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Atmospheric Environment 38 (40): 7021-7032
Abstract: Larch forests are distributed extensively in the east Eurasian continent and are expected to play a significant role in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling process. In view of the fact that studies on carbon exchange for this important biome have been very limited, we have initiated a long-term flux observation in a larch forest ecosystem in Hokkaido in northern Japan since 2000. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) showed large seasonal and diurnal variation. Generally, the larch forest ecosystem released CO2 in nighttime and assimilated CO2 in daytime during the growing season from May to October. The ecosystem started to become a net carbon sink in May, reaching a maximum carbon uptake as high as 186 g C m-2 month-1 in June. With the yellowing, senescing and leaf fall, the ecosystem turned into a carbon source in November. During the non-growing season, the larch forest ecosystem became a net source of CO2, releasing an average of 16.7 g C m-2 month-1. Overall, the ecosystem sequestered 141¿240 g C m-2 yr-1 in 2001. The NEE was significantly influenced by environmental factors. Respiration of the ecosystem, for example, was exponentially dependent on air temperature, while photosynthesis was related to the incident PAR in a manner consistent with the Michaelis¿Menten model. Although the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was scarcely higher than 15 hPa, the CO2 uptake rate was also depressed when VPD surpassed 10 hPa.
An integrated decision support framework for the prediction and evaluation of efficiency, environmental impact and total social cost of domestic and international forestry projects for greenhouse gas mitigation: description and case studies
Forest Ecology and Management - Available online 26 November 2004.
Garcia-Quijano, J.F. - Deckmyn, G. - Moons, E. - Proost, S. - Ceulemans, R. - Muys, B. (2004)
Abstract: Land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) offer domestic and international opportunities to accomplish the targets set by the Kyoto Protocol. Design and selection of successful forestry projects are complex decision processes based on information of the carbon dioxide mitigation potential, the environmental impacts and the cost efficiency of selected scenarios. In this paper, a decision support framework to evaluate forestry scenarios for greenhouse gas emission reduction is presented and tested on five scenarios (existing and new multifunctional forest in Flanders, Belgium, bioenergy crop with short rotation poplar and with elephant grass in Flanders, Belgium, plantation forestry in the subtropics, and, conservation of tropical rainforest). The framework is organized as a serial connection of a carbon accounting module, an environmental impact module and an economic module. Modules include a combination of models and quantitative assessment procedures. In order to make scenarios comparable, the environmental and economic modules calculate their outputs on a functional unit basis of 1 t CO2 emission reduction. The framework is universally applicable and straightforward, transparent and quantitative. The level of data requirement is medium, but the application is fairly complex due to the interdisciplinary character of the tool. Further developments would require automated data flows between models and a user interface. Results of the test application showed that the only attractive domestic option is the establishment of new multifunctional forests. This scenario even yields a net benefit because it replaces the generally loss-making agriculture and, in addition, it provides other environmental and recreational benefits. The establishment of bioenergy plantations is a very efficient way of reducing CO2 emissions as far as land occupation and environmental impacts per functional unit are concerned. However, it also turns out to be a very expensive option. Plantation forestry in the tropics is advantageous when evaluated over longer periods of time. Conservation of tropical forest is not eligible as a clean development mechanism (CDM) project, although it would be economically attractive for Flanders since the cost per tonne CO2 emission reduction is close to the expected world market price. This option is thus promising for the voluntary market and for future commitment periods of the Kyoto Protocol.
