CLIM-FO-L - AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTRY

No. 4/2005

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change News

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of interest

QUICK TIPS AND INFORMATION FOR CLIM-FO-L

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

Geographic variability in lidar predictions of forest stand structure in the Pacific Northwest

Lefsky, M.A. - Hudak, A.T. - Cohen, W.B. - Acker, S.A. (2005)

Remote Sensing of Environment 95 (4): 532-548

Abstract: Estimation of the amount of carbon stored in forests is a key challenge for understanding the global carbon cycle, one which remote sensing is expected to help address. However, carbon storage in moderate to high biomass forests is difficult to estimate with conventional optical or radar sensors. Lidar (light detection and ranging) instruments measure the vertical structure of forests and thus hold great promise for remotely sensing the quantity and spatial organization of forest biomass. In this study, we compare the relationships between lidar-measured canopy structure and coincident field measurements of forest stand structure at five locations in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. with contrasting composition. Coefficient of determination values (r2) ranged between 41% and 96%. Correlations for two important variables, LAI (81%) and aboveground biomass (92%), were noteworthy, as was the fact that neither variable showed an asymptotic response. Of the 17 stand structure variables considered in this study, we were able to develop eight equations that were valid for all sites, including equations for two variables generally considered to be highly important (aboveground biomass and leaf area index). Given the wide range of these environmental conditions sampled, we conclude that the prediction of stand structure is largely independent of environmental conditions in this study area. Most studies of lidar remote sensing for predicting stand structure have depended on intensive data collections within a relatively small study area. This study indicates that the relationships between many stand structure indices and lidar measured canopy structure have generality at the regional scale. This finding, if replicated in other regions, would suggest that mapping of stand structure using lidar may be accomplished by distributing field sites extensively over a region, thus reducing the overall inventory effort required.

Site identification for carbon sequestration in Latin America: A grid-based economic approach

Benítez, P.C. - Obersteiner, M. (2005)

Forest Policy and Economics - Article in press, available online 8 April 2005

Abstract: Latin America harbours a large potential for carbon sequestration and biomass production. This paper deals with the estimation of carbon supply curves for afforestation and reforestation and its implicit carbon sequestration in wood products. The methodology presented aims at determining sequestration costs for individual geographical entities, based on unit-specific land use and ecosystem information, and economic data. This approach allows us to supplement local statistics that are typically scarce and unreliable in developing countries, with independent remotely sensed data in order to have a consistent method that can be applied over a large region. The results are mapped, which allows in-depth appraisal of results in an interactive mode and quick identification of least-cost carbon sequestration sites. The model is dynamic to support decision making at various stages in the Kyoto process. After model calibration and sensitivity analysis, we conducted scenario analysis. For a carbon price scenario of $20/tC, we find that the cumulative carbon sequestration by 2012 and 2020 is about 125 MtC and 337 MtC, respectively. The net benefit by 2020 could amount up to US$ 2.3 billion using less than 4% of the area suitable for afforestation and reforestation in the next 20 years. Our long-term estimates of the cumulative sequestration potential for 100 years imply that tree planting could compensate for more than 7 years of current CO2 emissions of the region's energy sector at low costs.

Greenhouse gas emissions from final harvest fuel chip production in Finland

Wihersaari, M. (2005)

Biomass and Bioenergy 28 (5): 435-443

Abstract: Renewable energy sources have been identified to play an important role in mitigating climate change. The main reason is that carbon dioxide emission is avoided when fossil fuels are replaced. This paper presents a study focusing on direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions from fuel chip production in Finland. The fuel chips studied were produced from logging residue at final harvest. Five different fuel production chains were considered. The calculations showed that fuel chip production from the residues of final harvest is very efficient from the viewpoint of energy use during collection, chipping and transportation. Only an input of 2–3% of the produced energy is needed, which means that roughly 30 to 50 units of bioenergy is produced for every unit of (fossil) energy consumed. The emissions from collecting, chipping and transporting the residues were evaluated to be about 4–7 kg CO2 eq MWh -1chip depending on harvesting and chipping methods and transportation distance. Emissions of greenhouse gases (other than CO2) from burning forest residues in a modern CHP-plant were evaluated to be small, about 2 kg CO2 eq MWh -1chip. If nitrogen losses are compensated for with fertilisation, the additional greenhouse gas emissions were calculated to be about 7 CO2 eq MWh -1chip. The calculations showed that in a favourable situation as much as 97–98% of the greenhouse gas emissions could be avoided by substituting a fossil fuel with wood fuel, but even in an unfavourable situation the amount avoided should be higher than 75%.

