CLIM


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change
2) Forest and Climate Change News
3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events
4) New Publications
5) Climate Change jobs
6) Websites of interest
QUICK TIPS AND INFORMATION FOR CLIM-FO-L


CLIM-FO-L No. 11/2004

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1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

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Assessment and measurement issues related to soil carbon sequestration in land-use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) projects under the Kyoto protocol

Garcia-Oliva, F. - Omar R Masera, O.R. (2004)

Climatic Change 65 (3): 347

Abstract: Mitigating the potential large negative impacts of a change in the earth's climate will require strong and definite actions in the different economic sectors, particularly within agriculture and forestry. Specifically, soils deserve a close examination due to their large carbon mitigation potential. The Kyoto protocol establishes the possibility for crediting greenhouse gas emission reductions from forestry and agriculture activities. In most circumstances, particularly those regarding developing countries, greenhouse gas mitigation activities will be carried out through projects. These projects will have to meet a series of criteria, for the carbon benefits to be measurable, transparent, verifiable and certified. These criteria include: establishing credible baselines (without-project or reference scenario), additionality, permanence, quantifying and reducing potential leakage of greenhouse gases across project borders, coping with natural or human induced risks, accurately measuring changes in carbon stocks using carbon accounting techniques, and--in the case of the Clean Development Mechanism--resulting in sustainable development benefits. In this paper we describe the methods and approaches that have been developed to cope with the different criteria and discuss their implications for carbon sequestration in soils. Soil carbon represents the largest carbon pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and has been estimated to have one of the largest potentials to sequester carbon worldwide. However, getting credits from soil carbon sequestration through project activities presents several challenges: the need to monitor small incremental changes in soil carbon content relative to large carbon pools, long-time periods to accrue the full carbon benefits, high local variability of soil carbon content, and relatively costly soil carbon measurement procedures. Also, the responses of soil C stocks to forestry and agriculture activities are complex and need careful attention. Specifically, the time dynamics of soil C responses to land use changes, the diversity of soil types, soil-plant interactions, and the availability of accurate soil C inventories, should be considered to successfully implement LULUCF projects

Diverging incentives for afforestation from carbon sequestration: an economic analysis of the EU afforestation program in the south of Italy

Tassone, V.C. - Wesseler, J. - Nesci, F.S. (2004)

Forest Policy and Economics 6 (6): 567-578

Abstract:This study analyses the change in faustmannian age considering the social benefits due to carbon sequestration under the Regulation 2080/92, the subsidies provided by the afforestation program and investigates, from the social point of view, the profitability of afforesting agricultural land. The analysis refers to Calabria, a region situated in the south of Italy. Representative species are chosen for this study. The optimal harvesting age excluding social benefits varies between 32 and 40 years according to the species considered. When including social benefits, optimal harvesting age increases for a carbon price of 20 ¿/t to 34¿44 years and is close to the one excluding them. The inclusion of subsidies to encourage afforestation shortens the optimal harvesting age to 17¿20 years from the forest owner's point of view. Interestingly the provision of subsidies contributes to a substantial increase in social loss due to the differences in optimal harvesting ages: starting from zero C price the loss vary between 65 and 165 ¿/ha according to the species used and increases with rising carbon prices up to 200¿400 ¿/ha for carbon price of 100 ¿/t. Furthermore, results suggest that from the social point of view the profitability of afforesting agricultural land in the study region very much depends on the price of carbon, on the type of agricultural land afforested and on the species used.

National Forest Programmes: Integrating the Kyoto Protocol and its Clean Development Mechanism into the Forestry Sector

Schoene, D. ¿ Wencelius, F. (2004)

ETFRN News(41-42): 21-23

Abstract:In order to fully integrate climate change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol into the forestry sector and create consistency and synergies with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), countries might avail themselves of the possibilities inherent in National Forest Programmes (NFPs). In this framework, countries may then also initiate stakeholder dialogue on the risks and opportunities of serving as a host nation to afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM, assess potentials, and forge national guidelines and capacities for such projects based on national consensus.

How to Estimate Forest Carbon for Large Areas from Inventory Data

Smith, J.E. - Heath, L.S. Woodbury, P.B. (2004)

Journal of Forestry 102 (5): 25-27

Abstract:Carbon sequestration through forest growth provides a low-cost approach for meeting state and national goals to reduce net accumulations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Total forest ecosystem carbon stocks include "pools" in live trees, standing dead trees, understory vegetation, down dead wood, forest floor, and soil. Determining the level of carbon stocks in forest ecosystems has become a concern of governments, businesses, and many organizations. This article provides examples of inventory-based calculations and identifies resources that are available for analysts and planners to develop large-scale carbon estimates consistent with totals for US forests. Estimates can be based on current regional averages classified according to region, forest type, ownership, or stand size class; on stand-level inventory data, measured or calculated; or on locally specific information, such as individual tree sizes or other data acquired from sampling a specific forest.

Tree growth prediction and carbon accounting

T.H. Booth (2004)

Proceedings of the 2003 Int. Conference on Tropical Forests and Climate Change, Carbon Sequestration and the CDM, 21-23 Oct 2003, Manila, Philippines.

Abstract: Three important questions when establishing a tree plantation for carbon sequestration are: which species to grow, how well will they grow and how much carbon will they sequester? A number of computer-based systems have been developed to help answer these questions. This paper provides a brief introduction to these tools and indicates some of the ways in which they complement each other. For example, the CAB International Forestry Compendium CD-ROM includes a species selection module, which can identify species suitable for a wide range of uses and environments around the world.  Climatic mapping programs developed by CSIRO can accept information from the Compendium and map suitable areas for particular species at global or countrywide scales. Interpolated climatic data used to create the climatic mapping programs, allow simple tree growth models such as 3-PG, to be run for any site or for grids of hundreds or thousands of locations across a particular region. The 3-PG model can be used within a project-level Carbon Accounting Toolbox to provide information of the type likely to be required by the Clean Development Mechanism.  

Using bioclimatic analysis to assist tropical reforestation for biodiversity and carbon sequestration benefits

T.H. Booth (2004)

Proceedings of the international symposium on the Kyoto Mechanism and the Conservation of Tropical Forest Ecosystems, 29-30 January 2004, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract:The Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol may provide some financial support for reforestation of tropical forest areas. This paper outlines bioclimatic analysis methods that can assist in identifying suitable species and areas for reforestation. Bioclimatic analysis methods can assist not only in identifying the potential distributions of tree species, but also the distributions of other plant and animal species important for biodiversity conservation.    

Developing general allometric relationships for regional estimates of carbon sequestration¿an example usingEucalyptus pilularisfrom seven contrasting sites

Montagu, K.D. - Düttmer, K. - Barton, C.V.M. - Cowie, A.L. (2004)


Forest Ecology and Management Available online 17 November 2004.