Carbon annuities and their potential to preserve tropical forests and slow global warming: an application for small-scale farmers
Caviglia-Harris, J.L. - Kahn, J.R. (2003)
International Journal of Sustainable Development 2003 6 (3): 328
Abstract: Carbon annuities have been suggested as a means for rewarding landowners for preserving forests and sequestering carbon. This paper represents an initial attempt at analyzing how large carbon annuities must be to induce a landowner in the Amazonian rainforest to accept the annuity and leave the forest intact. The benefits of carbon sequestration are computed based on estimates in the literature on the carbon contained in a hectare of rainforest and the damages associated with a ton of carbon emissions. This is compared with information on household income from Rondonia, Brazil. Results show that, for the majority of conservative assumptions, the magnitude of an annuity is greater than the income from agriculture. For less conservative assumptions about the damages from global warming, a fraction of the annuity would be a sufficient incentive for small-scale farmers to switch to sustainable techniques that leave the forest intact.
Carbon sequestration or abatement? The effect of rising carbon prices on the optimal portfolio of greenhouse-gas mitigation strategies
van ¿t Veld, K. - Plantinga, A. (2004)
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management - Available online 8 December 2004.
Abstract: Existing projections of the optimal share of carbon sequestration in an overall portfolio of greenhouse-gas mitigation strategies almost all assume the carbon price to be constant over time. This paper shows analytically that if the price instead increases over time¿consistent with projections from integrated assessment models¿it becomes optimal to delay certain sequestration projects, whereas the optimal timing of energy-based abatement projects remains unchanged. As a result, the optimal share of sequestration falls, and significantly so. Calibrating our analytical model, we find that a modest, 3% rate of price increase results in about a 60% reduction in the optimal sequestration share relative to constant-price projections. Numerical simulations based on predicted carbon-price paths from Nordhaus¿ RICE01 model indicate quantitatively similar reductions under an economically efficient scenario, and much larger reductions (80¿100% for up to 80 years) under a scenario that aims to limit the atmospheric CO2 concentration to double its pre-industrial level.
A review of carbon sequestration dynamics in the Himalayan region as a function of land-use change and forest/soil degradation with special reference to Nepal
Upadhyay, T.P. - Sankhayan, P.L. ¿ Solberg, B. (2004)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment - Available online 8 December 2004.
Abstract: Land-use changes and degradation of forests and soils in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region have important implications for CO2 emissions and global climatic change that calls for an interdisciplinary research to analyse the complexity of the problem. This paper represents an effort in this direction by reviewing the literature on land-use changes, forest/soil degradation and their effects on C sequestration in this region. The main objective of this study was to document knowledge on C sequestration as affected by land-use changes and forest/soil degradation. We found a very few attempts at studying the subject in its entirety, and a lack of reliable data on essential ecological parameters related to the dynamics of C sequestration in the region. Estimates of land-use changes, loss of soil due to erosion and soil organic carbon contents by dominant land-use categories have been documented from the available studies in the region. Some evidence exists to show that the land-use changes and forest/soil degradation affect C pools significantly. The net emissions of C due to land-use changes in Nepal were reported to be 6.9 × 106 to 42.1 × 106 Mg year-1 by earlier studies. In contrast to these findings, our own estimate for the year 1994 was 1.47 × 106 Mg year-1, representing C emissions from fuelwood consumption and loss of soil due to erosion less C fixation due to annual vegetation growth. Finally, an analytical framework is presented for investigating the dynamics of C sequestration. On the basis of review of past studies, there appeared to be a high potential for enhancing the C sequestration in the vegetation and soils of the Himalayan region through improved management of degraded lands. It is suggested that the complexity of dynamics of C sequestration caused by diverse bio-physical and socio-economic factors in the region needs ideally be analysed by following systems approach in the future research endeavours.
