No. 7/2005

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change News

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of interest


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

How can market mechanisms for forest environmental services help the poor? Preliminary lessons from Latin America

Grieg-Gran, M. - Porras, I. - Wunder, S. (2005)

World Development; available online 19 July 2005

Abstract: Market mechanisms for forest environmental services are a new approach for conservation, but there is also an increasing interest in the derived developmental benefits of these mechanisms. We first propose a conceptual framework for future research on the livelihood impacts of environmental service markets. We then review eight Latin American case studies on carbon sequestration and watershed protection market initiatives, finding positive local income effects in most cases, more land tenure security and socio-institutional strengthening in some cases, but some negative effects also. We recommend pro-poor policy measures such as reducing smallholders’ transaction costs and removing inappropriate access restrictions.

A bioeconomic analysis of carbon sequestration in farm forestry: a simulation study of Gliricidia sepium

Wise, R. - Cacho, O. (2005)

Agroforestry Systems 64 (3): 237

Abstract: Trees provide many environmental services including improved soil fertility and soil structure, which often leads to increased productivity and sustainability of the land. Trees also increase the average carbon stocks of land-use systems. This study is the first of a series aimed at assessing the appropriateness of tree-based land-use systems as alternatives to continuous cropping and/or Imperata-fallow systems. The performance of a Gliricidia sepium woodlot, grown over 25 years and under various pruning and harvesting regimes, was assessed through modelling. The assessment was based on the system’s ability to sequester and store carbon, maintain land productivity, and be financially profitable for landholders. It was found that the system was profitable under most management regimes tested. Profits were maximised by pruning and harvesting as much biomass as possible when no carbon payments were available, but this strategy decreased system productivity and profitability in the long run. Carbon-sequestration payments encouraged landholders to adopt less intensive practices since net revenues were higher with carbon payments. It was also shown that the carbon pools included in a carbon-trading scheme were sensitive to carbon-measuring costs. For example, if the annual cost of measuring soil carbon was greater than US$1.19 ha1 it would not be economical to account for this pool in a carbon-sequestration project.

Biomass production and C-sequestration of Gmelina arborea in plantation and agroforestry system in India

Swamy, S.L. - Puri, S. (2005)

Agroforestry Systems 64 (3): 181

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine biomass production, C-sequestration and nitrogen allocation in Gmelina arborea planted as sole and agrisilviculture system on abandoned agricultural land. At 5 years, total stand biomass in agrisilviculture system was 14.1 Mg ha1. Plantations had 35% higher biomass than agrisilviculture system. At 5 years, leaves, stem, branches and roots contributed 4.1, 65.2, 10.0 and 20.7%, respectively to total standing biomass (17.9 Mg ha1). Over the 5 years of study, trees had 3.5 Mg ha1 more C and 36 kg ha1more N in plantation than agrisilviculture system. Biomass and C storage followed differential allocation. Relatively more C was allocated in above ground components in plantations compared to agrisilviculture system. In agrisilviculture system crops recommended are: soybean and cowpea in rainy season; wheat and mustard in winter season. After 5 years, soil organic C increased by 51.2 and 15.1% in plantation and agrisilviculture system, respectively. Total C storage in abandoned agricultural land before planting was 26.3 Mg ha1, which increased to 33.7 and 45.8 Mg ha1 after 5 years in plantation and agrisilviculture system, respectively. Net C storage (soil + tree) was 7.4 Mg ha1 in agrisilviculture system compared to 19.5 Mg ha1 in G. arborea monoculture stands. The studies suggest that competitive interactions played a significant role in agrisilviculture system. Plantations were more efficient in accreting C than agrisilviculture system on abandoned agricultural land.

