CLIM-FO-L 04-2006draft-DS


No. 04/2006

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change News

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of interest


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

Simulating effects of fire disturbance and climate change on boreal forest productivity and evapotranspiration

Kang, S. - Kimball, J.S. - Running, S.W. (2005)

Science of the Total Environment 362 (1-3): 85-102

Abstract: We used a terrestrial ecosystem process model, BIOME-BGC, to investigate historical climate change and fire disturbance effects on regional carbon and water budgets within a 357,500 km2 portion of the Canadian boreal forest. Historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and regional fire activity were used as model drivers to evaluate the relative effects of these impacts to spatial patterns and temporal trends in forest net primary production (NPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Historical trends of increasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in overall 13% and 5% increases in annual NPP and ET from 1994 to 1996, respectively. NPP was found to be relatively sensitive to changes in air temperature (Ta), while ET was more sensitive to precipitation (P) change within the ranges of observed climate variability (e.g., ± 2 °C for Ta and ± 20% for P). In addition, the potential effect of climate change related warming on NPP is exacerbated or offset depending on whether these changes are accompanied by respective decreases or increases in precipitation. Historical fire activity generally resulted in reductions of both NPP and ET, which consumed an average of approximately 6% of annual NPP from 1959 to 1996. Areas currently occupied by dry conifer forests were found to be subject to more frequent fire activity, which consumed approximately 8% of annual NPP. The results of this study show that the North American boreal ecosystem is sensitive to historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change and regional fire activity. The relative impacts of these disturbances on NPP and ET interact in complex ways and are spatially variable depending on regional land cover and climate gradients.

Effects of climate and land use changes on groundwater resources in coastal aquifers

Ranjan, S.P. - Kazama, S. - Sawamoto, M. (2006)

Journal of Environmental Management 80 (1): 25-35

Abstract: To estimate the freshwater loss in coastal aquifers due to salinisation, a numerical model based on the sharp interface assumption has been introduced. The developed methodology will be useful in areas where limited hydrological data are available. This model will elaborate on the changes in fresh groundwater loss with respect to climate change, land use pattern and hydrologic soil condition. The aridity index has been introduced to represent the variations in precipitation and temperature. The interesting finding is that the deforestation leads to increase groundwater recharge in arid areas, because deforestation leads to reduce evapotranspiration even though it favors runoff. The combined climate and land use scenarios show that when the aridity index is less than 60, the agricultural lands give higher groundwater recharge than other land use patterns for all hydrologic soil conditions. The calculated recharge was then used to estimate the freshwater–saltwater interface and percentage of freshwater loss due to salinity intrusion. We found that in arid areas, the fresh groundwater loss increases as the percentage of forest cover increases. The combined effects of deforestation and aridity index on fresh groundwater loss show that deforestation causes an increase in the recharge and existing fresh groundwater resource in areas having low precipitation and high temperature (arid climates).

The influence of conversion of forest types on carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services in the South Central United States

Sohngen, B. - Brown, S. (2006)

Ecological Economics 57 (4): 698-708

Abstract: This paper develops a forestland management model for the three states in the South Central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi). Forest type and land-use shares are estimated to be a function of economic and physical variables. The results suggest that while historically pine plantations in this region have been established largely on old agricultural land, in the future pine plantations are likely to occur on converted hardwood-forest lands. This shift in the supply of land for plantations could have large effects on above-ground carbon storage and other ecosystem services. Subsidies of approximately $12–27 per ha per year would maintain the area of hardwood forests and reduce carbon emissions from the above-ground and product pool carbon stocks over the next 30 years. Across the several scenarios considered, results suggest that maintaining hardwoods could be an efficient carbon sequestration alternative.