Jönsson, A.M. - Linderson, M.J. - Stjernquist, I. - Schlyter, P. - Bärring, L. (2004)
Global and Planetary Change 44 (1-4): 195-207
Abstract: In boreal and nemoboreal forests, tree frost hardiness is modified in reaction to cues from day length and temperature. The dehardening processes in Norway spruce, Picea abies, could be estimated to start when the daily mean temperature is above 5 °C for 5 days. Bud burst will occur approximately after 120¿170 degree-days above 5 °C, dependent on genetic differences among provenances. A reduced cold hardiness level during autumn and spring and an advanced onset of bud burst are expected impacts of projected future global warming. The aim of this study was to test if this will increase the risk for frost damage caused by temperature backlashes. This was tested for Sweden by comparing output from the Hadley Centre regional climate model, HadRM3H, for the period 1961¿1990 with future IPCC scenario SRES A2 and B2 for 2070¿2099. Different indices for calculating the susceptibility to frost damage were used to assess changes in frost damage risk. The indices were based on: (1) the start of dehardening; (2) the severity of the temperature backlash; (3) the timing of bud burst; and (4) the cold hardiness level. The start of dehardening and bud burst were calculated to occur earlier all over the country, which is in line with the overall warming in both climate change scenarios. The frequency of temperature backlashes that may cause frost damage was calculated to increase in the southern part, an effect that became gradually less pronounced towards the north. The different timing of the onset of dehardening mainly caused this systematic latitudinal pattern. In the south, it occurs early in the year when the seasonal temperature progression is slow and large temperature variations occur. In the north, dehardening will occur closer to the spring equinox when the temperature progression is faster.
Variation in soil carbon in pine plantations and implications for monitoring soil carbon stocks in relation to land-use change and forest site management in New Zealand
Oliver, G.R. - Beets, P.N. - Garrett, L.G. - Pearce, S.H. - Kimberly, M.O. - Ford-Robertson, J.B. ¿ Robertson, K.A. (2004)
Abstract: Various methods were assessed to determine the impact of forest harvesting on mineral soil carbon (C) in Pinus radiata stands at Puruki catchment in the central North Island of New Zealand. Previous work at this site reported a reduction in soil carbon of 3.6 Mg ha-1 in the top 0.1 m over one 23-year rotation of pine on improved pasture [Beets, P.N., Oliver, G.R., Clinton, P.W., 2002. Soil carbon protection in podocarp/hardwood forest, and the effects of conversion to pasture and exotic pine forest. J. Environ. Pollut. 116, S63¿S73]. In this study, by sampling before and after harvesting, a further reduction of 3.1 Mg ha-1 (significant at P = 0.05) in mineral soil carbon stocks to 0.1 m depth was found to be associated with harvesting disturbance. However, less intensive sampling was unable to detect any significant harvesting effects in depths down to 2 m. Variation between plots was large, and it was estimated that to detect a 10% change in carbon content with 95% confidence 19 permanent plots would be required for 0¿0.1 m depth and 40 permanent plots required to detect changes to 1 m depth. Soil C content to 1 m depth in Puruki Rua subcatchment was estimated to average between 143 and 164 Mg ha-1. In two paired-site studies comparing pasture with second rotation pine, the difference between land-uses in mineral soil C content to 0.1 m depth was 19.6 Mg ha-1 in volcanic soil at Kaingaroa and 8.5 Mg ha-1 in high clay activity soil at Ngaumu. Significant differences in mineral soil C between pine and pasture were found with cumulative depth down to 2 m, well below the rooting depth of pasture, which suggests that historic factors overshadowed influences of the current land-use and can account for the difference in soil carbon. At Kaingaroa, variability in soil carbon content was high at all depths measured, and to detect a 10% difference in soil carbon content with 95% confidence approximately 60 pits measured to 1 m depth would be required.
Thürig, E. - Kaufmann, E. - Frisullo, R. - Bugmann, H. (2005)
Forest Ecology and Management 204 (1): 53-68
Abstract: Forests have an important role in the global carbon cycle as carbon pools, sinks and sources, and their quantification has become a relevant task. Empirical models based on national forest inventories are widely used for the assessment of carbon sequestration. However, these models do not treat explicitly all the processes occurring in the ecosystem, as they are mainly based on statistical relations to estimate forest development. Therefore, there is a need for validation of these models to increase confidence in the predictions of future forest development. This study evaluates an empirical single-tree model that was developed in Switzerland (MASSIMO). The accuracy and precision of the growth function of the model is evaluated with data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) of Liechtenstein. MASSIMO was found to predict the basal area per hectare of the Liechtenstein data very precisely (underestimation of 0.65%). The main differences between observed and predicted diameter increment occur mostly for larger DBH classes, where the increment is underestimated by the model. However, these differences may be related to the precision of the input variables. For example, the explanatory variable stand age is determined with relatively low precision; therefore it shows a high variability. For future model development, either the variable stand age should be estimated more reliably, or stand age should not be an explanatory variable of the growth function.