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, rates, and consequences

Fearnside, P.M. (2005)

Conservation Biology 19 (3): 680-688

Abstract: Amazonian deforestation rates have trended upward since 1991, with clearing proceeding at a variable but rapid pace. Although Amazonian forests are cut for various reasons, cattle ranching predominates. The large and medium-sized ranches account for about 70% of clearing activity. Profit from beef cattle is only one of the income sources that make deforestation profitable. Forest degradation results from logging, ground fires (facilitated by logging), and the effects of fragmentation and edge formation. Degradation contributes to forest loss. The impacts of deforestation include loss of biodiversity, reduced water cycling (and rainfall), and contributions to global warming. Strategies to slow deforestation include repression through licensing procedures, monitoring, and fines. The severity of penalties for deforestation needs to be sufficient to deter illegal clearing but not so great as to be unenforceable. Policy reform is also needed to address root causes of deforestation, including the role of clearing in establishing land claims.

Soil carbon changes after 26 years in a Cumberland Plateau hardwood forest

Kelly, J.M. - Mays, P.A. (2005)

Soil Science Society of America Journal 69 (3): 691-694

Abstract: Concerns about global warming and discussions of possible mitigation measures have generated a need for information on changes in soil C over time. The objective of this study was to determine if there was a change in soil C concentration in an aggrading oak forest over a 26-yr interval. A bootstrapping data analysis indicated an increase (95% confidence interval) in the concentration of C in the 0- to 10-cm depth. No change in C concentration occurred in the 10- to 30- or 30- to 50-cm samples. Average soil C concentration in the 0- to 10-cm samples increased from a mean of 20.8 g kg-1 in 1976 to 35.9 g kg-1 in 2002. Among soil series, concentrations ranged from 9.5 to 28.9 g kg-1 in 1976 and 22.1 to 64.7 g kg-1 in 2002. Although the sample numbers are limited, results indicate that average soil C concentration in the top 10 cm of the mineral soil increased by 73% at this site over a 26-yr interval.

Research advances in the relationship between alpine timberline and climate change

Wang, X. - Zhou, X. - Sun, Z. (2005)

Chinese Journal of Ecology Volume 24, Issue 3, March 2005, Pages 301-305

Abstract: As the boundary zones between major ecosystems, ecotones are important sites for monitoring the effects of global change. The forest-tundra ecotone, formed by alpine timberline, may be especially sensitive to climate change. Research advances in the relationship between alpine timberline and climate change were briefly summarized from the relationship between single tree and weather conditions, the regeneration of trees under climate change, the pattern of alpine timberline, and the methods adopted in the research on the relationship between alpine timberline and climate change.

Carbon for Farmers: Assessing the Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration in the Old Peanut Basin of Senegal

Tschakert, P. (2004)

Climatic Change 67 (2-3): 273 - 290

Abstract: Carbon sequestration in soil organic matter of degraded Sahelian agro-ecosystems could play a significant role in the global carbon (C) uptake through terrestrial sinks while, simultaneously, contributing to sustainable agriculture and desertification control. The paper documents the results of a two-year pilot project in Senegal assessing real project opportunities with main emphasis on the West-Central Agricultural Region (“Old Peanut Basin”). Current total system C content in this region, calculated on the basis of in situ soil and biomass carbon measurements, amounted to 28 t ha–1 with 11 t C ha–1 in soils (0–20 cm) and 6.3 t C ha–1 in trees. Potential changes in soil C, simulated with CENTURY for a 25-year period, ranged from –0.13 t C ha–1 yr–1 under poor management to +0.43 t C ha–1 yr–1 under optimum agricultural intensification. Simulated changes in crop yields varied from –62% to +200% under worst and best management scenarios respectively. Best management practices that generate the highest sequestration rates are economically not feasible for the majority of local smallholders, unless considerable financial support is provided.

How attractive are forest carbon sinks? Economic insights into supply and demand of Certified Emission Reductions

Olschewski, R. - Benítez, P.C. - de Koning, G.H.J. - Schlichter, T. (2005)

Journal of Forest Economics; available online 1 July 2005

Abstract: The present article analyzes forestry projects in north-western Patagonia from an economic viewpoint based on the latest Kyoto Protocol developments. We consider temporary and long-term Certified Emission Reductions (CER) and determine the conditions on which forest plantations are attractive to potential CER suppliers and demanders. We conclude that for most of the recent carbon price projections, carbon sink projects would be economically viable for CER suppliers and at the same time attractive to CER demanders looking for cost-efficient emission abatement opportunities.