Abstract:
General non-site-specific allometric relationships are required for the conversion of forest inventory measurements to regional scale estimates of forest carbon sequestration. To determine the most appropriate predictor variables to produce a general allometric relationship, we examinedEucalyptus pilularisaboveground biomass data from seven contrasting sites. Predictor variables included diameter at breast height (dbh), stem volume, dbh2 × H, dbh × H and height (H). The data set contained 105 trees, ranging from 6 to over 20,000 kg tree-1, with dbh ranging from 5 to 129 cm. We observed significant site differences in (1) partitioning of biomass between the stem, branch wood and foliage; (2) stem wood density and (3) relationship between dbh and height. For all predictor variables, site had a significant effect on the allometric relationships. Examination of the model residuals of the site-specific and general relationship indicated that using dbh alone as the predictor variable produced the most stable general relationship. Furthermore, the apparent site effect could be removed by the addition of a constant value to the measured diameter (dbh + 1), to account for the differing diameter distribution across the seven sites. Surprisingly, the inclusion of height as a second predictor variable decreased the performance of the general model. We have therefore demonstrated that forE. pilularisa general allometric relationship using dbh alone as the predictor variable can be as accurate as site-specific allometry, whilst being applicable to a wide range of environments, management regimes and ages. This simplifies regional estimates of aboveground biomass from inventory measurements, eliminating the need for site-specific allometric relationships or modifiers such as height, wood density or expansion factors.

Comparing net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide between an old-growth and mature forest in the upper Midwest, USA

Desai, A.R. - Bolstad, P.V. - Cook, B.D. - Davis, K.J. ¿ Carey, E.V. (2004)

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology  Available online 14 November 2004

Abstract: Old-growth forests are often assumed to exhibit no net carbon assimilation over time periods of several years. This generalization has not been typically supported by the few whole-ecosystem, stand-scale eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide exchange in old-growth forests. An eddy-flux tower installed in a >300-year-old hemlock¿hardwood forest near the Sylvania Wilderness, Ottawa National Forest, MI, USA, observed a small annual carbon sink of CO2of -72 ± 36 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and -147 ± 42 g C m-2 year-1in 2003. This carbon sink was much smaller than carbon sinks of -438 ± 49 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and -490 ± 48 g C m-2 year-1in 2003 observed by a nearby flux tower in a 70-year-old mature hardwood forest (Willow Creek, WI). The mature forest had vegetation similar to the old-growth site prior to European settlement. Both sites had slightly larger carbon sinks in 2003, which was a drier and cooler year than 2002. However, the difference in sink strength between the two years was smaller than the uncertainty in the results arising from missing and screened data. Both sites also had significant systematic errors due to non-representative fluxes during certain micrometeorological conditions, which required careful screening. The difference in sink strength between the two sites was driven mainly by greater ER at the old-growth site (965 ± 35 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and 883 ± 69 g C m-2 year-1in 2003) compared to the mature site (668 ± 21 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and 703 ± 17 g C m-2 year-1in 2003). GEP was lower at the old-growth site (1037 ± 47 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and 1030 ± 41 g C m-2 year-1in 2003) compared to the mature site (1106 ± 47 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and 1192 ± 51 g C m-2 year-1in 2003), especially in 2003. Observations also suggested that growing season ER had greater interannual variability at the old-growth site. These results imply that old-growth forests in the region may be carbon sinks, though these sinks are smaller than mature forests, mostly likely due to greater ER.

Allometric relationships for below- and aboveground biomass of young Scots pines

Xiao, C.W. - Ceulemans, R. (2003)

Forest Ecology and Management 2003 (1-3): 177-186

Abstract:For 10-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.) trees allometric relationships describing branch and needle biomass at the branch level, as well as biomass of stems, branches, needles, coarse roots, small roots and total biomass at the tree level, were developed and compared. Height profiles of branch and needle biomass as well as biomass allocation were also analyzed. At the branch level, the relationships of branch diameter, branch length and whorl position were the best to predict branch and needle biomass. They were able to explain 96% of the observed variation for branches and needles. Simple allometric relationships of whorl height accurately predicted vertical distribution of branch and needle biomass as well as of their total, and explained more than 96% of the observed variation. The vertical distributions of biomass of branches, of needles and of their total, were very similar and were skewed vertically downward. At the tree level stem diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height were significant determinants of biomass of stems, coarse roots and small roots. Similarly DBH, tree height and crown length were the predominant variables of biomass of branches and needles, and of the entire tree biomass. All together, allometric relationships with DBH were the best to estimate biomass of all above- and belowground compartments. These relationships were able to explain more than 98% of the observed variation. For 4.5¿5.6 m tall trees with an average DBH of 7.16 cm, the entire tree biomass was 13.38 kg. On average 33.9% of the biomass was allocated to the stem, 25% to the branches, 22% to the needles, 17.8% to the coarse roots and 1.3% to small roots. The ratio of belowground biomass to aboveground biomass amounted to 0.26.

Moisture and soil texture effects on soil CO2efflux components in southeastern mixed pine forests

Dilustro, J.J. - Collins, B. - Duncan, L. - Crawford, C. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management Available online 17 November 2004

Abstract:Monitoring soil CO2efflux rates and identifying controlling factors, such as forest composition or soil texture, can help guide forest management and will likely gain relevance as atmospheric CO2continues to increase. We examined soil CO2efflux and potential controlling factors in managed mixed pine forests in southwestern Georgia. Soil CO2efflux was monitored periodically in two stands that differed in soil texture in 2001 and 2002, and in six additional stands in 2003. We also monitored controlling factors: soil temperature, moisture, organic layer mass, and A layer depth. Soil moisture and CO2efflux varied with soil texture differences among the stands. As expected, soil temperature had a strong influence on soil CO2efflux. Soil moisture, organic layer mass, and A layer depth also were correlated with soil CO2efflux during periods of water stress, but these relationships differed with soil texture. Forest management activities can alter components of soil CO2efflux, including soil carbon pools, temperature, and moisture; understanding the underlying variation of these components and resultant CO2efflux over soil types can help guide management toward desired forest carbon balance trends in southeastern mixed pine forests.

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2) Forest and Climate Change News

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Forestry Issues at UNFCCC COP 10

The Tenth Session of the Conference of the Parties will be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 6 to 17 December 2004. The twenty-first sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 21) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 21) will be held in conjunction with COP 10 (6 ¿ 14 December). Forestry and Climate Change issues to be dealt with at SBSTA 21 and COP 10 and will include the following item:

Good Practice Guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry (GPG-LULUCF):The GPG-LULUCF provides guidance to the parties on the elaboration of their GHG inventories for the LULUCF sector. At COP 9, Parties only adopted those parts of the GPG-LULUCF that address reporting under the Convention, those parts that address reporting for the Kyoto Protocol have not yet been adopted. The adoption of chapter 4 ¿Supplementary methods and good practice guidance arising from the Kyoto Protocol¿ was deferred and will be discussed at COP 10. The methodologies described in Chapter 4 are particularly relevant regarding domestic activities, JI and CDM (Articles 3.3/3.4, 6 and 12 of the Kyoto Protocol).