Andalo, C. ¿ Beaulieu, J. ¿ Bousquet, J. (2005)
Forest Ecology and Management 205 (1-3): 169-182
Abstract: In the near future, forest tree species growing in eastern Canada are expected to be affected by climate change due to an increase of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, models were developed to estimate the impact of climate change on growth in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). Data were collected in a genecological test, replicated in three locations, and involving 45 distinct geographical seed sources, most of them represented by five open-pollinated families. Transfer models predicting the performance of seed sources were developed, based on temperature and precipitation differentials between the geographical origin of seed sources and the experimental site locations. These models were validated using data collected in a second genecological test series. We found that white spruce populations located within the sampled area were optimally adapted to their local environment for thermal conditions but not for moisture conditions; populations that originated from sites receiving more precipitation generally showed higher tree growth than the local sources. We predict that the adaptive lag currently related to precipitation will increase under global warming conditions. Simulations of growth under various scenarios of climate change indicated that it would be diminished tangibly under more intense warming. However, for a given temperature increase, the relative loss in growth will be less if precipitation is reduced than if it increases. Consequently, predictions based solely on temperature change appear inaccurate, and more effort should be directed toward better anticipating the magnitude and the direction of changes in precipitation patterns at the regional scale. The necessity of human intervention to assist tree migration under climate change is examined.
Abril, A. ¿ Barttfeld, P. - Bucher, E.H. (2004)
Forest Ecology and Management - Available online 25 December 2004.
Abstract: It is usually assumed that much of CO2 released into the atmosphere results from soil degradation in tropical and subtropical land, particularly from deforestation and conversion of forest into cropland and cultivated pastures. Accordingly, a considerable research effort has been devoted to the understanding of soil carbon balance in these ecosystems. By contrast, little attention has been given to disruption of carbon soil balance in arid regions, which is mostly produced by overgrazing and occasionally fire. We compared soil carbon balance (CO2 production in relation to soil and litter organic carbon) in areas under varying degrees of disturbance by overgrazing and fire in the Dry Chaco woodland. Litter and soil were sampled in both dry and wet seasons. Soil carbon under undisturbed conditions was relatively constant throughout the year (range 23¿24 g kg-1), whereas at sites both burned and grazed carbon values fluctuated markedly (range 31¿21 g kg-1). In non-grazed, burned areas soil carbon content increased (16%), whereas at burned and overgrazed sites it decreased (38%). Our results suggest that overgrazing has a more significant, adverse effect on soil carbon balance than fire when both factors act separately. Burned but ungrazed areas appear to show a tendency to recover the initial carbon balance, whereas in chronically overgrazed sites there is a permanent tendency to carbon loss.
(English title: Variability of Organic Carbon in Hillside Soils of the Southeast of Mexico)
Vergara-Sánchez, M. A. - Etchevers-Barra, J.D. - Vargas ¿Hernández, M. (2004)
Terra Latinoamericana 22 (3): 359-367.