Whole-tree and forest floor removal from a loblolly pine plantation have no effect on forest floor CO2 efflux 10 years after harvest

Butno, J.R. - Johnsen, K.H. - Sanchez, F.G. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management 227 (1-2): 89-95

Abstract: Intensive management of southern pine plantations has yielded multifold increases in productivity over the last half century. The process of harvesting merchantable material and preparing a site for planting can lead to a considerable loss of organic matter. Intensively managed stands may experience more frequent disturbance as rotations decrease in length, exposing the stands to conditions that favor decomposition. To better understand the effects of organic matter removal on forest floor CO2 efflux (Sff), we measured Sff quarterly in 2001 in a 10-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in eastern North Carolina that received different harvest and site preparation treatments. The treatments examined were removal of merchantable bole (OM0) and whole-tree and forest floor removal (OM2). The organic matter removal treatments did not affect soil moisture or soil temperature, the major variables that control seasonal fluctuations in Sff. Mean Sff ranged from 2.23 to 6.63 μmol m−2 s−1 and there were no significant differences between the treatments, despite higher lateral root mass in OM0 (1552 ± 427 g m−2) versus OM2 (701 ± 86 g m−2). In both treatments, Sff did not correlate to root mass directly beneath each measurement chamber. In OM0, Sff had a negative relationship with distance from the nearest tree, while OM2 showed no effect of tree proximity. Whole-tree and forest floor removal during harvest and site preparation did not result in differences in Sff or soil C, 10 years after establishment. Both treatments resulted in a greater quantity of soil C, indicating that the disturbance associated with harvesting enhanced soil C, at least over the short term. We attribute this increase in soil C to rapid decomposition of previous stands root system.

Development of total aboveground volume equations for seven important forest tree species in France

Vallet, P. - Dhôte, J.-F. - Moguédec, G.L. - Ravart, M. - Pignard, G. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management; available online 27 April 2006

Abstract: In order to improve the estimation of carbon stored in the French forest biomass from National Forest Inventory data, we developed six species-specific equations for estimating the total aboveground volume of trees, including merchantable volume, branches and twigs. Equations use circumference at breast height and total height as independent variables. They were built from even-aged forests of the Landes massif, the northern half and the eastern mountain regions of France. The sample was selected within archives of volume measurements taken in growth and yield permanent plots between 1920 and 1955. It is made up of 4619 trees belonging to seven important species: 1222 Sessile Oak, 1293 Common Beech, 347 Douglas Fir, 309 Norway Spruce, 389 Scots Pine, 297 Maritime Pine and 762 Silver Fir. These trees were felled and measured in 26 different forests (62 stands). Tree form factor was analysed, rather than volume, to remove heteroscedasticity, and height was substituted by a hardiness coefficient to remove diameter–height correlation. The analysis identified species-specific modes of variation of tree form with respect to developmental stage and tree hardiness. Maritime and Scots Pine did not differ statistically, despite large differences between ecological and silvicultural situations of both species. This suggests the possibility to use identical volume equations for species belonging to the same genus. Regional variations of tree form were explored by a cross-validation technique. Prediction biases did not exhibit a clear geographic structure. A 5% overestimation for hardwoods in southern sites is possible, and would deserve further testing. The hypothesis that recent growth changes may have slightly altered tree form is also discussed. Finally, a national-scale application provided Biomass Expansion Factors consistent with former studies and suggested that these volume equations behave well in extrapolation to coppices, uneven-aged or mixed stands.

Modeling forest stand structure attributes using Landsat ETM+ data: Application to mapping of aboveground biomass and stand volume

Hall, R.J. - Skakun, R.S. - Arsenault, E.J. - Case, B.S. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management 225: 378–390

Abstract: Maps of aboveground biomass (AGB) and stand volume are of interest to determine their magnitude and spatial distribution over forested areas, and required for input to forecasting carbon budgets and ecosystem productivity. Deriving estimates of AGB and volume requires information about species composition and forest stand structure. This paper introduces a method called BioSTRUCT (Biomass estimation from stand STRUCTture), which is based on georeferenced field plots to generate empirical relationships between continuous estimates of forest structure attributes and remote sensing image data represented as spectral response variables. In this study, height and crown closure attributes were modelled from Landsat ETM+ image and field plot data. These modeled attributes were then used as inputs to stand-level models of AGB and volume. The image height model had an adjusted R2 of 0.65 from ETM+ bands 3, 4, and 5. Likewise, the crown closure model had an adjusted R2 of 0.57 using ETM+ bands 3, 4, and 7. Average AGB estimates were within 4 tonnes/ha and stand volume was within 4 m3/ha of field plot values, statistically similar to a validation sample data set for both AGB ( p = 0.61) and stand volume ( p = 0.65), and within the range of previous published studies. Field plot distribution, error propagation, and extending models over multiple images were identified as factors requiring further investigation in order to apply BioSTRUCT over larger geographic areas.