Small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM (SSC-AR):A decision on simplified modalities and procedures for small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM, and measures to facilitate the implementation of these project activities will be considered. SSC-AR project activities have a maximum carbon abatement potential of 8000 t of CO2 per year, and are developed by low-income communities and individuals. There are open questions regarding the accounting (validation of carbon sequestration ex post or ex ante) and the bundling (aggregation of project activities), and de-bundling, which is defined as the fragmentation of a large project activity into smaller parts.

Harvested wood products (HWP):A workshop on HWP was commissioned by SBSTA 19 and subsequently organized by the Secretariat to be held 30/08/04 ¿ 01/09/04 in Lillehammer. Discussions focussed on the understanding of the information contained in the GPG-LULUCF, in a technical paper on the issue prepared by the Secretariat and on pertinent submissions by the parties. The workshop covered issues relating to definitions and scope of estimation, reporting and accounting of harvested wood products; methods for estimation and reporting of emissions and removals relating to harvested wood products; and approaches for accounting of harvested wood products and the socio-economic and environmental implications of different approaches. The workshop report will be discussed at COP 10.

Direct human-induced degradation and devegetation:There have been pronounced concerns that accounting for domestic activities of forest management, cropland management, grazing land management and revegetation (KP Article 3.4) should include certain types of degradation and devegetation in order to avoid misbalance when accounting carbon sequestration and CO2 release. The IPCC report ¿Definitions and Methodological Options to Inventory Emissions from Direct Human-Induced Degradation of Forests and Devegetation of Other Vegetation Types¿ was considered at SBSTA 20. Parties have submitted their views of the matter. Up to now, no conclusion has been reached on whether such activities should be included in the first commitment period.

Factoring out of past practices and indirect effects leading to changes in carbon stocks:In Buenos Aires, the participants will discuss the effects that elevated atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and increased nitrogen deposition might have on vegetation carbon sequestration rates, as well as the effects of dynamic age structure resulting from historic forest management practices. According to the Marrakech Accords the accounting for LULUCF activities has to exclude these effects. The IPCC was invited to elaborate practical methodologies on this matter, but indicated that the current understanding of the topic did not allow the elaboration of respective methodologies.

Common reporting format (CRF) for the Kyoto Protocol reporting:The Secretariat has elaborated new guidelines for the preparation of annual GHG inventories of Annex I countries according to a CRF in order to enhance comparability and consistency of the reporting. Regarding the LULUCF sector the CRF consists of a summary report and sectoral tables. This is the avenue for annual reporting of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from afforestation, reforestation, deforestation, forest management, cropland management, grazingland management and revegetation under Articles 3.3, 3.4 and 6 of the Kyoto Protocol.

The Agenda of COP 10 in the internet:http://unfccc.int/meetings/cop_10/items/2944.php

"Arctic thaw"

The Washington Post notes that the Arctic Council's report on climate change predicts polar sea ice to decline by 50% in the next 100 years, bringing flooding to low-lying areas worldwide and threatening many polar animal species with extinction. The editorial notes with some alarm that the U.S. government is declining to support language that links climate change to carbon emissions, and seeks a "practical, commonsensical and depoliticized approach to what will certainly be one of the most pressing environmental issues of the next half-century."

(from UN Wire)

http://www.smartbrief.com/alchemy/servlet/encodeServlet?issueid=DD6C518B-719A-4F49-8830-4A31AA1D1FB7&lmid=archives#18AE2F10-0983-4422-AA03-26E8B02006CB

China confronts climate change

Khalid Malik, the China representative of the United Nations Development Programme, presented the findings of a report that warned China faces new extremes of drought and flooding resulting from carbon emissions. Malik told a news conference that global warming "affects food security, education, child and maternal mortality and the basic biological systems on our planet and if action is not taken today we are seriously endangering our future livelihood."

(from UN Wire)

http://www.smartbrief.com/alchemy/servlet/encodeServlet?issueid=DD6C518B-719A-4F49-8830-4A31AA1D1FB7&lmid=archives#18AE2F10-0983-4422-AA03-26E8B02006CB

¿Campeona en el mercado de carbono?

América Latina ayudaría a reducir hasta 55 millones de toneladas de CO2, a través de la venta de créditos de carbono.  Pero la estrategia no convence a los críticos, quienes se preguntan si la región fomentará las energías más limpias y renovables o se limitará a la venta de créditos baratos de carbono al mejor postor del Norte industrializado.

(from Tierramérica)

http://www.tierramerica.net/2004/1120/articulo.shtml

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3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

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Conference announcement: Trees in a Changing Climate

A conference to bring home the implications of climate change to all those who plant trees

Venue:Austin Pearce Building, School of Management Studies, University of Surrey, Guildford

Date:14 ¿15 June 2005

Who should attend?This conference is for all those concerned with planting trees, both in planning and practice. Landscape and amenity planners, gardeners, foresters, conservationists, policy makers and all those with the responsibility for choosing trees and ensuring that they thrive should attend.

Climate Change and TreesThe rate of climate change will accelerate throughout the 21stcentury, fuelled by the greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels. Trees can take over 100 years to reach maturity, so the trees we plant now will mature in a climate that may be very different to the one in which they were planted. The predicted changes in climate may have a profound effect on our trees, which, once planted, must endure whatever climate ensues. Expert speakers will examine firstly what impact climate change will have on tree growth, health and ecology and secondly, what the responses to these impacts should be by the forestry, conservation, heritage and gardening communities. A guest speaker from France will give a picture of current tree and woodland distribution and management in a warmer climate.

Venue and Conference ArrangementsThe University of Surrey is easily accessible by car from the A3or a short walk from Guildford railway station. There will be an optional free guided tour of the exceptional tree collection on the campus at 16.00h on 14 June, prior to a wine reception and conference dinner, with an eminent guest speaker. Accommodation is available on campus (single ensuite) for the night of 14 June. Delegates may also pay a day rate for the main conference on 15 June, or a reduced rate and make their own accommodation arrangements at the nearby Holiday Inn or other hotels in Guildford.

Please use the form found at the URL given below to register your interest and receive booking details in due course.