RESUMEN: Uno de los servicios ambientales que proporciona el suelo es el secuestro de carbono. La capacidad para llevarlo a cabo varía de acuerdo con el tipo de suelo y sus características, historial de manejo y factores ambientales. El efecto del manejo en la distribución de carbono en los suelos de ladera es poco conocido. El propósito de este estudio fue cuantificar el C orgánico en suelos de laderas (0 a 20 y 20 a 40 cm) en tres regiones de la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca, México (Mazateca, Cuicateca y Mixe, representadas por microcuencas experimentales), así como su variabilidad y las diferencias entre sistemas de uso del suelo (bosques secundarios, cultivos agrícolas permanentes, anuales y mixtos). El porcentaje medio de C orgánico del suelo de las microcuencas, el carbono de las profundidades y el carbono de los sistemas estudiados dentro de cada microcuenca presentaron diferencias que fueron significativas, mismas que se atribuyeron al uso del suelo actual, al historial y a las condiciones climáticas de cada región. Estos resultados sugieren que las estimaciones del potencial de secuestro de C del suelo, en estas regiones y sistemas de uso de la tierra, deberían tomar en consideración los factores anteriores para que el cálculo resulte lo más cercano a la realidad de cada una de ellas.
6 - 17 December 2004, Buenos Aires, Argentina
During the sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 21) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 21) which were held in conjunction with COP 10 (6 ¿ 14 December) most of the unsettled forestry matters were clarified.
On simplified modalities and procedures for small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM: The COP adopted a decision on simplified modalities and procedures for small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities (SSAR) under the Clean Development Mechanism for the first commitment period. SSAR enable participation of low-income communities and individuals in Non Annex I countries in the CDM by means of simplified modalities and explicit facilitation to lower transaction costs. On average, SSAR projects will sequester less than 8 Kt of CO2 annually during the first verification period. Fixed CO2 exceeding this limit will not receive tCERs/lCERs. SSAR are exempt from the adaptation levy; bundling of projects will be possible as long as the combined project does not exceed 8 Kt/year. Default simplified baseline methodologies shall be developed by the CDM Executive board.
Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol: The 2003 GPG-LULUCF guides parties in preparing GHG inventories. COP 9 had adopted only parts of the GPG-LULUCF which address reporting under the Convention; decisions on reporting under the Kyoto Protocol have now been adopted. In accordance with this, Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol may submit estimates of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from activities under articles 3.3 (afforestation, reforestation and deforestation) and 3.4 (forest management) using the tables for the common reporting format, found in the annex to the decision. Parties agreed that the GPG should be used in consistent with the Marrakesh Accords; the identification of land areas subject to LULUCF activities in accordance with articles 3.3 and 3.4.proved particularly controversial.
Harvested wood products (HWP): During COP 10, Parties could not agree on how to estimate, measure and report on HWP. However, SBSTA 21 recognised the work of the IPCC on methods related to HWP and invited parties to report on progress made regarding these issues. It is intended to consider the impacts of country-level data on production, use, and disposal of HWP at SBSTA 23. Parties should submit data and information to the Secretariat on stock changes and CO2 emissions from HWP as well as experiences with the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and 2003 GPG by 1 August 2005.
Other land use, land-use change and forestry issues
Factoring out of past practices and indirect effects leading to changes in carbon stocks: Factoring out refers to removing effects of elevated atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, nitrogen deposition and an age structure that results from historic forest management from total carbon sequestration. With a view towards an application in future commitment periods, the IPCC was invited to elaborate practical methodologies on this matter, but indicated that the current understanding of the topic did not allow the elaboration of respective methodologies. At SBSTA 21 it was agreed to continue reflecting on these matters at a future session, assuming that a decision is not needed at this time.
Direct human-induced degradation and devegetation: There are concerns that accounting for the elective activities forest management, cropland management, grazing land management and revegetation could result in selective, unbalanced accounting by omitting areas of degradation and devegetation. No conclusion was reached on whether activities should be included in future commitment period.