A comment on the quantitative significance of aerobic methane release by plants

Kirschbaum, M.U.F. - Bruhn, D. - Etheridge, D.M. - Evans, J.R. - Farquhar, G.D. - Gifford, R.M. - Paul, K.I. - Winter, A.J. (2006)

Functional Plant Biology 33: 521-530

Abstract: A recent study by Keppler et al. (2006; Nature 439: 187-191) demonstrated CH4 emission from living and dead plant tissues under aerobic conditions. This work included some calculations to extrapolate the findings from the laboratory to the global scale and led various commentators to question the value of planting trees as a greenhouse mitigation option. The experimental work of Keppler et al. (2006) appears to be largely sound, although some concerns remain about the quantification of emission rates. However, while accepting their basic findings, we are critical of the method used for extrapolating results to the global scale. Using the same basic information, we present alternative calculations to estimate global aerobic plant CH4 emissions as 10-60 MtCH4 yr-1. This estimate is much smaller than the 62-236 MtCH4 yr-1 reported in the original study and can be more readily reconciled within the uncertainties in the established sources and sinks in the global CH4 budget. We also assessed their findings in terms of its possible relevance for planting trees as a greenhouse mitigation option. We conclude that consideration of aerobic CH4 emissions from plants would reduce the benefit of planting trees by between 0% and 4.4%. Hence, any offset from CH4 emission is small in comparison to the significant benefit from carbon sequestration. However, much critical information is still lacking about aerobic CH4 emission from plants. For example, we do not yet know the underlying mechanism for aerobic CH4 emission, how CH4 emissions change with light, temperature and the physiological state of leaves, whether emissions change over time under constant conditions, whether they are related to photosynthesis and how they relate to the chemical composition of biomass. Therefore, the present calculations must be seen as a preliminary attempt to assess the global significance from a basis of limited information and are likely to be revised as further information becomes available.

Potential contribution of the forestry sector in Bangladesh to carbon sequestration

Shin, M.Z. - Miah, Md. - Lee, K.H. (2006)

Journal of Environmental Management; available online 21 April 2006

Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol provides for the involvement of developing countries in an atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction regime under its Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Carbon credits are gained from reforestation and afforestation activities in developing countries. Bangladesh, a densely populated tropical country in South Asia, has a huge degraded forestland which can be reforested by CDM projects. To realize the potential of the forestry sector in developing countries for full-scale emission mitigation, the carbon sequestration potential of different species in different types of plantations should be integrated with the carbon trading system under the CDM of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper discusses the prospects and problems of carbon trading in Bangladesh, in relation to the CDM, in the context of global warming and the potential associated consequences. The paper analyzes the effects of reforestation projects on carbon sequestration in Bangladesh, in general, and in the hilly Chittagong region, in particular, and concludes by demonstrating the carbon trading opportunities. Results showed that tree tissue in the forests of Bangladesh stored 92 tons of carbon per hectare (tC/ha), on average. The results also revealed a gross stock of 190 tC/ha in the plantations of 13 tree species, ranging in age from 6 to 23 years. The paper confirms the huge atmospheric CO2 offset by the forests if the degraded forestlands are reforested by CDM projects, indicating the potential of Bangladesh to participate in carbon trading for both its economic and environmental benefit. Within the forestry sector itself, some constraints are identified; nevertheless, the results of the study can expedite policy decisions regarding Bangladesh's participation in carbon trading through the CDM.

A spatial approach to baseline and leakage in CDM forest carbon sinks projects

Dutschke, M. – Butzengeiger, S. – Michaelowa, A. (2006)

Climate policy 5: 517 - 530

Abstract: Forestry projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) face specific challenges with regard to determination of a baseline for carbon sequestration. We propose a semi-standardized approach called PARAPIA for calculation of a baseline that is built on the concept of a reference area around the project area whose land-use characteristics determine the baseline scenario. The land-use shares in the reference area are checked at each verification. Baseline carbon stocks are then derived ex post using the average carbon content of each land-use type. The reference area is between five and ten times larger than the project area. To determine indirect effects (the so-called 'leakage'), a political influence area such as province or state is assessed with regards to migration flows due to the project and related emissions.