Amazonia and the modern carbon cycle: lessons learned

Ometto, J.P.H.B. - Nobre, A.D. - Rocha, H.R. - Artaxo, P. - Martinelli, L.A. (2005)

Oecologia - Published online: 30 March 2005

Abstract: In this paper, we review some critical issues regarding carbon cycling in Amazonia, as revealed by several studies conducted in the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). We evaluate both the contribution of this magnificent biome for the global net primary productivity/net ecosystem exchange (NPP/NEE) and the feedbacks of climate change on the dynamics of Amazonia. In order to place Amazonia in a global perspective and make the carbon flux obtained through the LBA project comparable with global carbon budgets, we extrapolated NPP/NEE values found by LBA studies to the entire area of the Brazilian Amazon covered by rainforest. The carbon emissions due to land use changes for the tropical regions of the world produced values from 0.96 to 2.4 Pg C year−1, while atmospheric CO2 inversion models have recently indicated that tropical lands in the Americas could be exchanging a net 0.62±1.15 Pg C year−1 with the atmosphere. The difference calculated from these two methods would imply a local sink of approximately 1.6–1.7 Pg C year−1, or a source of 0.85 ton C ha−1 year−1. Using our crude extrapolation of LBA values for the Amazon forests (5 million km2) we estimate a range for the C flux in the region of −3.0 to 0.75 Pg C year−1. The exercise here does not account for environmental variability across the region, but it is an important driver for present and future studies linking local process (i.e. nutrient availability, photosynthetic capacity, and so forth) to global and regional dynamic approaches.

Recent climate change: Rethinking drought in the context of Forest Fire Research in Ticino, South of Switzerland

Reinhard, M. - Rebetez, M. - Schlaepfer, R. (2005)

Theoretical and Applied Climatology - Published online: 31 March 2005

Abstract: We analyse trends over the past 32 years in drought variables in the context of forest fire research and climate change in Ticino, Southern Switzerland. January to April and in particular the month of March have become drier. This is the time of the year when forest fires are most frequent. Our results show an increasing trend in all climatic variables favourable to drought and forest fires, including the length of episodes without precipitation, sunshine duration and temperature, and a decrease in relative humidity. The only exception is the number of “foehn” days, which have not significantly increased.

Carbon and nutrients loos in aboveground biomass along a fire induced forest-savanna gradient in the Gran Sabana, southern Venezuela

Dezzeo, N. - Chacón, N. (2005)
Forest Ecology and Management 209 (3): 343-352

Abstract: Forest degradation and savannization are critical environmental issues associated with forest fires in the Gran Sabana, southern Venezuela. Yet little is known about the ecological consequences resulting from the conversion of forest to savanna in this region. In this study we quantified the change in C and nutrients in aboveground biomass along a fire induced gradient consisting of unburned tall primary forest (TF), slightly fire-affected medium forest (MF), strongly fire-affected low forest (LF) and savanna (S). Total aboveground biomass (TAGB) decreased from 411 Mg ha−1 in TF to 313 Mg ha−1 in MF, 13 Mg ha−1 in LF and 5 Mg ha−1 in S. The pools of C and nutrients in TAGB decreased 13–25% from TF to MF, 88–97% from TF to LF and 97–98% from TF to S. In TF and MF, about 40% of C and over 80% of base cations (Ca, K and Mg) was stored in TAGB, whereas the bulk of N and P were stored in the soil (90% of N and 72% of P). This distribution of elements was different in LF and S, where about 50% of base cations were stored in TAGB, and more than 94% of C, 98% of N and 87% of P were stored in the mineral soil. The large amount of elements stored in the biomass of the tall unburned forest demonstrates the high sensitivity of this ecosystem to fire. The change from tall forest to low forest and savanna implies large losses of C and nutrients stored in aboveground biomass and soils (namely 390–399 Mg C ha−1, 11–13 Mg N ha−1, 70–72 kg P ha−1, 783–818 kg K ha−1, 736–889 kg Ca ha−1, and 200–225 kg Mg ha−1). Such drain of C and nutrients in soils extremely low in silicates, which can replenish the lost nutrients by weathering reduces the recuperation chance of these ecosystems and therefore their future capacity to sequester C and accumulate nutrients

Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained coniferous forests on organic soils