On all outcomes of COP 10: http://unfccc.int/meetings/cop_10/items/2944.php
Two proposed new afforestation and reforestation baseline and monitoring methodologies have been submitted to the CDM Executive Board and have been receiving comments (call for public input 01/12/2004 ¿ 21/12/2004):
ARNM0001: The Mountain Pine Ridge Reforestation Project (Belize)
ARNM0002: Reforestation Project Using Native Species around AES-Tiete Reservoirs (Brasil)
To read the project design document, the documents on baseline and monitoring methodologies as well as the relevant comments by reviewers turn to:
Note to project proponents wishing to submit land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) project proposals: The World Bank as Trustee of the BioCarbon Fund has received 130 PINs (i.e. project idea notes) and we will no longer be reviewing new PINs effective immediately (12/14/2004). Any change will be announced on the website.
(Press release by the BioCarbon Fund)
Brazil Rain Forest Burning A Major Greenhouse Gas Cause
The burning and deforestation of Brazil¿s vast Amazon rain forest causes nearly 3% of the world¿s greenhouse gas emissions, according to a report released by the Brazilian government yesterday.
Actions to prevent illegal deforestation should be one of the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. This evaluation was made by Brazil's Minister of Environment, Marina Silva, who participated in the 10th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change.
(from Brazzil Magazine)
In 2003, carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels climbed to a record high of 6.8 billion tons, up nearly 4 percent from the previous year. Global emissions of carbon have been rising steadily since the late eighteenth century¿and rapidly since the 1950s. In fact, annual emissions have quadrupled since 1950.
(from Earth Policy Institute)
Dear CO2FIX users and other interested colleagues,
Version 3 of the CO2FIX model has been released for use by the international community. As with the previous versions, the model, together with examples of case studies, can be downloaded free of charge from the site http://www.efi.fi/projects/casfor
Compared to V2 (which was downloaded by over 2000 people worldwide), the new version has a carbon accounting and a financial module, an improved soil submodel, and a completely new bioenergy module.
A 5x1 Day Professional Training Programme
Venue: Imperial College London, UK
Date: 11 ¿ 15 April 2005
Who should attend? This programme will be of great interest to all those in organisations who have a responsibility for understanding issues associated with climate change and its business impact. The course will provide an opportunity for participants to obtain an in-depth understanding of the various aspects of climate change directly from leading international experts in their areas. A modular structure has been adopted to enable senior executives to attend the single days of the most direct interest to their organisations.
Climate Science, 11 April ¿05, Will provide a primer on the basic science of climate change, suitable for non-specialists, as an introduction to the subsequent modules of the course and also an introduction and explanation of the work of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC).
Impacts and Adaptation, 12 April ¿05. Will examine the concepts of vulnerability and impact so climate change and possible adaptation strategies.
Mitigation Technologies and Policies, 13 April ¿05. Will examine the current and emerging options for mitigation emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, with a focus on the energy sector technologies.
Carbon Trading, Integrated Assessment and Future International Architecture, 14 April ¿05. Will discuss economic instruments and present policy initiatives including the operation the European Emission Trading System and the development of emission trading proposals elsewhere. Will also address integrated assessment of climate change and the way this may influence future policy directions.
GHG Mitigation in Agriculture and Forestry, 15 April ¿05. Will cover key features of the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales, forestry and agricultural contributions to anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emission, options for mitigating net GHG emissions through forestry and agricultural activities and how these activities are included in the Kyoto Protocol.
For further information please visit: http://www.imperial.ac.uk/cpd/climate
Bogor, Indonesia 16 - 17 February 2005
With support from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), CIFOR will host a workshop to look at the lessons learned from implementing carbon sequestration projects that have strong livelihood components, at its headquarters in Bogor on 16-17 February 2005. Carbon sequestration projects based on land-use, land-use change and forestry activities could have significant benefits for sustainable development and minimizing the negative impacts of climate change. It is vital that practitioners, project developers and policy makers involved in these projects share their invaluable experiences. Such sharing of lessons learned will go a long way towards better understanding the links between increasing carbon sinks and sustainable livelihoods in community-based natural resource management.