Implementing carbon credits for forests based on green accounting

Cairns, R.D. - Lasserre, P. (2006)

Ecological economics 56 (4): 610-621

Abstract: This paper presents a carbon-accounting method for forests that is implementable in the sense that it makes use of observable information. The valuation of the effects of carbon dioxide is based on asset values rather than rental values. With minor differences due to the treatment of such accidents as fires and pestilence, the method corresponds to the flow method of the physical carbon-accounting literature. The stock-change method of carbon accounting, however, is incompatible with economic principles. Rather than set carbon values to their optimal levels in the Pigovian tradition we use current societal standards. We also present a discussion of how to implement the scheme in the face of uncertainty.

Exploiting synergies of global land cover products for carbon cycle modeling

Jung, M. - Henkel, K. - Herold, M. - Churkina, G. (2006)

Remote Sensing of Environment 101 (4): 534-553

Abstract: Within the past decade, several global land cover data sets derived from satellite observations have become available to the scientific community. They offer valuable information on the current state of the Earth's land surface. However, considerable disagreements among them and classification legends not primarily suited for specific applications such as carbon cycle model parameterizations pose significant challenges and uncertainties in the use of such data sets. This paper addresses the user community of global land cover products. We first review and compare several global land cover products, i.e. the Global Land Cover Characterization Database (GLCC), Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000), and the MODIS land cover product, and highlight individual strengths and weaknesses of mapping approaches. Our overall objective is to present a straightforward method that merges existing products into a desired classification legend. This process follows the idea of convergence of evidence and generates a ‘best-estimate’ data set using fuzzy agreement. We apply our method to develop a new joint 1-km global land cover product (SYNMAP) with improved characteristics for land cover parameterization of the carbon cycle models that reduces land cover uncertainties in carbon budget calculations. The overall advantage of the SYNMAP legend is that all classes are properly defined in terms of plant functional type mixtures, which can be remotely sensed and include the definitions of leaf type and longevity for each class with a tree component. SYNMAP is currently used for parameterization in a European model intercomparison initiative of three global vegetation models: BIOME-BGC, LPJ, and ORCHIDEE. Corroboration of SYNMAP against GLCC, GLC2000 and MODIS land cover products reveals improved agreement of SYNMAP with all other land cover products and therefore indicates the successful exploration of synergies between the different products. However, given that we cannot provide extensive validation using reference data we are unable to prove that SYNMAP is actually more accurate. SYNMAP is available on request from Martin Jung.

Acclimation of Russian forests to recent changes in climate

Lapenis, A. - Shvidenko, A. - Shepaschenko, D. - Nilsson, S. - Aiyyer, A. (2005)

Global Change Biology 11 (12): 2090 – 2102

Abstract: Assessments made over the past few decades have suggested that boreal forests may act as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, the fate of the newly accumulated carbon in the living forest biomass is not well understood, and the estimates of carbon sinks vary greatly from one assessment to another. Analysis of remote sensing data has indicated that the carbon sinks in the Russian forests are larger than what has been estimated from forest inventories. In this study, we show that over the past four decades, the allometric relationships among various plant parts have changed in the Russian forests. To this end, we employ two approaches: (1) analysis of the database, which contains 3196 sample plots; and (2) application of developed models to forest inventory data. Within the forests as a whole, when assessed at the continental scale, we detect a pronounced increase in the share of green parts (leaves and needles). However, there is a large geographical variation. The shift has been largest within the European Russia, where summer temperatures and precipitation have increased. In the Northern Taiga of Siberia, where the climate has become warmer but drier, the fraction of the green parts has decreased while the fractions of aboveground wood and roots have increased. These changes are consistent with experiments and mathematical models that predict a shift of carbon allocation to transpiring foliage with increasing temperature and lower allocation with increasing soil drought. In light of this, our results are a possible demonstration of the acclimation of trees to ongoing warming and changes in the surface water balance. Independent of the nature of the observed changes in allometric ratios, the increase in the share of green parts may have caused a misinterpretation of the satellite data and a systematic overestimation by remote sensing methods of the carbon sink for living biomass of the Russian forest.