Von Arnold - Weslien, P. - Nilsson, M. - Svensson, B.H. - Klemedtsson, L. (2005)

Forest Ecology and Management - Article in Press, available online 17 March 2005

Abstract: Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured during two to three years at four sites, located within an area of 9 km2 in southern Sweden, using dark static chamber techniques. Three of the sites were drained coniferous forests on moist organic soils that differed in forest productivity and tree species. The fourth site was an undrained tall sedge mire. Although the drained sites were all moist, with average groundwater levels between 17 and 27 cm below the soil surface, the mean annual dark forest floor CO2 release rate was significantly higher at the drained sites, (0.9–1.9 kg m−2 y−1) than at the undrained mire site (0.8 to 1.2 kg m−2 y−1). CH4 emissions were significantly lower from the drained sites than from the undrained mire (0.0 to 1.6 g m−2 y−1, compared to 10.6 to 12.2 g m−2 y−1), while N2O emissions were significantly lower from the undrained site than from the drained sites (20 to 30 mg m−2 y−1, compared to 30 to 90 mg m−2 y−1). There were no clear effects of site productivity or tree species on the soil fluxes of any of the gases. The annual net primary production of the forests was modeled. All drained sites were net sinks, while the undrained mire was a net source of greenhouse gases. The estimated net greenhouse gas exchange of the drained sites was correlated with productivity: the most productive site was the largest net sink and the least productive the smallest net sink for greenhouse gases. The results indicate that, to mitigate the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases, drained forest sites, which have been unsuccessfully drained or rewetted due to subsidence, should be managed in a way that keeps the groundwater level at a steady state.

The impact of windthrow on carbon sequestration in Switzerland: a model-based assessment

Thürig, E. - Palosuo, T. - Bucher, J. - Kaufmann, E. (2005)

Forest Ecology and Management - Article in Press, available online 17 March 2005

Abstract: Carbon sequestered in biomass is not necessarily stored infinitely, but is exposed to human or natural disturbances. Storm is the most important natural disturbance agent in Swiss forests. Therefore, if forests are taken into account in the national carbon budget, the impact of windthrow on carbon pools and fluxes should be included. In this article the forest scenario model MASSIMO and the soil carbon model YASSO were applied to assess the effect of forest management and an increased storm activity on the carbon sequestration in Swiss forests. First, the soil model was adapted to Swiss conditions and validated. Second, carbon fluxes were assessed applying the two models under various forest management scenarios and storm frequencies. In particular, the influence of clearing after a storm event on the carbon budget was analyzed. The evaluation of the model results showed that the soil model reliably reproduces the amount of soil carbon at the test sites. The simulation results indicated that, within the simulated time period of 40 years, forest management has a strong influence on the carbon budget. However, forest soils only react slightly to changes in the above-ground biomass. The results also showed that a storm frequency increase of 30% has a small impact on the national carbon budget of forests. To develop effective mitigation strategies for forest management, however, longer time periods must be regarded.

Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems

Montagnini, F. - Nair, P. K. R. (2004)

Agroforestry Systems 61: 281–295

Abstract: Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can make them effective carbon sinks. As in other land-use systems, the extent of C sequestered will depend on the amounts of C in standing biomass, recalcitrant C remaining in the soil, and C sequestered in wood products. Average carbon storage by agroforestry practices has been estimated as 9, 21, 50, and 63 Mg C ha-1 in semiarid, subhumid, humid, and temperate regions. For smallholder agroforestry systems in the tropics, potential C sequestration rates range from 1.5 to 3.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Agroforestry can also have an indirect effect on C sequestration when it helps decrease pressure on natural forests, which are the largest sink of terrestrial C. Another indirect avenue of C sequestration is through the use of agroforestry technologies for soil conservation, which could enhance C storage in trees and soils. Agroforestry systems with perennial crops may be important carbon sinks, while intensively managed agroforestry systems with annual crops are more similar to conventional agriculture. In order to exploit this vastly unrealized potential of C sequestration through agroforestry in both subsistence and commercial enterprises in the tropics and the temperate region, innovative policies, based on rigorous research results, have to be put in place.

