the project at the earliest. For further information on specific queries please contact:

Promode Kant

Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests
Tamilnadu Forest Department
Phone 91 44 24364957 (office)
Cell     91 9894747190
Fax     91 44 24337307

E-mail: promode.kant@gmail.com

Who’s to blame for global warming?

Cicerone 02/2006

If we take into account CO2 emissions from deforestation and methane emissions from rice fields when trying to estimate how much each country has contributed to global warming, we find that developing countries have contributed more than previously thought.

http://www.cicero.uio.no/fulltext.asp?id=4218&lang=en

Where is the market headed in terms of the demand for forestry-based carbon offsets?

The easiest way to answer this question is to break it into its three parts:

    • Where’s the GHG market headed generally?

    • What’s the demand for forestry-based offsets?

    • Will forestry offsets be competitive in the market?

Please see: http://www.greenbiz.com/news/columns_third.cfm?NewsID=32180

3) New Publications

Carbon storage in wood products in Australia: a review of the current state of knowledge

Ximenes, F. (2006)

Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting

Description: The inclusion of wood products in carbon trading schemes would make carbon trading a more attractive proposition for those in the forestry, wood, and wood-products industries, according to a review of the current state of knowledge of carbon storage in wood products in Australia. The review, undertaken by the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting for the Forests and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation, notes that the failure of current energy rating schemes that guide the use of construction materials in Australia to take account of carbon storage in wood products results in significant competitive disadvantage for wood products. "Wood products are also disadvantaged when life cycle assessments are performed to compare the environmental credentials of materials, as carbon storage in wood products is currently not recognised in these assessments, either," the review finds. The review also highlighted CRC for Greenhouse Accounting research showing only minimal decomposition of wood products in landfill.

http://www.greenhouse.crc.org.au/crc/ecarbon/publications/fwprdc-fx.pdf

Forestry – Carbon Sequestration Review

Beck, T. - Cowie, A. – Henry, B. – Kirschbaum, M. – Raison, J. (2005)

Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting

Description: A whole-system life-cycle approach to assessment of impacts of forestry should be the key guiding principle for forest management for climate-change mitigation, according to a review of forestry carbon sequestration.

The review provides background on the role of forests in the global carbon cycle, discussion carbon accounting at the national and project levels, analyses current and future policy and regulatory environments, and analyses the mechanisms being implemented or proposed to manage greenhouse abatement through forestry. It then develops key and supporting principles for the management of forests for climate-change mitigation, and provides examples on the effects of management on carbon stocks in forests.

http://www.greenhouse.crc.org.au/crc/ecarbon/publications/VDPI-060526.pdf

Following the Paper Trail: The Impact of Magazine And Dimensional Lumber Production On Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study

Gower, S.T. et al (2006)

The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment

Description: The study was commissioned to better understand the sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) for each product chain and then to use the information to identify potential opportunities to reduce net GHG emissions across the product chains. Data from the study can be used to identify potential opportunities to reduce GHG emissions, to highlight management practices that can potentially increase carbon sequestration and to identify improvements in disposal practices of end products. The study identified key points in the processes that generate emissions of greenhouse gases, potential opportunities to reduce emissions of GHG from (non-renewable) fossil fuels, and end use opportunities.

http://www.heinzctr.org/publications.htm

4) Climate Change jobs

UNFCCC Secretariat: 3 vacancies

Team Assistant (G-4)

Financial Cooperation Unit, Financial and Technical Support Programme (FTS)

http://unfccc.int/tools_xml/ie020.fts.pdf

Chief Human Resources Unit (P4)

Administrative Services

http://unfccc.int/tools_xml/ie06.016.pdf

Programme Officer (P4)

Reporting, Data and Analysis Programme, Review and Analysis sub programme

http://unfccc.int/tools_xml/ie06.E021.pdf

International Emissions Trading Association

Manager of Operations

Closing date: 1 August 2006

Please find the job description here: http://www.ieta.org/ieta/www/pages/download.php?docID=1728

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) is currently seeking applicants for researchers of the Climate Policy project (CP) whose mission is to evaluate and recommend pragmatic climate policies for sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific in an era of evolving global climate regime.

Further details on the position and how to apply can be found here:

http://www.iges.or.jp/en/news/saiyo/recruit18/

Climate Change Job Vacancy at UKCIP

Science Liaison Officer (£21,156 to £25,565 pa) will support the climate science elements of UKCIP, working especially on impacts on human systems. The post will function as a bridge between the Science Team and the Knowledge Transfer Team, and will also support regional and sectoral climate impacts and adaptation partnerships, assist with the implementation of a training programme and monitor climate impacts and adaptation science with particular attention on key socio-economic sectors.

Closing date: 27 July 2006

Full details are available from: http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/news/vacancy.htm#2

EcoSecurities

Implementation and Monitoring Manager in Santiago, Chile

Responsibilities and Duties:

    • Project management and implementation

    • Project screening

    • Documentation development

    • CDM Baseline construction and revision

    • Liaison with International Implementation and Monitoring team

    • Management, Design and Monitoring of carbon trading projects in the energy, industrial and waste sector

    • Experience with monitoring of GHG emissions, mostly CO2, CH4;

    • Understanding and preparation of international monitoring and verification protocols like ISO;

    • Understanding of the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol;

    • Experience with monitoring under the CDM/JI or EU ETS is preferable;

    • Liaison with verifier

Candidate profile: Successful candidates will work well with teams and will be capable and comfortable working in a challenging international context. All candidates should possess excellent presentation skills, sound technical knowledge, and a interest in climate change issues and the carbon markets. A strong command of the English language is a must, and a willingness to travel overseas if necessary. Candidates should have strong use of all microsoft applications, especially excel.

If you feel you meet the above qualifications, and you are able to fulfill the above requirements, please send your resume and cover letter to julie@ecosecurities.comand zoe@ecosecurities.com. Be sure to mark for the attention of Julie Anne McLaughlin, Origination Manager and Zoe Taylor, Global HR Manager.

Vacancies at The Climate Group

The Climate Group is currently seeking candidates for three vacancies in its Woking (near London) UK, and New York, USA offices.

1. Carbon & Finance Programme Manager (based Woking, UK)

To lead the organisation's work on banking and finance, as well as programmes relating to the voluntary carbon market including the recently released Voluntary Carbon Standard.

2. Research Programme Manager (based Woking or New York)

To drive forward the organisation's research programme, including the annual 'Carbon Down Profits Up' report and associated projects.

3. Researcher (based Woking or New York)

To work on the organisation's research programme, with a dual focus on energy and corporate strategy internationally

Please note the deadline for applications is 5th August 2006. Full job descriptions and further details on application can be downloaded from:
http://www.theclimategroup.org/index.php?pid=816

5) Websites of interest

AIACC

Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC) in Multiple Regions and Sectors

Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC) is a global initiative developed in collaboration with the UNEP/WMO Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and funded by the Global Environment Facility to advance scientific understanding of climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation options in developing countries. By funding collaborative research, training and technical support, AIACC aims to enhance the scientific capacity of developing countries to assess climate change vulnerabilities and adaptations, and generate and communicate information useful for adaptation planning and action.

The project’s website features among others extensive information and reports on regional studies, workshops and meetings, a discussion mailing list and a publication section.

Website: http://www.aiaccproject.org/aiacc.html

*************************************************************
Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Niamh Brannigan, Annette Freibauer, Franziska Haupt *************************************************************

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last updated:  Tuesday, November 18, 2008