Soil-atmospheric exchange of CO2, CH4, and N2O in three subtropical forest ecosystems in southern China

Tang, X. - Liu, S. - Zhou, G. - Zhang, D. - Zho, C. (2006)

Global Change Biology 12 (3): 546

Abstract: The magnitude, temporal, and spatial patterns of soil-atmospheric greenhouse gas (hereafter referred to as GHG) exchanges in forests near the Tropic of Cancer are still highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil-atmospheric CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. Soils in DNR forests behaved as N2O sources and CH4 sinks. Annual mean CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes (mean±SD) were 7.7±4.6 Mg CO2-C ha–1 yr–1, 3.2±1.2 kg N2O-N ha–1 yr–1, and 3.4±0.9 kg CH4-C ha–1 yr–1, respectively. The climate was warm and wet from April through September 2003 (the hot-humid season) and became cool and dry from October 2003 through March 2004 (the cool-dry season). The seasonality of soil CO2 emission coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high CO2 emission rates in the hot-humid season and low rates in the cool-dry season. In contrast, seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes were not clear, although higher CH4 uptake rates were often observed in the cool-dry season and higher N2O emission rates were often observed in the hot-humid season. GHG fluxes measured at these three sites showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. If this trend is representative at the regional scale, CO2 and N2O emissions and CH4 uptake in southern China may increase in the future in light of the projected change in forest age structure. Removal of surface litter reduced soil CO2 effluxes by 17–44% in the three forests but had no significant effect on CH4 absorption and N2O emission rates. This suggests that microbial CH4 uptake and N2O production was mainly related to the mineral soil rather than in the surface litter layer.

Allometric equations and parameters for estimating the biomass of planted Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vr. forests

Miyakuni, K. – Heriyanto, N.M. - Heriansyah, I. - Imanuddin, R. - Kiyono, Y. (2005)

Jpn.J.For.Environment 47(2): 95-104

Abstract: We investigated the possibility of formulating broadly applicable equations and parameters for estimating the biomass of planted Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vr. forests. We selected four plantations of different stand ages (5, 11, 19, and 24 years) in West Java, Indonesia, and destructively sampled 55 trees after tree census. (1) Coefficients of allometric equations for estimating biomass from tree census data: When the allometric equations contained height data, we did not detect significant differences between forests in the predictor variables in the equations. (2) Parameters for estimating biomass from stem volume data, i.e., basic density, biomass expansion factor, and root-to-shoot ratio : Some parameters obtained by this study differed from the trends in the default values in the Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry, provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Those default values should thus be refined to reduce errors. (3) Other parameters: Using tree census data collected at 20 sites in Indonesia by the Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Center, chrono-sequential changes in biomass were estimated using an allometric equation obtained in the present study. The estimated stand-level biomass of a 21-year-old stand ranged from 161.75 to 456.34 t ha-1 and, according to multiple-regression analysis, varied significantly with tree density and site index.

Global Warming and Extinctions of Endemic Species from Biodiversity Hotspots

Malcolm, J.R. - Liu, C. - Neilson, R.P. - Hansen, L. - Hannah, L. (2006)

Conservation Biology 20 (2): 538

Abstract: Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from <1 to 43% of the endemic biota (average 11.6%), with biome specificity having the greatest influence on the estimates, followed by the global vegetation model and then by migration and biome classification assumptions. Bootstrap comparisons indicated that effects on hotpots as a group were not significantly different from effects on random same-biome collections of grid cells with respect to biome change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, hotspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting suggestions that global warming is one of the most serious threats to the planet's biodiversity.