Carbon sequestration in a tropical landscape: an economic model to measure its incremental cost

Shively, G.E. - Zelek, C.A. - Midmore, D.J. - Nissen, T.M. (2004)

Agroforestry Systems 60(3) p. 189-197

Abstract: Farm-level rates of C sequestration are derived for timber and agroforestry systems based on Paraserianthes falcataria. An economic model is used to measure the incremental cost of C storage, based on the opportunity cost of land diverted from annual crop production. The method is applied to the Manupali watershed located in the province of Bukidnon, on the island of Mindanao, the Philippines, to estimate C storage potential and C storage costs at a landscape scale. Carbon storage via land use modification is calculated to cost between $ 3.30/t on fallowed lands and $ 62.50/t on land that otherwise supports high value cropping. Carbon storage through agroforestry is less costly than via a pure tree-based system; a strong argument for the role of agroforestry rather than forestry per se, in reforestation projects.

Tomorrow’s forests: adapting to a changing climate

Maciver, D.C. - Wheaton, E. (2005)

Climatic Change (2005) 70: 273–282

Abstract: Today’s forests are largely viewed as a natural asset, growing in a climate envelope, which favors natural regeneration of species that have adapted and survived the variability’s of past climates. However, human-induced climate change, variability and extremes are no longer a theoretical concept. It is a real issue affecting all biological systems. Atmospheric scientists, using global climate models, have developed scenarios of the future climate that far exceed the traditional climate envelope and their associated forest management practices. Not all forests are alike, nor do they share the same adaptive life cycles, feedbacks and threats. Much of tomorrow’s forests will become farmed forests, managed in a pro-active, designed and adaptive envelope, to sustain multiple products, values and services. Given the life cycle of most forest species, forest management systems will need to radically adjust their limits of knowledge and adaptive strategies to initiate, enhance and plan forests in relative harmony with the future climate. Protected Areas (IUCN), Global Biosphere Reserves (UNESCO) and Smithsonian Institution sites provide an effective community-based platform to monitor changes in forest species, ecosystems and biodiversity under changing climatic conditions.

Economics of climate change mitigation forest policy scenarios for Ukraine

M. Nijnik (2004)

Climate Policy 4 (3): 319-336

Abstract: This article reveals the contribution of woodland expansion in Ukraine to climate change mitigation policies. The opportunities for climate change mitigation of three policy scenarios: (1) carbon storage in forests, (2) carbon storage and additional wood-for-fuel substitution, and (3) carbon storage with additional sink policy for wood products, are investigated by using a simulation technique, in combination with cost-benefit analysis. The article concludes that the Ukraine's forests and their expansion offer a low-cost opportunity for carbon sequestration. Important factors that influence the results are the discount rate and the time horizon considered in the models. The findings provide evidence that the storage climate change mitigation forest policy scenario is most viable for the country, under the assumptions considered in this research.

2) Forest and Climate Change News

Forest owners side step Kyoto

New Zealand forest owners are felling their immature forests at a great rate to avoid penalties under the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Forest Owners' Association. The association says foresters want to avoid a Kyoto Protocol liability for trees planted before 1990 and felled after 2007.

(from One News)

Tropical forests neglected in climate change talks

The loss of 30 million acres of tropical forests is the second leading cause of global warming after fossil fuel combustion, and despite past attention to the issue, G8 leaders have failed to place the issue high enough on their agenda, writes John Niles of the Climate Community and Biodiversity Alliance in the International Herald Tribune.

(from International Herald Tribune)

Biotechnology in forestry gaining ground

FAO calls for systematic assessment of genetically modified trees

Research and applications of biotechnology in forestry are advancing rapidly, FAO said today. A significant majority of forest biotechnology activities, around 70 percent, is taking place in developed countries, according to a new global study of biotechnology in forestry conducted by FAO, with the United States, France and Canada being the most active players. India and China are the most active of the developing countries and countries in transition.