- To bring together practitioners/project developers, policy makers, and academia to share knowledge, lessons-learned, and best practices that have arisen during the implementation of projects focused on carbon sequestration and sustainable livelihoods.
- To provide up-to-date information on the requirements of both mandatory and voluntary carbon markets, and guidance on what project partners would need to do on order to benefit from these markets. This is particularly important to anticipate future directions of payment mechanisms where carbon credits would play an important role in initiating these mechanisms.
- The workshop could be broadened to include information on how the provision of ecosystem services (including watershed and biodiversity protection) is financially compensated by interested stakeholders. Links could also be made to the development of adaptation strategies and measures, especially for ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change.
Who should attend? Considering the wide range of constituents in the Asia and Pacific region, the workshop will be attended by 50 participants representing government officials, researchers / academia, financers/brokers, nongovernment organizations, and practitioners/project developers.
When and where? The two-day workshop will be held on 16-17 February 2005 at CIFOR Headquarter in Bogor, Indonesia.
For further information, please contact:
Dr Daniel Murdiyarso
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
Jl. CIFOR, Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
Phone: +62 251 622 622
Fax: +62 251 622 100
Leemans, R. - van Vliet, A.
WWF ¿ Wageningen University (2004)
The impacts of climate change on wildlife and nature are already worse than scientists had previously feared, a new report commissioned by WWF has found. The report ¿Extreme Weather, does nature keep up?¿ says that nature is struggling against the impacts of extreme weather and that many species and ecosystems will die out, as their natural responses to global warming will be inadequate.
The report goes one step further than previous nature impact studies by analyzing the impact of increased extreme weather events on nature. The combination of an increase in temperature and increased variability of severe weather events place species and ecosystems at an even greater risk than feared. Since 1900 the world's average temperature has risen by 0.7 of a degree Celsius. The report reveals that the responses of the natural world to this increase have been more dramatic and widespread than predicted. It shows that the effect of climate change is now visible in every part of the world and in every ecosystem: plants are flowering earlier than they have for the last two hundred years, increased droughts have led to more forest fires and glaciers are retreating. Some species such as amphibians have dramatically declined whilst others like the Mountain pine beetle in North America have increased, causing widespread damage. The disappearance of sea ice in Antarctica has led to a decline in numbers of Adelie penguins and the earlier break up of sea ice has meant polar bears have not been able to build up adequate fat stores for the winter fast.
It is the scientific judgment of the authors that global average temperatures should not exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and that the rate of change should be limited to 0.05 degree Celsius per decade in order to avoid the most devastating impacts of climate change. This reconfirms the European Union's and WWF's position that temperature rises must be kept well below 2 degrees Celsius and that deep cuts in CO2 emissions need to be made around the world to achieve this.
The full report can be downloaded from site: http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/climate_change/news/news.cfm?uNewsID=17191
Boyd, E. - Corbera, E. - Gutiérrez, M. - Estrada, M. (2004)
Tyndall Centre, Tyndall Briefing Note No. 12
Abstract: Controversy has always characterised the negotiations for land use, land use change and forestry activities under the Clean Development Mechanism to the Kyoto Protocol. This paper reviews the policy debates on the theme and outlines the relevant decisions resulting from the negotiations at the ninth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP-9) and subsequent twentieth meeting of the Subsidiary Bodies. In these sessions, most of the modalities and procedures for these activities have been already come to a close. The paper also provides a preliminary reflection on some of the implications of the agreed COP-9 Decision for sustainable development.