For Registration:http://www.rhs.org.uk/research/documents/treeconference.pdf

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4) New Publications

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Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

Report commissioned by the Arctic Council (November 2004)

Abstract:The Publication provides an evaluation of the impacts of climate change on the Arctic region. It reports that the Arctic climate is warming very rapidly, with larger changes projected.  Impacts include: loss of habitat for some animal species including the polar bear, threats to coastal communities as a result of sea level rise and loss of sea ice leading to increased exposure to storms. A reduction in sea ice during the summer could also see a Northern Sea route opening up later this century. With respect to impacts on vegetation zones, it is expected that the tree line will move northwards and to higher elevations, with forests replacing a significant fraction of existing tundra, and tundra vegetation moving into polar deserts. It seems likely that more productive vegetation is increasing carbon uptake, although reduced reflectivity of the land surface is likely to outweigh this, causing further warming. Disturbances such as insect outbreaks and forest fires are very likely to increase in frequency, severity, and duration, facilitating invasions by non-native species. It is predicted that given availability of suitable soils, agriculture will have the potential to expand northward due to a longer and warmer growing season.

Available online:http://www.amap.no/acia/index.html

Biomass Bibliography: 1970-Present

Gregoire, T.G.  (2004)

A wide-ranging bibliography on forestry biomass covering more than 100 references as well as tables of contents of IUFRO and USDA Forest Service books and compilations on the same topic had been updated in May 2004.

Available at the following URL:http://www.yale.edu/forestry/gregoire/downloads/forestry/BiomassBiblio.pdf

Climate Change and Agriculture: Impacts and Mitigation

Brent Sohngen, B. - Editor

Choices Magazine, fall 2004

Content:

Overview: The Climate-Change Squeeze Facing the United States and US Agriculture

Agriculture and forestry in the United States face pressures from the eventual effects of climate change and from efforts to control greenhouse gasses. This set of papers looks at the economic consequences from both pressures.

US Agriculture and Climate Change: Perspectives from Recent Research

Across several projections of climate change in the coming century, total food production in the United States is not found to be at risk. Some regions, however, could experience declining production and profitability due to unfavourable climate, water availability, ecological pressures, or extreme weather events.

Climate-Change Impacts and Adaptation in Forestry: Responses by Trees and Markets

Total US forestry production is estimated to increase over the next century under several climate change projections. Consumers would likely benefit from lower prices, although profitability in the industry could decline. Regional shifts could well occur, with the Southern US forest industry appearing most susceptible.

Overview of Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offsets on the US Landscape

US agriculture and forestry can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions reaching up to 40% in a model analysis. Conservation tillage, forest management, afforestation, and bio-energy crop production are the most economic options, but their role depends on the value of offsets.

Carbon Sequestration, Co-Benefits, and Conservation Programs

Land retirement and other agricultural conservation actions contribute greenhouse gas offsets and water quality improvements and reduce erosion and nitrogen runoff. Shifting the programmatic focus to carbon would enhance C sequestration and reduce nitrogen runoff, but would likely increase erosion.

Should We Consider the Co-Benefits of Agricultural GHG Offsets?

Water quality and other co-benefits arise from greenhouse gas reduction efforts in agriculture, but there are tradeoffs with energy sector emissions. Greenhouse gas reductions by power plants also improve human health. Policy based on balancing benefits and costs must account for the co-effects in both the agriculture and energy sectors.

Farm and Forest Carbon Sequestration: Can Producers employ it to make Some Money?

Selling carbon is a potential future source of income for farmers and foresters. Currently, however, policies are not in place to provide substantial incentives¿except for a lucky few.

The issue can be retrieved at:http://www.choicesmagazine.org/

Tiempo - Special issue on the Clean Development Mechanism

Issue 53 October 2004

Contents:

CLIM

CLIM-FO-L - AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTRY

No. 11/2004

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change
2) Forest and Climate Change News
3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events
4) New Publications
5) Climate Change jobs
6) Websites of interest
QUICK TIPS AND INFORMATION FOR CLIM-FO-L

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

Assessment and measurement issues related to soil carbon sequestration in land-use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) projects under the Kyoto protocol

Garcia-Oliva, F. - Omar R Masera, O.R. (2004)

Climatic Change 65 (3): 347

Abstract: Mitigating the potential large negative impacts of a change in the earth's climate will require strong and definite actions in the different economic sectors, particularly within agriculture and forestry. Specifically, soils deserve a close examination due to their large carbon mitigation potential. The Kyoto protocol establishes the possibility for crediting greenhouse gas emission reductions from forestry and agriculture activities. In most circumstances, particularly those regarding developing countries, greenhouse gas mitigation activities will be carried out through projects. These projects will have to meet a series of criteria, for the carbon benefits to be measurable, transparent, verifiable and certified. These criteria include: establishing credible baselines (without-project or reference scenario), additionality, permanence, quantifying and reducing potential leakage of greenhouse gases across project borders, coping with natural or human induced risks, accurately measuring changes in carbon stocks using carbon accounting techniques, and--in the case of the Clean Development Mechanism--resulting in sustainable development benefits. In this paper we describe the methods and approaches that have been developed to cope with the different criteria and discuss their implications for carbon sequestration in soils. Soil carbon represents the largest carbon pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and has been estimated to have one of the largest potentials to sequester carbon worldwide. However, getting credits from soil carbon sequestration through project activities presents several challenges: the need to monitor small incremental changes in soil carbon content relative to large carbon pools, long-time periods to accrue the full carbon benefits, high local variability of soil carbon content, and relatively costly soil carbon measurement procedures. Also, the responses of soil C stocks to forestry and agriculture activities are complex and need careful attention. Specifically, the time dynamics of soil C responses to land use changes, the diversity of soil types, soil-plant interactions, and the availability of accurate soil C inventories, should be considered to successfully implement LULUCF projects

Diverging incentives for afforestation from carbon sequestration: an economic analysis of the EU afforestation program in the south of Italy

Tassone, V.C. - Wesseler, J. - Nesci, F.S. (2004)

Forest Policy and Economics 6 (6): 567-578

Abstract:This study analyses the change in faustmannian age considering the social benefits due to carbon sequestration under the Regulation 2080/92, the subsidies provided by the afforestation program and investigates, from the social point of view, the profitability of afforesting agricultural land. The analysis refers to Calabria, a region situated in the south of Italy. Representative species are chosen for this study. The optimal harvesting age excluding social benefits varies between 32 and 40 years according to the species considered. When including social benefits, optimal harvesting age increases for a carbon price of 20 ¿/t to 34¿44 years and is close to the one excluding them. The inclusion of subsidies to encourage afforestation shortens the optimal harvesting age to 17¿20 years from the forest owner's point of view. Interestingly the provision of subsidies contributes to a substantial increase in social loss due to the differences in optimal harvesting ages: starting from zero C price the loss vary between 65 and 165 ¿/ha according to the species used and increases with rising carbon prices up to 200¿400 ¿/ha for carbon price of 100 ¿/t. Furthermore, results suggest that from the social point of view the profitability of afforesting agricultural land in the study region very much depends on the price of carbon, on the type of agricultural land afforested and on the species used.