(FAO press release)

Outsourcing Forests to India

Farmers in Maharashtra are all set to cash in on opportunities offered by carbon credit trading, a scheme aimed at setting the wheels in motion to reduce green-house gas (GHG) emissions globally, following the signing of the Kyoto Protocol by 141 countries. A Pune-based non-governmental organisation, 'Friends of Carbon' (FoC), has already brought together 5,000 farmers to exploit the option, which permits a developed country to meet part of its targeted emission cuts by funding tree plantations in developing countries like India, for carbon sequestration.

(from ENN)

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

UNFCCC: Submission of new A/R methodologies

4 new afforestation & reforestation methodologies have been submitted to the CDM EB, relating to reforestation on pasture land on two sites within the Chocó-Manabí ecoregion of Ecuador, facilitation of reforestation in the Guangxi Watershed (China), afforestation of bush and grassland on the ranch “Rio Aquidaban” (Paraguay) and the reforestation of bush, grassland and degraded woodland in the Kikonda Forest Reserve (FR) in Uganda.

Public comments received are currently being processed and will be available on the website shortly. The afforestation and reforestation working group will deal with these submissions during the 5th meeting of the group (31 Aug. - 02 Sept. 2005) and will make recommendations to the CDM Executive Board accordingly.

The proposed methodologies can be found at:

UNFCCC: New simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies; Additionality tool

In accordance with the request of the CDM Executive Board, at its twentieth meeting, the following two documents were open for public comments to 8 August 2005:

(1) Draft simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies for selected A/R small-scale CDM project activity categories

(2) Draft tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality for CDM A/R project activities

Website: or go directly to:

Corrigendum: Workshop results on “Facilitating Forestry Mitigation Projects in India: Promoting Stakeholder Dialogue and Capacity Building”

Correcting the 6th edition of CLIM-FO-L, the details of the Workshop on “Facilitating Forestry Mitigation Projects in India: Promoting Stakeholder Dialogue and Capacity Building” held on 15th - 17th June, 2005 at ICFRE, Dehra Dun, are available at the following address:

Dr. Neeta Hooda,
Head, BCC Division,
ICFRE, Dehra Dun

Facts on afforestation and reforestation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism

Facts in concise form are available for forestry practitioners at:

Development of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

Authors are currently compiling the Second Order Draft which will be submitted to government/ experts review by September 2005. Guidelines for reporting on forestry are combined with those on agriculture and other land use. Final government consideration is planned for March 2006. The Guidelines will be considered by SBSTA 24 in May 2006.

4) New Publications

Management of European forests under changing climatic conditions

Kellomäki, S. - Leinonen, S. (Eds.) (2005)

Tiedonantoja/Research Notes No. 163

University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry

Description: The report summarises the findings of the Project “Silvicultural Response Strategies to Climatic Change in Management of European Forests” funded by the European Union. In the European context, this report addresses the impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems and forests, with the consequent management strategies to adapt to climate change and to mitigate the adverse impacts, which climate change may have on forests and forestry.

The final report includes:

Summary: ( (0.1 MB)

Chapter 1:
Introduction ( (0.1 MB)

Chapter 2: Forests and Climate in Europe, and Climate Scenarios used in the Project (0.2 MB)

Chapter 3:
Climate Change Impacts on Forests in Europe: Biological Impact Mechanisms ( (0.9 MB)

Chapter 4:
SilviStrat Model Evaluation Exercises
(0.4 MB)

Chapter 5: Adaptive Forest Management Strategies (23 MB)

Chapter 6: Policy Objectives in Relation to Adaptive Forest Management
(0.2 MB)

Chapter 7: Adaptive Forest Management at the Scale of Management Units
(1.2 MB)

Chapter 8: European Mitigation Potential
(0.2 MB)

Chapter 9: European Mitigation and Adaptation Potentials: Conclusions and Recommendations (0.1 MB)

Homepage of Silvistrat:

Final report:

Carbon Sink Plantations in the Ecuadorian Andes

Impacts of the Dutch FACE-PROFAFOR monoculture tree plantations' project on indigenous and peasant communities

Patricia Granda, P. (2005)

Joint Research of Acción Ecológica and WRM – No abstract available

The paper can be downloaded at:

Carbon sequestration through restoration of temperate and boreal forests

Ciccarese L. - Brown S. - Schlamadinger B. (2005)

In: John Stunturf e P. Madsen (editori). Restoration of temperate and boreal forests. Chapter 7: 111-120. CRC Press/Lewis Publishers. CRC Press. Boca Raton, USA. 569 p.