Boreal Forest Carbon Sequestration Strategies: A Case Study of the Little Red River Cree First Nation Land Tenures

Krcmar, E, - van Koote, G.C. (2005)

Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 53 (4): 325

Abstract: In this paper, creation of carbon offset and emission reduction credits are examined from the perspective of the Little Red River Cree Nation (LRRCN), a forest tenure holder in northern Alberta. Carbon credits are produced under three scenarios: (1) carbon uptake in forest ecosystems, with postharvest waste left on site; (2) carbon uptake in forests and products; and (3) carbon uptake in forests with harvested fiber used for energy production. A mathematical programming model is used to solve for the minimum prices that cause the LRRCN to include production of carbon credits in its forest management and post-harvest processing strategies. If LRRCN is paid according to its costs of creating carbon credits, it will opt to use fiber for forest products as this provides the greatest earning potential. If LRRCN faces a fixed price for carbon credits, it will produce fiber for generating electricity in lieu of coal as this strategy has the lowest average cost. However, when costs of feedstock transportation and construction of a power plant are taken into account, carbon uptake in biomass and forest products turn out to be more competitive.

2) Forest and Climate Change News

UN conference agrees agenda for negotiations on new emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol

A first round of UN climate negotiations for the period following the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has successfully concluded in Bonn, Germany.

“We have set an ambitious agenda which focuses on a sound process leading towards science-based emission reduction targets on the part of industrialized countries within the next few years” said Michael Zammit Cutajar, Chair of the “Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol”.

(UNFCCC Press Release)

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

UNFCCC Sessions of the Subsidiary Bodies

17-26 May 2006, Bonn, Germany

The twenty-fourth sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was held from 18-26 May 2006.

Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries

SBSTA 24 considered the information contained in the submissions from Parties and accredited observers and decided to continue consideration of relevant scientific, technical and methodological issues and the exchange of relevant information and experiences, including policy approaches and positive incentives, at its twenty-fifth session (November 2006), taking into account the outcome of the workshop which will be held from 30 August to 1 September 2006 at FAO in Rome, Italy.

Specific topics to be discussed in the workshop will include:

    • Scientific, socio-economic, technical, and methodological issues, including the role of forests, in particular tropical forests, in the global carbon cycle; definitional issues, including those relating to links between deforestation and degradation; data availability and quality; scale; rates and drivers of deforestation; estimation of changes in carbon stocks and forest cover; and related uncertainties;

    • Policy approaches and positive incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation in developing countries, including causes; short- and long-term effectiveness with respect to emission reductions; the displacement of emissions; bilateral and multilateral cooperation; activities of other relevant international bodies; enhancing sustainable forest management; capacity-building; and financial mechanisms and other alternatives – basing discussions on experiences and lessons learned;

For the draft conclusions including the topics of the workshop please see:

Issues relating to harvested wood products

SBSTA 24 invited Parties in a position to do so to voluntarily report on harvested wood products in their national inventories in a manner consistent with current UNFCCC reporting guidelines.

Reporting of harvested wood products will be discussed at its twenty-sixth session in the context of the consideration of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The SBSTA recognized that there are other issues associated with harvested wood products that need to be considered by the SBSTA at its twenty-sixth session.

Draft conclusions proposed by the Chair:

In-session workshop on mitigation: Agriculture, forestry and rural development


Organised by the UNFCCC secretariat as requested by SBSTA 23. Please find the agenda, the presentations and abstracts here:

Several side events focused on forestry and climate change, for example on the issue of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Presentations can be viewed at:

For a complete report of SBSTA 24 by IISD:

CDM EB: Approval of new methodologies for Afforestation and reforestation projects

The CDM Executive board approved during its 24th meeting in Bonn, Germany, 10 – 12 May 2006, two new methodologies for baseline and monitoring of CDM afforestation and reforestation projects.

AR-AM0002 can be applied to activities of “Restoration of degraded lands through afforestation/reforestation” and can be downloaded here:

AR-AM0003 applies in situations of “Afforestation and reforestation of degraded land through tree planting, assisted natural regeneration and control of animal grazing”. Please find the methodology here:

For the complete table of approved AR CDM methodologies please refer to:

Root Causes of Deforestation

Online fora by United Nations Forum on Forests
With the aim of better involvement of the online community, the UNFF Secretariat is introducing a series of online fora titled "Root Causes of Deforestation". The online forum will be closely linked to their bimonthly newsletter, and summaries will become available.

Through this first exercise the secretariat would like to express what, in the view of the audience, are the root causes of deforestation. This general discussion will allow exploring the subject later in a more detailed manner and according to principal interests.

You may access the forum through the following address: .