Trends and scenarios of the carbon budget in postagricultural Puerto Rico (1936–2060)

Ricardo Grau, H. - Mitchell Aide, T. – Zimmerman, J.K. - Thomlinson J.R. (2004)

Global Change Biology 10 (7): 1163-1179

Abstract: Contrary to the general trend in the tropics, Puerto Rico underwent a process of agriculture abandonment during the second half of the 20th century as a consequence of socioeconomic changes toward urbanization and industrialization. Using data on land-use change, biomass accumulation in secondary forests, and ratios between gross domestic product (GDP) and carbon emissions, we developed a model of the carbon budget for Puerto Rico between 1936 and 2060. As a consequence of land abandonment, forests have expanded rapidly since 1950, achieving the highest sequestration rates between 1980 and 1990. Regardless of future scenarios of demography and land use, sequestration rates will decrease in the future because biomass accumulation decreases with forest age and there is little agricultural land remaining to be abandoned. Due to high per-capita consumption and population density, carbon emissions of Puerto Rico have increased dramatically and exceeded carbon sequestration during the second half of the 20th century. Although Puerto Rico had the highest percent of reforestation for a tropical country, emissions during the period 1950–2000 were approximately 3.5 times higher than sequestration, and current annual emission is almost nine times the rate of sequestration. Additionally, while sequestration will decrease over the next six decades, current socioeconomic trends suggest increasing emissions unless there are significant changes in energy technology or consumption patterns. In conclusion, socioeconomic changes leading to urbanization and industrialization in tropical countries may promote high rates of carbon sequestration during the decades following land abandonment. Initial high rates of carbon sequestration can balance emissions of developing countries with low emission/GDP ratio. In Puerto Rico, the socioeconomic changes that promoted reforestation also promoted high-energy consumption, and resulted in a net increase in carbon emissions.

New Estimates of Carbon Storage and Sequestration in China’s Forests: Effects of Age–Class and Method on Inventory-Based Carbon Estimation

Yude, P. - Tianxiang, L. - Richard, B. - John, H. - Jerry, M. (2004)

Climatic Change 67 (2): 211-236

Abstract: We developed a volume-to-biomass method based on age groups representative of forest development stages to estimate live tree biomass, C, and biomass and C accumulation rates of China’s forests between 1973 and 1993. The data were from plot-level forest inventory, national-level inventory statistics, and ecological site studies specified to estimate biomass in different tree components. Our results indicate that carbon storage in China’s forests was 4.34 Pg C in the early 1990s, an increase of 13% since the early 1970s. The annual forest C sequestration rate from the late 1980s to early 1990s was 0.068 Pg C/yr and approximately four- to five-times higher than in the 1970s and 1980s. The large C sink in China’s forests in the early 1990s was likely related to age structure changes that had developed to more productive stages, a consequence of reforestation and afforestation programs from the 1960s. The results were compared with other C store estimates, which were based on the same inventory data. Various methods can produce estimates that differ in the direction of C flux as well as its magnitude. Separating age groups with the volume–biomass method could cause a 27% difference in estimated carbon pools but an 89% difference in C sequestration rates whereas the biomass density method would provide an estimate that differs by 65% in the C pools.

Allometric biomass equations, biomass expansion factors, and root-to-shoot ratios of planted Acacia mangium Willd. forests in West Java, Indonesia

Miyakuni, K. - Heriansyah, I. - Heriyanto, N. M. - Kiyono, Y. (2004)

Journal of Forest Planning 10:69-76 (2004)

Abstract: We present two models of log-linear equations for biomass estimation in planted stands of 3- to 10-year-old Acacia mangium Willd. trees, using destructive sampling data of 59 trees in West Java, Indonesia. The log-linear equations include parameters for individual leaf, branch, stem, aboveground, belowground (root), and total biomass. Average annual increments of stand-level biomass were estimated at 7.77 to 10.09 t ha-1 y-1 (model A) and at 7.91 to 10.27 t ha-1 y-1 (model B), with the largest values in the 5-year-old stand. Following the methodology presented by IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, we calculated basic wood density (D), biomass expansion factors (BEF), and root-to-shoot ratios (R) of the study stands. The value of D increased significantly as stand age increased from 3 to 8 years, but did not significantly differ between 8- and 10-year-old stands. The value of BEF did not differ among the 3- to 8-year-old stands (average 1.332) and decreased to 1.180 in the 10-year-old stand. The values of R increased significantly with stand age, from 0.157 to 0.190. The BEF values of A. mangium in this study were smaller than the default values for the tropical broad-leaf forest type (dbh > 10 cm) given by IPCC (mean, 3.4; range, 2.0–9.0). Because many factors may affect the parameter values of log-linear equations and D, BEF, and R for biomass estimation, the equations and values provided in this study are only applicable to A. mangium forests growing under comparable climatic, stand age, forest management conditions.