Abstract: The authors affirm that some 215 million ha of the temperate and boreal zone are technically suitable for afforestation and reforestation activities, including agroforestry on some agricultural lands. These lands are potentially capable of sequestering about 15 billion t C over the 50-year period, which provides a rough estimate of the potential contribution of forest restoration in temperate and boreal forests. The chapter summarize policy, and scientific and technical issues (such as leakage additionality, non - permanence, saturation, monitoring and estimation of carbon uptake) surrounding implementation of land-use change and forestry activities for mitigating GHG emissions. In addition a significant list of forest restoration projects with a carbon component is presented. The chapter concludes that he potential expansion of the market for carbon-driven restoration projects is dependent on a host of factors, including how forestry carbon offsets will be counted; how additionality, baselines, leakage, and other issues described in this chapter are treated; how project implementation and transaction costs change in the future as more and more projects are carried out; and whether clear and simple rules will be adopted that allow the private sector to take cost-effective action. Interest in forest restoration projects for carbon offsets will also depend on the extent other environmental and socioeconomic benefits can be fulfilled through forest restoration.

Climate change impacts in the Mediterranean resulting from a 2oC global temperature rise

Tin, T. - Giannakopoulos, C. - Bindi, M. (WWF, 2005)

Abstract: The goal of the present study is to provide the first piece of the puzzle in understanding the impacts of a 2°C global temperature rise on the Mediterranean region, using high temporal resolution climate model output that has been made newly available.

The analysis has been based on the temperature, precipitation and wind daily outputs of the HadCM3 model using the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios. The study is focussed on the thirty-year period (2031-2060) centred on the time that global temperature is expected to reach 2oC above pre-industrial levels, as defined by an earlier companion study. Changes in both the mean (temperature, precipitation) and the extremes (heat waves, drought) under the different scenarios were assessed. The impacts of these climatic changes on energy demand, forest fire, tourism and agriculture were subsequently investigated either using existing numerical models or an expert based approach. Based on recent studies, the impacts on biodiversity, water resources and sea level rise in the region were also discussed.

Download the report:

Feasibility study on the use of medium resolution satellite data for the detection of forest cover change caused by clear cutting of coniferous forests in the northwest of Russia

Stibig, H.-J. - Bucha, T. (2005)

Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission

Abstract: This feasibility study examines possibilities of identifying and mapping of clear cuts in the boreal coniferous forests of north western Russia based on satellite imagery of medium spatial resolution (MRSD). Different image products obtained from the MODIS and MERIS sensors were visually examined in order to assess their suitability for clear cut detection. MODIS images of 250 m spatial resolution from the years 2001 and 2002 were ultimately selected as the main data source for change analysis. The study compares different detection and mapping approaches, including (i) visual interpretation using principal components, (ii) unsupervised digital classification and (iii) a combination of image differencing and textural analysis, defining statistical thresholds for the identification of clear cuts. The results show that the detection of clear cut locations is feasible by each approach, provided that the size of the clear cut is larger than about 15 ha. For mapping and area estimation the digital approaches are considered more efficient. The best mapping result was achieved based on the combination of image differencing and textural analysis. However, the mapping accuracy is affected by omission and commission errors, mainly caused by the limited spatial resolution of the imagery and by slight geometrical location shifts between different acquisitions. Also atmospheric and seasonal effects can influence the reliability of change indications. Based on a set of reference clear cut areas, delineated from Landsat TM imagery, the best mapping accuracy achieved was at about 65 %.