National Forest Programmes: Integrating the Kyoto Protocol and its Clean Development Mechanism into the Forestry Sector

Schoene, D. ¿ Wencelius, F. (2004)

ETFRN News(41-42): 21-23

Abstract:In order to fully integrate climate change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol into the forestry sector and create consistency and synergies with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), countries might avail themselves of the possibilities inherent in National Forest Programmes (NFPs). In this framework, countries may then also initiate stakeholder dialogue on the risks and opportunities of serving as a host nation to afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM, assess potentials, and forge national guidelines and capacities for such projects based on national consensus.

How to Estimate Forest Carbon for Large Areas from Inventory Data

Smith, J.E. - Heath, L.S. Woodbury, P.B. (2004)

Journal of Forestry 102 (5): 25-27

Abstract:Carbon sequestration through forest growth provides a low-cost approach for meeting state and national goals to reduce net accumulations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Total forest ecosystem carbon stocks include "pools" in live trees, standing dead trees, understory vegetation, down dead wood, forest floor, and soil. Determining the level of carbon stocks in forest ecosystems has become a concern of governments, businesses, and many organizations. This article provides examples of inventory-based calculations and identifies resources that are available for analysts and planners to develop large-scale carbon estimates consistent with totals for US forests. Estimates can be based on current regional averages classified according to region, forest type, ownership, or stand size class; on stand-level inventory data, measured or calculated; or on locally specific information, such as individual tree sizes or other data acquired from sampling a specific forest.

Tree growth prediction and carbon accounting

T.H. Booth (2004)

Proceedings of the 2003 Int. Conference on Tropical Forests and Climate Change, Carbon Sequestration and the CDM, 21-23 Oct 2003, Manila, Philippines.

Abstract: Three important questions when establishing a tree plantation for carbon sequestration are: which species to grow, how well will they grow and how much carbon will they sequester? A number of computer-based systems have been developed to help answer these questions. This paper provides a brief introduction to these tools and indicates some of the ways in which they complement each other. For example, the CAB International Forestry Compendium CD-ROM includes a species selection module, which can identify species suitable for a wide range of uses and environments around the world. Climatic mapping programs developed by CSIRO can accept information from the Compendium and map suitable areas for particular species at global or countrywide scales. Interpolated climatic data used to create the climatic mapping programs, allow simple tree growth models such as 3-PG, to be run for any site or for grids of hundreds or thousands of locations across a particular region. The 3-PG model can be used within a project-level Carbon Accounting Toolbox to provide information of the type likely to be required by the Clean Development Mechanism.

Using bioclimatic analysis to assist tropical reforestation for biodiversity and carbon sequestration benefits

T.H. Booth (2004)

Proceedings of the international symposium on the Kyoto Mechanism and the Conservation of Tropical Forest Ecosystems, 29-30 January 2004, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract:The Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol may provide some financial support for reforestation of tropical forest areas. This paper outlines bioclimatic analysis methods that can assist in identifying suitable species and areas for reforestation. Bioclimatic analysis methods can assist not only in identifying the potential distributions of tree species, but also the distributions of other plant and animal species important for biodiversity conservation.

Developing general allometric relationships for regional estimates of carbon sequestration¿an example usingEucalyptus pilularisfrom seven contrasting sites

Montagu, K.D. - Düttmer, K. - Barton, C.V.M. - Cowie, A.L. (2004)


Forest Ecology and Management Available online 17 November 2004.

Abstract:
General non-site-specific allometric relationships are required for the conversion of forest inventory measurements to regional scale estimates of forest carbon sequestration. To determine the most appropriate predictor variables to produce a general allometric relationship, we examinedEucalyptus pilularisaboveground biomass data from seven contrasting sites. Predictor variables included diameter at breast height (dbh), stem volume, dbh2 × H, dbh × H and height (H). The data set contained 105 trees, ranging from 6 to over 20,000 kg tree-1, with dbh ranging from 5 to 129 cm. We observed significant site differences in (1) partitioning of biomass between the stem, branch wood and foliage; (2) stem wood density and (3) relationship between dbh and height. For all predictor variables, site had a significant effect on the allometric relationships. Examination of the model residuals of the site-specific and general relationship indicated that using dbh alone as the predictor variable produced the most stable general relationship. Furthermore, the apparent site effect could be removed by the addition of a constant value to the measured diameter (dbh + 1), to account for the differing diameter distribution across the seven sites. Surprisingly, the inclusion of height as a second predictor variable decreased the performance of the general model. We have therefore demonstrated that forE. pilularisa general allometric relationship using dbh alone as the predictor variable can be as accurate as site-specific allometry, whilst being applicable to a wide range of environments, management regimes and ages. This simplifies regional estimates of aboveground biomass from inventory measurements, eliminating the need for site-specific allometric relationships or modifiers such as height, wood density or expansion factors.

Comparing net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide between an old-growth and mature forest in the upper Midwest, USA

Desai, A.R. - Bolstad, P.V. - Cook, B.D. - Davis, K.J. ¿ Carey, E.V. (2004)

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Available online 14 November 2004

Abstract: Old-growth forests are often assumed to exhibit no net carbon assimilation over time periods of several years. This generalization has not been typically supported by the few whole-ecosystem, stand-scale eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide exchange in old-growth forests. An eddy-flux tower installed in a >300-year-old hemlock¿hardwood forest near the Sylvania Wilderness, Ottawa National Forest, MI, USA, observed a small annual carbon sink of CO2of -72 ± 36 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and -147 ± 42 g C m-2 year-1in 2003. This carbon sink was much smaller than carbon sinks of -438 ± 49 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and -490 ± 48 g C m-2 year-1in 2003 observed by a nearby flux tower in a 70-year-old mature hardwood forest (Willow Creek, WI). The mature forest had vegetation similar to the old-growth site prior to European settlement. Both sites had slightly larger carbon sinks in 2003, which was a drier and cooler year than 2002. However, the difference in sink strength between the two years was smaller than the uncertainty in the results arising from missing and screened data. Both sites also had significant systematic errors due to non-representative fluxes during certain micrometeorological conditions, which required careful screening. The difference in sink strength between the two sites was driven mainly by greater ER at the old-growth site (965 ± 35 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and 883 ± 69 g C m-2 year-1in 2003) compared to the mature site (668 ± 21 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and 703 ± 17 g C m-2 year-1in 2003). GEP was lower at the old-growth site (1037 ± 47 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and 1030 ± 41 g C m-2 year-1in 2003) compared to the mature site (1106 ± 47 g C m-2 year-1in 2002 and 1192 ± 51 g C m-2 year-1in 2003), especially in 2003. Observations also suggested that growing season ER had greater interannual variability at the old-growth site. These results imply that old-growth forests in the region may be carbon sinks, though these sinks are smaller than mature forests, mostly likely due to greater ER.