Download the paper at: http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/publications/briefing_notes/note12.pdf
Kerr, S. ¿Pfaff, A.S.P. - Lipper, L. - Cavatassi, R. - Davis, B. - Hendy, J. ¿ Sanchez, A. (2004)
FAO Agricultural and Development Economics Division - ESA Working Paper No. 04-20
Abstract: We review claims about the potential for carbon markets that link both payments for carbon services and poverty levels to ongoing rates of tropical deforestation. We then examine these effects empirically for Costa Rica during the 20th century using an econometric approach that addresses the irreversibilities in deforestation. We find significant effects of the relative returns to forest on deforestation rates. Thus, carbon payments would induce conservation and also carbon sequestration, and if land users were poor could conserve forest while addressing rural poverty. However, we find poorer areas are less responsive to returns. This and transaction costs could lead carbon payments policies not to be focused upon the poor. Other practical considerations may also dampen an understandable enthusiasm for service-based payments addressing both environment and inequality. Nonetheless, as the poor live in areas with more forest, they may benefit most from payments.
Download the paper at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/ae402e/ae402e00.pdf
Domain of study: Forest Productivity - Forest Management - Forest Ecophysiology - Climate Change - Modelling
Description of research: Climate warming is believed to directly affect the growth of trees and, hence, the productivity of the boreal forest in Quebec. The research project will determine the influence of these changes on the estimates of annual allowable cut in Abitibiti-Temiscamingue. Dendroclimatic analysis meant to identify the major climatic factors that influence radial growth of 6 forest species at different latitudes will be used to feed a model sequence in order to calibrate climate-sensitive growth and yield tables:
1. Ph.D. in biology (Montreal - UQAM): Forest productivity
Objectives: Parameterize a climate-sensitive carbon-balance model from tree rings.
2. Ph.D. in forest sciences (Quebec - Laval): Forest management
Objectives: Estimate the annual allowable cut in a territory in function of expected climate scenarios.
Interested candidates can reach:
Frederic Raulier : firstname.lastname@example.org or (418) 656-2131 ext 6742
Frank Berninger: email@example.com or (514) 987-3000 ext 1644 Pierre
Bernier: firstname.lastname@example.org or (418) 648-4524
WRI is looking for an Associate to manage our program on vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, as part of our Climate, Energy and Pollution team, and based in Washington DC.
V&A policy development: The successful candidate will be a recognized expert in vulnerability and adaptation to climate change.
Research and Analysis: The Associate is expected to regularly produce original, high quality research and analysis on relevant climate change policy issues.
Project Planning and Management: The successful candidate, with the support of the CEP team, will be responsible for defining and managing a work program for WRI¿s activities in promoting sound V&A activities.
Outreach and Communications: The Associate will be expected to give presentations at conferences, workshops and other events related to climate policy and V&A, both domestically and internationally.
Funding: Over time, the Associate will be expected to build and maintain relationships with donors and prospective donors. Responsibilities will include drafting fundraising proposals for private foundations, US government agencies, and bilateral donors, as well as grant management and reporting to funders.
¿ Masters or Ph.D. in economics, international relations, international development, physical sciences, forestry, agriculture or a related field, as well as five to eight years of relevant professional experience.
Candidates please send cover letter and curriculum vitae/resume to:
World Resources Institute Attn: J. Hommel 10 G Street, NE, Suite 800 Washington, DC 20002 fax: 202/729-7798 email: email@example.com . Please, no phone calls.
Halting Tropical Deforestion through Community Forest Management with Carbon Eco-Service Payments as the Incentive
¿Kyoto: Think Global, Act Local¿ is a research and capacity building programme, which is investigating the possibilities and potential for Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) of existing natural forest to be included as an eligible activity under CDM (the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol) in the future. It is also exploring the value of CBFM as a climate adaptation strategy.
The programme involves research teams in three regions: East Africa, West Africa and the Himalayas, which coordinate the work of a number of local NGOs and conduct experiments in villages who are already engaged in CBFM. It is concerned to show that carbon can be cheaply and effective sequestered by CBFM and to demonstrate the various advantages of this. In addition, the programme aims to support developing countries by strengthening capacity to submit such projects for finance under various climate funds.
The website displays information, news, and downloadable articles of the research project and can be reached at: http://www.communitycarbonforestry.org/
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