Download the report at:

5) Climate Change jobs

UNFCCC - Executive Direction and Management (EDM)

Compliance under the Kyoto Protocol - Facilitative Branch of the Compliance Committee

Vacancy Announcement No.: UNFCCC Internal/External VA 05/E015

Publication/Transmission Date: 29 June 2005

Deadline for application: 27 August 2005

Title and Grade: Programme Officer (Compliance), P-4

Post Number: Fca-5986-C-P4-002

Duration of appointment: One and Half Years, with possibility of extension

Duty station: Bonn, Germany

Expected Date for Entry on Duty: As soon as possible

For more information:

Ecofys - Intermediate and senior level consultants

The Ecofys UK office in London is currently expanding and is recruiting for intermediate and senior level consultants in the areas of Energy & Climate Strategy and Carbon Management. For more details of the current vacancies please see the website:

Note that the closing date for all vacancies is the 14th of August 2005.

Ecological and environmental economics programme

Postdoctoral position – 2005-2006

The Ecological and Environmental Economics Programme (EEE), a joint programme of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and the Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, invites applications for one postdoctoral position in integrated assessment and computable general equilibrium models. Appointment may begin from 1 November 2005 (and possibly not later than 1 December 2005). The closing data for receipt of applications is 30 September 2005.

A full range of the activities of the EEE Programme is described in the EEE Programme website at, whilst information on the Abdus Salam ICTP and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei is available at and respectively.

Applicants should send a detailed curriculum vitae with a full list of publications and at least two letters of recommendation to: Ms. Rosa del Rio, the Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014, Trieste, Italy (Phone: +39.040.2240396; Fax: +39.040.224163; e-mail:

Two Assistant Professorships in Economic and Social Aspects of Climate Change

Gothenburg University, Sweden has posted two four-year Assistant Professor positions attached to Mistra's Climate Policy Research Programme (Clipore). Clipore is an international research program aimed at contributing to moving forward international efforts to combat climate change.

You can find information about Clipore and these positions at . The full application information is available on the Gothenburg University website ( ).

Applications will be accepted through August 31st.

USEPA - Climate Mitigation Specialist vacancy

Climate Mitigation Specialist

Office of Air & Radiation, Office of Atmospheric Programs

Climate Change Division

The Climate Change Division (CCD) is responsible for developing the official U.S. inventory of greenhouse gases (GHGs); conducting economic analyses of the mitigation of GHGs; assessing long-term projections of climate change, including potential impacts to human health and the environment; and coordinating domestic and international policies relating to climate change.

If interested please, e-mail a cover letter and resume to the following contact:

Marian Smoak

USEPA (6207J)

1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.

Washington, DC 20460


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EZ-hire website ( )

National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan: Executive Officer

The Global Carbon Project (GCP) is seeking to appoint a highly motivated and independent person as Executive Officer (director) of its International Project Office in Tsukuba, Japan at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). The successful candidate will work with the GCP Science Steering Committee, its three co-chairs, and the Executive Officer of the other GCP International Project Office in Canberra, Australia to implement the science framework of the GCP.

Closing date for applications: 1 October 2005

Further information on the position and the GCP is available by viewing the GCP homepage:


EcoSecurities is looking for the following staff for its Oxford and The Hague offices:

- Senior originators of CDM/JI projects with experience in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

- Senior CDM/JI project managers.

- Consultants with relevant experience in carbon markets, capacity building and/ or climate policy analysis.

- Market analysts with relevant experience in modelling and/or risk analysis in the carbon/energy sectors.

- Lawyers with experience in the carbon market.

Candidates are encouraged to respond before 12th August, 2005. Candidates can send their CV to:

Personnel Unit

6) Websites of interest

Bibliography of Canadian Tree-Ring Research online

The database, maintained by the Canadian Dendrochronology Research Group can be searched for articles by entering authors, publication dates, keywords or titles.


UNFCCC: Compilation of definitional values for forest under the CDM online

The UNFCCC updated the website for information on designated national authorities (DNA) for the CDM by adding the minimum values for afforestation and reforestation projects as they are stepwise reported by the Non Annex I countries. Reporting this definition is a prerequisite for the implementation of afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM.

The table can be viewed at:


Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Neeta Hooda, Andreas Kress, Marcus Lindner, Till Neeff, Christel Palmberg, Dan Smith



The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Resources Division, Forest Conservation Service (FORC).





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