2) Forest and Climate Change News

Africa: Climate change becoming a matter of life and death

Mount Kilimanjaro is drying up. Climate change, coupled with widespread deforestation of the slopes, is melting the ice and snow that has crowned Africa's highest peak for more than 11,000 years, dramatically altering the surrounding ecosystem. Scientists warn most of the glaciers may be gone by 2020.

(from IRIN - UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA))

http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=46445&SelectRegion=Southern_Africa

Scientists find submerged forest under old seabed

Scientists have spent the past few days looking at something disturbing under the sea bed off the far north Queensland coast. They've found the remains of a forest that drowned at the end of the last ice age, around 9,000 years ago. What worries them is that the trees appear to have been swamped when sea levels rose fast, as much as five metres in just 20 years. If it's true, it means that the world's climate changed wildly within a human lifetime in the past, and it could happen again.

(from ABC)

http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2005/s1311600.htm

Early flowers on tree bring fear of spring in autumn

A leading Scottish botanist last night warned that the hazel tree could start flowering as early as autumn because of global warming. Dr Geoffrey Harper, a botanist at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, made the prediction following new research which shows the spring-flowering plant has advanced by 55 days in just three years.

(from the Scotsman)

http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=52&id=309542005

Japan firm sponsors Madagascan forest project

Japan's Mitsubishi Group will fund the creation of a forest reserve in Madagascar under a government plan to triple the size of the Indian Ocean island's protected areas by 2008, the company said on Monday. The cars-to-chemicals giant said it wanted to compensate for some of its emissions of gases like carbon dioxide (CO2).

(from Reuters South Africa)

http://www.reuters.co.za/locales/c_newsArticle.jsp;:423ed980:8cef8e9ec2cca?type=businessNews&localeKey=en_ZA&storyID=7960090

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

Workshop Announcement: Facilitating Forestry Mitigation projects in India: Promoting Stakeholder Dialogue and Capacity building

Organised by: Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, in partnership with: Institute of Silviculture, Freiburg University, Germany and Joanneum Graz, Austria

Dates: 15-17 June, 2005

Venue: Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, P.O. New Forest, Dehradun

Uttaranchal 248006 (UA) India

Contacts: rawatvrs@icfre.org, Phone 91-135-2750296; Fax: 91-135-2750298

For the workshop agenda and registration form: http://www.icfre.org/events.htm

Last date for registration 15 May, 2005.

13th International Annual Conference and General Assembly of the Climate Alliance of European Cities with Indigenous Rainforest Peoples

Date: 24 and 25 May 2005

Venue: Centre Culturel de Rencontre, Abbaye de Neumünster, City of Luxembourg

For the invitation and background: http://www.klimabuendnis.org/english/update/mv2005-invitation-en.htm

Workshop announcement: Management of forest ecosystems and its impacts on the GHG budget

Organized on behalf of the Concerted Action CarboEurope GHG and the European Forest Institute

Place: Savonlinna, Finland

Dates: August 25-28, 2005 (meeting days Aug 26-27)

The organizers kindly invite you to express your interest in participating by April, 30th, 2005. Please forward this information also to colleagues who may be interested in the workshop. Large part of the meeting costs will be covered by CarboEurope GHG. It is planned to have approximately 30 participants, who will be selected during May 2005.

Please find the first announcement and a pre-registration form on the workshop webpage: http://www.efi.fi/events/extra/2005/ghg/

4) New Publications

Planning Forest Sink Projects - A Guide to Carbon Pooling and Investment Structures

Planning Forest Sink Projects - A Guide to Legal, Taxation and Contractual Issues

Guides for developing carbon sinks

Australian Greenhouse Office (2005)

On the content: Two new guides have been released by the Australian Greenhouse Office to assist land managers understand the legal, financial, taxation and organisational issues involved in developing carbon sinks. Planning Forest Sink Projects - A Guide to Carbon Pooling and Investment Structures, seeks to provide the information necessary for informed decisions about carbon pooling options, including their strengths and weaknesses. Planning Forest Sink Projects - A Guide to Legal, Taxation and Contractual Issues, explains the legal issues that should be dealt with in agreements to sell carbon sequestration, and describes the different approaches State governments have taken in defining the right to own sequestered carbon. Taxation issues that apply to the purchase and sale of sequestered carbon are also discussed.