Allometric relationships for below- and aboveground biomass of young Scots pines

Xiao, C.W. - Ceulemans, R. (2003)

Forest Ecology and Management 2003 (1-3): 177-186

Abstract:For 10-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.) trees allometric relationships describing branch and needle biomass at the branch level, as well as biomass of stems, branches, needles, coarse roots, small roots and total biomass at the tree level, were developed and compared. Height profiles of branch and needle biomass as well as biomass allocation were also analyzed. At the branch level, the relationships of branch diameter, branch length and whorl position were the best to predict branch and needle biomass. They were able to explain 96% of the observed variation for branches and needles. Simple allometric relationships of whorl height accurately predicted vertical distribution of branch and needle biomass as well as of their total, and explained more than 96% of the observed variation. The vertical distributions of biomass of branches, of needles and of their total, were very similar and were skewed vertically downward. At the tree level stem diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height were significant determinants of biomass of stems, coarse roots and small roots. Similarly DBH, tree height and crown length were the predominant variables of biomass of branches and needles, and of the entire tree biomass. All together, allometric relationships with DBH were the best to estimate biomass of all above- and belowground compartments. These relationships were able to explain more than 98% of the observed variation. For 4.5¿5.6 m tall trees with an average DBH of 7.16 cm, the entire tree biomass was 13.38 kg. On average 33.9% of the biomass was allocated to the stem, 25% to the branches, 22% to the needles, 17.8% to the coarse roots and 1.3% to small roots. The ratio of belowground biomass to aboveground biomass amounted to 0.26.

Moisture and soil texture effects on soil CO2efflux components in southeastern mixed pine forests

Dilustro, J.J. - Collins, B. - Duncan, L. - Crawford, C. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management Available online 17 November 2004

Abstract:Monitoring soil CO2efflux rates and identifying controlling factors, such as forest composition or soil texture, can help guide forest management and will likely gain relevance as atmospheric CO2continues to increase. We examined soil CO2efflux and potential controlling factors in managed mixed pine forests in southwestern Georgia. Soil CO2efflux was monitored periodically in two stands that differed in soil texture in 2001 and 2002, and in six additional stands in 2003. We also monitored controlling factors: soil temperature, moisture, organic layer mass, and A layer depth. Soil moisture and CO2efflux varied with soil texture differences among the stands. As expected, soil temperature had a strong influence on soil CO2efflux. Soil moisture, organic layer mass, and A layer depth also were correlated with soil CO2efflux during periods of water stress, but these relationships differed with soil texture. Forest management activities can alter components of soil CO2efflux, including soil carbon pools, temperature, and moisture; understanding the underlying variation of these components and resultant CO2efflux over soil types can help guide management toward desired forest carbon balance trends in southeastern mixed pine forests.

2) Forest and Climate Change News

Forestry Issues at UNFCCC COP 10

The Tenth Session of the Conference of the Parties will be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 6 to 17 December 2004. The twenty-first sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 21) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 21) will be held in conjunction with COP 10 (6 ¿ 14 December). Forestry and Climate Change issues to be dealt with at SBSTA 21 and COP 10 and will include the following item:

Good Practice Guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry (GPG-LULUCF):The GPG-LULUCF provides guidance to the parties on the elaboration of their GHG inventories for the LULUCF sector. At COP 9, Parties only adopted those parts of the GPG-LULUCF that address reporting under the Convention, those parts that address reporting for the Kyoto Protocol have not yet been adopted. The adoption of chapter 4 ¿Supplementary methods and good practice guidance arising from the Kyoto Protocol¿ was deferred and will be discussed at COP 10. The methodologies described in Chapter 4 are particularly relevant regarding domestic activities, JI and CDM (Articles 3.3/3.4, 6 and 12 of the Kyoto Protocol).

Small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM (SSC-AR):A decision on simplified modalities and procedures for small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM, and measures to facilitate the implementation of these project activities will be considered. SSC-AR project activities have a maximum carbon abatement potential of 8000 t of CO2 per year, and are developed by low-income communities and individuals. There are open questions regarding the accounting (validation of carbon sequestration ex post or ex ante) and the bundling (aggregation of project activities), and de-bundling, which is defined as the fragmentation of a large project activity into smaller parts.

Harvested wood products (HWP):A workshop on HWP was commissioned by SBSTA 19 and subsequently organized by the Secretariat to be held 30/08/04 ¿ 01/09/04 in Lillehammer. Discussions focussed on the understanding of the information contained in the GPG-LULUCF, in a technical paper on the issue prepared by the Secretariat and on pertinent submissions by the parties. The workshop covered issues relating to definitions and scope of estimation, reporting and accounting of harvested wood products; methods for estimation and reporting of emissions and removals relating to harvested wood products; and approaches for accounting of harvested wood products and the socio-economic and environmental implications of different approaches. The workshop report will be discussed at COP 10.

Direct human-induced degradation and devegetation:There have been pronounced concerns that accounting for domestic activities of forest management, cropland management, grazing land management and revegetation (KP Article 3.4) should include certain types of degradation and devegetation in order to avoid misbalance when accounting carbon sequestration and CO2 release. The IPCC report ¿Definitions and Methodological Options to Inventory Emissions from Direct Human-Induced Degradation of Forests and Devegetation of Other Vegetation Types¿ was considered at SBSTA 20. Parties have submitted their views of the matter. Up to now, no conclusion has been reached on whether such activities should be included in the first commitment period.

Factoring out of past practices and indirect effects leading to changes in carbon stocks:In Buenos Aires, the participants will discuss the effects that elevated atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and increased nitrogen deposition might have on vegetation carbon sequestration rates, as well as the effects of dynamic age structure resulting from historic forest management practices. According to the Marrakech Accords the accounting for LULUCF activities has to exclude these effects. The IPCC was invited to elaborate practical methodologies on this matter, but indicated that the current understanding of the topic did not allow the elaboration of respective methodologies.

Common reporting format (CRF) for the Kyoto Protocol reporting:The Secretariat has elaborated new guidelines for the preparation of annual GHG inventories of Annex I countries according to a CRF in order to enhance comparability and consistency of the reporting. Regarding the LULUCF sector the CRF consists of a summary report and sectoral tables. This is the avenue for annual reporting of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from afforestation, reforestation, deforestation, forest management, cropland management, grazingland management and revegetation under Articles 3.3, 3.4 and 6 of the Kyoto Protocol.