Call for Proposals - Workshop 2006 – Permit Trading in different applications

Scholars from all levels and from different disciplines are invited to take part in the workshop and to present a paper.

The workshop will take place 29th November – 1st December 2006 in Lutherstadt Wittenberg/Germany. It is organized by the Chair of Environmental Economics and the Chair of Corporate Environmental Management of the University Halle-Wittenberg/Germany.

For detailed information:

Options for Including LULUCF Activities in a Post-2012 International Climate Agreement

An Expert Meeting to Brainstorm on Objectives of LULUCF, Options for Inclusion of LULUCF in a Climate Agreement, and Implications of these Options

Graz / Austria, 5-6 May 2005

Organised by: Johanneum Research, Carbo Europe, Global Carbon Project, INSEA and the EU

Please find the background documents, publications, presentations and other information here:

Curso Internacional: "Manejo Multifuncional de Plantaciones Forestales"

9-19 de Octubre, Catie, Turrialba, Costa Rica

El curso presenta y analiza las tendencias actuales en el tema del manejo de las plantaciones forestales, abarcando la diversidad de bienes y servicios que éstas proveen, haciendo énfasis en el papel que deben cumplir las plantaciones forestales en el mundo actual, y los factores externos e internos que afectan el manejo de las plantaciones, tales como la globalización, la desertificación, el aumento poblacional, el cambio climático y los servicios ambientales. Además tendrá un énfasis especial en el desarrollo de habilidades en el manejo de software Silvia, Sistema de Manejo Forestal.

Toda la información referente a los requerimientos de participación del curso está disponible en el sitio web .

Global Environmental Change: Regional Challenges

An Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) Open Science Conference

Global Environmental Change

9-12 November 2006 Beijing, China

The conference themes are:

    • Earth System Science Approach: New advances in studies of the physical, biogeochemical, biodiversity, and human dimensions aspects of global environmental change.

    • Science for Sustainability: Global environmental change research relating to carbon, food, human health, and water; as reflected in the ESSP Joint Projects.

    • Integrated Regional Studies: The dynamics, impacts and consequences of the interactions between natural and social systems at regional scales, including extreme events, and how they connect with global-scale phenomena.

    • Global Change in Monsoon Asia: Global environmental change research in monsoon Asia.

The organisers invite scientists, policy makers, practitioners, scholars, members of the private sector and journalists to participate in this Conference and to submit proposals for sessions and abstracts.

For detailed information please refer to:

ETH Zurich: Latin American Forest Policies Research and Influence Initiative

Organisers: Center for Sustainability Studies of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHsustainability at ETH Zurich), Academia Engelberg and the International Student Initiative for Action on Climate Change (ISIACC)

The research will take place between June and October 2006, concentrating in the following thematic areas:

    • Identification of key forest-related activities causing or reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America.

    • Selection of key strategic thematic and geographical areas for action on forest - related climate change.

    • Analysis of policies dealing with forest management, conservation and exploitation, as well as other policies impacting forest-related climate change.

    • Recommendations on policy at the national and sub-regional level for the conservation, management and sustainable development of forests towards climate change mitigation.

For more information, please contact:

Fabio Segura (

Regional Project Manager for Latin America and The Caribbean

Center for Sustainability Studies - ETHsustainability

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

4) New Publications

Climate change and biodiversity in Europe

A review of impacts, policy responses, gaps in knowledge and barriers to the exchange of information between scientists and policy makers

Edited by: R. Brooker & J. Young (2006)

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 64 pp

Summary: Anthropogenic climate change is already impacting upon biodiversity. The report concludes that climate change poses an immediate challenge to the European Union target of halting biodiversity loss by 2010. The study found that there is already strong scientific evidence of the impact of climate change on wild plants and animals in Europe. During the 21st Century rapidly shifting climate zones and rising sea levels will put increasing pressure on species already under threat for other reasons. A range of familiar species such as the beech tree and the curlew are threatened. The report, based on a review of scientific papers and supported by other recent reports, urges a more integrated approach to conservation in Europe.

The full report:

Do Recent Scientific Findings Undermine the Climate Benefits of Carbon Sequestration in Forests?