Further information and link to download Planning Forest Sink Projects - A Guide to Carbon Pooling and Investment Structures

http://greenhouse.gov.au/nrm/publications/carbonpooling.html

Further information and link to download Planning Forest Sink Projects - A Guide to Legal, Taxation and Contractual Issues

http://greenhouse.gov.au/nrm/publications/forestsinks.html

Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms -
Making Kyoto Work

Edited by David Freestone and Charlotte Streck (2005)

Oxford University Press, 643 p

Abstract: The first protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in Kyoto in 1997 and entered into force in February 2005. It is a unique international law instrument which sets legally binding targets for the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases which contribute to climate change. The targets are unprecedented in an environmental agreement and will involve substantial financial commitment in virtually all industrialized country parties to the protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is also the first international agreement to include economic instruments which are designed to involve private sector entities and assist parties to meet their targets. These economic instruments, known as the Kyoto or flexible mechanisms, are Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and International Emissions Trading. The Kyoto Protocol defined these mechanisms but did not set out the details necessary for their operation. After protracted negotiations, detailed rules were finalized at the Seventh Session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties held in Marrakech in 2001. The Marrakech Accords run to almost 250 pages but still leave many important practical issues unaddressed. As the 2008-2012 commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws close more and more projects under CDM and JI are being developed to take advantage of the Kyoto mechanisms and the key issues and problems are now becoming more apparent. Drawing on the emerging body of expertise in this complex area, this book conveys knowledge of what is becoming known as 'Carbon Finance'. It thereby aims to contribute to the development of the market for carbon emission reductions - one of the objectives of the Kyoto mechanisms.

5) Climate Change jobs

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies - Postdoctoral researcher

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies is seeking to host a young postdoctoral researcher, who is competent to undertake policy-relevant research on adaptation to climate change in the Asia-Pacific region focusing on one of the following or related areas:

(a) Role of bottom-up approaches in facilitating adaptation to climate change

(b) Policies for facilitating adaptation in agriculture and water resources sectors

(c) Options for mainstreaming adaptation concerns in official development assistance

(d) Cost-benefit analysis of adaptation options

Each candidate for the Fellowship must:

(1) Be a citizen of a country that has diplomatic relations with Japan

(2) Hold a doctorate degree when the Fellowship goes into effect, which must have been received within six years prior to April 2, 2005

(3) Have arranged in advance a research plan with his/her Japanese host

Interested candidates are advised to send a brief research plan (not exceeding three pages) to:

Mr. Ancha Srinivasan, Ph.D. (Cantab.) FCPS FCCS

Principal Researcher and Manager, Climate Policy Project Institute for Global Environmental Strategies 2108-11 Kamiyamaguchi, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0115 JAPAN Tel:+81-46-855-3818 Fax:+81-46-855-3809

E-mail: ancha@iges.or.jp

Deadline: not later than 20 April 2005. Research proposed must be relevant to countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

6) Websites of interest

Forest and climate web

A new independent internet portal has recently been launched in order to provide comprehensive information on forests and timber use in the context of climate change mitigation.

In order to provide a platform where different institutions, associations and groups working in the field of forestry, ecosystem research, timber use and climate change can present their work and results in a popular scientific manner the owners have established an internet portal under http://www.forestandclimate.net. The portal is divided into five main categories covering the following topics: forests & forestry, wood products & timber use, climate & climate change, projects, political process.

The portal started with contributions in German, but it will be extended to English- speaking articles soon.

Owing to the portal character, the platform is open to contributions of different partners and therefore it will always be in a transient state. Institutions that would like to cooperate are very welcome. They will be responsible for their contributions and will be named for contact. Their logo will be shown at the first page of the “Forest and Climate” internet portal and can be linked to their own homepage.

Website: http://www.forestandclimate.net

International Network launched: Linking Climate Adaptation

An international network to link people working on adaptation has recently been launched. The LCA Network aims to put practitioners, stakeholders, researchers, NGOs and policy-makers working on climate adaptation issues in touch with each other hopefully making it easier for us all to stay abreast of climate adaptation research and practises from around the globe.

To join the list, send an email to: lyris@lyris.ids.ac.uk with the first line: subscribe lca

Website: http://community.eldis.org/lca/

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Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Cheemin Kwon, Marcus Lindner, Syed Mahmood Nasir, Ingolf Profft, V.R.S. Rawat, Kiyono Yoshiyuki

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The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Resources Division, Forest Conservation Service (FORC).

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