The Agenda of COP 10 in the internet:http://unfccc.int/meetings/cop_10/items/2944.php

"Arctic thaw"

The Washington Post notes that the Arctic Council's report on climate change predicts polar sea ice to decline by 50% in the next 100 years, bringing flooding to low-lying areas worldwide and threatening many polar animal species with extinction. The editorial notes with some alarm that the U.S. government is declining to support language that links climate change to carbon emissions, and seeks a "practical, commonsensical and depoliticized approach to what will certainly be one of the most pressing environmental issues of the next half-century."

(from UN Wire)

http://www.smartbrief.com/alchemy/servlet/encodeServlet?issueid=DD6C518B-719A-4F49-8830-4A31AA1D1FB7&lmid=archives#18AE2F10-0983-4422-AA03-26E8B02006CB

China confronts climate change

Khalid Malik, the China representative of the United Nations Development Programme, presented the findings of a report that warned China faces new extremes of drought and flooding resulting from carbon emissions. Malik told a news conference that global warming "affects food security, education, child and maternal mortality and the basic biological systems on our planet and if action is not taken today we are seriously endangering our future livelihood."

(from UN Wire)

http://www.smartbrief.com/alchemy/servlet/encodeServlet?issueid=DD6C518B-719A-4F49-8830-4A31AA1D1FB7&lmid=archives#18AE2F10-0983-4422-AA03-26E8B02006CB

¿Campeona en el mercado de carbono?

América Latina ayudaría a reducir hasta 55 millones de toneladas de CO2, a través de la venta de créditos de carbono. Pero la estrategia no convence a los críticos, quienes se preguntan si la región fomentará las energías más limpias y renovables o se limitará a la venta de créditos baratos de carbono al mejor postor del Norte industrializado.

(from Tierramérica)

http://www.tierramerica.net/2004/1120/articulo.shtml

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

Conference announcement: Trees in a Changing Climate

A conference to bring home the implications of climate change to all those who plant trees

Venue:Austin Pearce Building, School of Management Studies, University of Surrey, Guildford

Date:14 ¿15 June 2005

Who should attend?This conference is for all those concerned with planting trees, both in planning and practice. Landscape and amenity planners, gardeners, foresters, conservationists, policy makers and all those with the responsibility for choosing trees and ensuring that they thrive should attend.

Climate Change and TreesThe rate of climate change will accelerate throughout the 21stcentury, fuelled by the greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels. Trees can take over 100 years to reach maturity, so the trees we plant now will mature in a climate that may be very different to the one in which they were planted. The predicted changes in climate may have a profound effect on our trees, which, once planted, must endure whatever climate ensues. Expert speakers will examine firstly what impact climate change will have on tree growth, health and ecology and secondly, what the responses to these impacts should be by the forestry, conservation, heritage and gardening communities. A guest speaker from France will give a picture of current tree and woodland distribution and management in a warmer climate.

Venue and Conference ArrangementsThe University of Surrey is easily accessible by car from the A3or a short walk from Guildford railway station. There will be an optional free guided tour of the exceptional tree collection on the campus at 16.00h on 14 June, prior to a wine reception and conference dinner, with an eminent guest speaker. Accommodation is available on campus (single ensuite) for the night of 14 June. Delegates may also pay a day rate for the main conference on 15 June, or a reduced rate and make their own accommodation arrangements at the nearby Holiday Inn or other hotels in Guildford.

Please use the form found at the URL given below to register your interest and receive booking details in due course.

For Registration:http://www.rhs.org.uk/research/documents/treeconference.pdf

4) New Publications

Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

Report commissioned by the Arctic Council (November 2004)

Abstract:The Publication provides an evaluation of the impacts of climate change on the Arctic region. It reports that the Arctic climate is warming very rapidly, with larger changes projected. Impacts include: loss of habitat for some animal species including the polar bear, threats to coastal communities as a result of sea level rise and loss of sea ice leading to increased exposure to storms. A reduction in sea ice during the summer could also see a Northern Sea route opening up later this century. With respect to impacts on vegetation zones, it is expected that the tree line will move northwards and to higher elevations, with forests replacing a significant fraction of existing tundra, and tundra vegetation moving into polar deserts. It seems likely that more productive vegetation is increasing carbon uptake, although reduced reflectivity of the land surface is likely to outweigh this, causing further warming. Disturbances such as insect outbreaks and forest fires are very likely to increase in frequency, severity, and duration, facilitating invasions by non-native species. It is predicted that given availability of suitable soils, agriculture will have the potential to expand northward due to a longer and warmer growing season.

Available online:http://www.amap.no/acia/index.html

Biomass Bibliography: 1970-Present

Gregoire, T.G. (2004)

A wide-ranging bibliography on forestry biomass covering more than 100 references as well as tables of contents of IUFRO and USDA Forest Service books and compilations on the same topic had been updated in May 2004.

Available at the following URL:http://www.yale.edu/forestry/gregoire/downloads/forestry/BiomassBiblio.pdf

Climate Change and Agriculture: Impacts and Mitigation

Brent Sohngen, B. - Editor

Choices Magazine, fall 2004

Content:

Overview: The Climate-Change Squeeze Facing the United States and US Agriculture

Agriculture and forestry in the United States face pressures from the eventual effects of climate change and from efforts to control greenhouse gasses. This set of papers looks at the economic consequences from both pressures.

US Agriculture and Climate Change: Perspectives from Recent Research

Across several projections of climate change in the coming century, total food production in the United States is not found to be at risk. Some regions, however, could experience declining production and profitability due to unfavourable climate, water availability, ecological pressures, or extreme weather events.

Climate-Change Impacts and Adaptation in Forestry: Responses by Trees and Markets

Total US forestry production is estimated to increase over the next century under several climate change projections. Consumers would likely benefit from lower prices, although profitability in the industry could decline. Regional shifts could well occur, with the Southern US forest industry appearing most susceptible.

Overview of Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offsets on the US Landscape

US agriculture and forestry can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions reaching up to 40% in a model analysis. Conservation tillage, forest management, afforestation, and bio-energy crop production are the most economic options, but their role depends on the value of offsets.

Carbon Sequestration, Co-Benefits, and Conservation Programs

Land retirement and other agricultural conservation actions contribute greenhouse gas offsets and water quality improvements and reduce erosion and nitrogen runoff. Shifting the programmatic focus to carbon would enhance C sequestration and reduce nitrogen runoff, but would likely increase erosion.

Should We Consider the Co-Benefits of Agricultural GHG Offsets?

Water quality and other co-benefits arise from greenhouse gas reduction efforts in agriculture, but there are tradeoffs with energy sector emissions. Greenhouse gas reductions by power plants also improve human health. Policy based on balancing benefits and costs must account for the co-effects in both the agriculture and energy sectors.

Farm and Forest Carbon Sequestration: Can Producers employ it to make Some Money?

Selling carbon is a potential future source of income for farmers and foresters. Currently, however, policies are not in place to provide substantial incentives¿except for a lucky few.