An Expert Review of Recent Studies on Methane Emissions and Water Tradeoffs

Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University (2006): 15 pp

For the complete expert review:

Tropical Forests - Regional Paths of Destruction and Regeneration in the Late Twentieth Century

Rudel, T. (2005)

Columbia University Press, 234 pages

Description: Addressing decades of rain forest destruction, concerned scientists, often in concert with various environmental movements, have amassed an impressive amount of information on deforestation in areas throughout the world. In Tropical Forests, the author analyzes hundreds of local studies from the past twenty years to develop a much-needed global perspective on deforestation. With separate chapters on individual regions, including South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Africa, it offers an up-to-date assessment of changes in the extent of the world's tropical forests. Through a meta-analysis, Rudel identifies the social, economic, and environmental forces driving forest cover change since 1980. In addition to synthesizing a range of local studies, it recounts the stories of people whose work preserves, destroys, or restores forests. It explains what has happened in each of the world's tropical forest regions reveals continued destruction in regions with large forests and some regeneration emerging in places with small, remnant forests. In the concluding chapter, the author considers the implications of these trends and describes policy directions for conserving biodiversity and promoting sustainable development in each region.

5) Climate Change jobs

UNFCCC Secretariat: 5 vacancies

Coordinator Administrative Services (D1) - A 06/E014

Management and Coordination, Administrative Services

25 May - 22 Jun

Programme Officer (P3), two posts - A 06/E012

CDM/Methodologies Unit, Project Based Mechanisms Programme

12 May - 11 Jun

Programme Officer (P3) - VA 06/E013

CDM/Methodologies Unit, Project Based Mechanisms Programme

12 May - 11 Jun

Programme Officer (P3) - VA 06/E011

Review and Analysis subprogramme, Reporting, Data and Analysis Programme

28 Apr - 09 Jun

Vacancy announcements at DNV

DNV has specialised in delivering independent, third party services for climate change activities, and has over the past decade been engaged in a number of CDM and JI validation, verification, and certification activities. As a result of expanding business, DNV is now looking for additional capacity within their team in Oslo, Norway.

For further information and for submitting an application please refer to or contact DNV through

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Senior Policy Researcher

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) is currently seeking applicants for Senior Policy Researcher of Long-term Perspective and Policy Integration Project (LTP) who takes charge of 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recyle) policy area (one position).

For more details:

Pew Center on Global Climate Change – Job vacancy

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change seeks a highly qualified and committed individual to work with the Markets and Business Strategy team on business/investment issues and outreach.

For more information on the position, please refer to:

Climate Program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Supervisory Physical Scientist or Supervisory Social Scientist, GS-101-15

The Climate Program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is seeking an energetic individual with considerable experience in outcome-oriented, applied environmental research to lead a new division known as Climate Assessments and Services.

Detailed job information and applicant instructions will be found at
Open to all U.S. Citizens.

Posting dates: May 12 to June 26.

Openings in EPA’s Climate Economics Branch

Two job openings in EPA's Climate Economics Branch, Climate Change Division.

EPA is hiring for the following two positions:
(1) Energy Economist
(2) Climate Mitigation Specialist

For more information:

6) Websites of interest

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Experts Network

GHG Inventory Network Discussion List

Does your work concern greenhouse gas emission inventories?

Are you engaged in setting baselines, monitoring, or verification for CDM or other projects?

Is your organization or corporation accounting for its GHG emissions?

Do you want to better understand methods for estimating GHG emission sources and sinks?

Then, you are invited to join the new Greenhouse Gas Inventory Experts Network.

The GHG Network is a community of individuals working on emissions data by quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from sources (and removals by sinks).

Visit the GHG Network at to:

    • Get more information

    • Join our electronic mailing list

    • Post messages to ask questions or start a discussion

    • Join our professional directory and find colleagues working on similar issues anywhere in the world.

Until now, the community of new and existing experts was fragmented and had no centralized forum for communication. Specifically, there was no online forum for experts in greenhouse gas inventories to interact and share information in this rapidly changing field. That is about to change.

The GHG Network will enable experts to communicate and learn from each other. The result will be more complete, accurate, and policy-relevant inventories.

For more information visit:


Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Ron Hall, Thomas Hofer, Christel Palmberg


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last updated:  Tuesday, November 18, 2008