The issue can be retrieved at:http://www.choicesmagazine.org/

Tiempo - Special issue on the Clean Development Mechanism

Issue 53 October 2004

Contents:

Forest carbon sinks in Brazil

Abstract:The author describes the development contributions of forest carbon projects in Brazil. It is shown that forest carbon projects favour different aspects of sustainable development. It is demonstrated that commercial projects that fix the most carbon do less than other project types to advance ecological or social objectives. It is concluded that forest carbon projects may be less effective than energy projects at mitigating climate change, but have greater potential for promoting sustainable social development.

Sustainability and the CDM

Small-scale carbon projects

Developing CDM in Vietnam

Available at:http://www.tiempocyberclimate.org/floor0/recent/pdf/tiempo53low.pdf

5) Climate Change jobs

Senior Staff Scientist/Northeast Climate Project Manager

UCS is seeking an experienced scientist/project manager to lead work to bring sound science to bear on building support for strong state and regional climate policies in the Northeast United States.

Responsibilities: Lead project to develop, produce, and effectively communicate the results of a multidisciplinary assessment of projected impacts of climate change on the Northeast U.S. Manage all aspects of the project, including:

  • Developing region-specific climate projections based on the latest global climate models
  • Identifying the climate-sensitive issues and sectors on which to focus the assessment, taking into account both strategic and scientific considerations
  • Developing and managing a team of independent, collaborating experts from universities and research institutions across the region in the research, writing, publication, and outreach components of this project.
  • Exploring and possibly establishing formal or informal partnerships with other institutions.
  • Developing and guiding strong report production, release and outreach plans.
  • Crafting proposals and reports for foundations in coordination with UCS development staff.
  • Establish and maintain strong working relationships with relevant experts in other institutions. Identify and develop opportunities to motivate others to use current state-of-the-art climate projections to develop additional impacts case studies. Serve as spokesperson on climate science and impacts in the Northeast for media, public, scientific and policy forums.
  • Coordinate work of UCS climate science team to maintain effective communication, share resources and information, and ensure high-quality, up-to-date and effectively represented climate science information on UCS products.

Qualifications:Position requires a Ph.D. in climate or related global change science, excellent project management skills, and a demonstrable ability to understand the public policy aspects of climate change and the role of technical analyses and advocacy in shaping public opinion and policy debates. Supervisory experience is highly desirable.

Further details and application information are available at:http://www.ucsusa.org/ucs/about/page.cfm?pageID=888

WWF Climate Change Programme

WWF, the global conservation organisation, is looking to fill two full-time positions in its European Policy Office in Brussels:

Energy Efficiency Policy Officer

Renewable Energy Policy Officer

Both positions will support WWF¿s global climate change programme. The positions require close networking with a variety of internal and external stakeholders. Successful candidates will be expected to take the lead within the organisation on their respective issues in Europe and to represent WWF to external audiences. They should be able and willing to travel frequently and to perform occasional weekend and evening work.

Candidates for both positions must have:

  • Strong commitment to fighting climate change;
  • At least two years¿ experience in climate change or energy policy, or at least three years¿ experience of a closely related field (e.g. air policy);
  • Experience of energy efficiency or renewable energy highly desirable;
  • Good networking, coordination and leadership skills;
  • Sound understanding of European policy and politics;
  • Fluent English and excellent knowledge of at least one other EU language;
  • Experience in public speaking and lobbying highly desirable;
  • Ability and/or preparedness to engage in fundraising.

Applications and CV should reach WWF EPO by no later than10 December 2004.
They should be sent towwf-epo@wwfepo.org

Applicants must specify which post they are applying for. If they wish to apply for both, they must submit two applications and cover letters.

For further details, seewww.panda.org/jobs

UNFCCC

Executive Direction and Management (Edm)

Management and Coordination

Vacancy Announcement No: Unfccc Internal/External Va 04/E013

Publication Date: 26 November 2004

Deadline for Application: 07 January 2005

Title and Grade: Associate Programme Officer, P-2

Post Number: Fca-5984-P-2-001

Duration of Appointment: One Year and Half, With Possibility of Extension

Duty Station: Bonn, Germany

Expected Date for Entry on Duty: As Soon As Possible

Responsibilities

Under the direct supervision of the Special Assistant to the Executive Secretary (P5) and the overall supervision of the Executive Secretary, the incumbent provides support to the EDM programme by assisting the Executive Secretary with external outreach and facilitating inter-programme communication, in particular:

1. Prepares the Executive Secretary¿s outreach missions by:

  • Organizing programmes of visits to international organizations, ministries, conferences, etc.
  • Preparing the mission files with relevant background papers and speaking notes.

2. Prepares briefs and background information for use by the Executive Secretary in interviews, handles requests to the Executive Secretary for contributions to publications, including drafting texts.

3. Assists in preparing substantive presentations for the Executive Secretary.

4. Assists the Special Assistant in analytical work by reviewing, selecting and analysing relevant internal and external material on climate issues from various sources within the mandate of the office of the Executive Secretary.

5. Assists the Executive Secretary during meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP) and its Subsidiary Bodies by preparing background notes and briefings, by reporting on relevant developments in the negotiations and side-events, and by preparing summary reports for bilateral meetings of the Executive Secretary.

6. Guided by the Special Assistant, the incumbent acts as secretary to the coordination group by preparing agendas, meeting schedules, drafting minutes and organizing availability of meeting documents.

7. Assumes responsibility for the development and maintenance of the internal and external web page contentof the programme.

8. Performs other duties as assigned in support of the functions of the Special Assistant, including work on the officialtravel programme of the UNFCCC secretariat staff.

Requirements

  • University degree in economics, social or environmental science or a related discipline.
  • At least two years relevant experience of which at least one year should have been in an international environment.
  • Fluency in English. Working knowledge of French and/or other United Nations languages desirable.

To apply

Quoting Vacancy Announcement Number 04/E013, applicants are requested to complete and submit a United Nations Personal History form (P 11) to:

Chief, Human Resources Unit
Climate Change Secretariat (UNFCCC)
P.O.Box 260 124
D-53153 Bonn, Germany
Fax (49-228) 815-1999,
e-mail:vacancies@unfccc.int

6) Websites of interest

UNFCCC: Afforestation and Reforestation CDM project activities

The newly restructured website offers an explanation and graphical representation of the CDM Afforestation and Reforestation project cycle. The site gives information and instructions on how to use an afforestation and reforestation methodology previously approved by the Executive Board and how to propose a new methodology for consideration and approval. Also a list of proposed and approved afforestation and reforestation methodologies can be found. Specific information and documents are available for the following topics:

  • A/R Project Activity Design
  • Proposal of a New A/R Baseline and/or Monitoring A/R Methodology
  • Use of an Approved A/R Methodology
  • Validation of the CDM A/R project activity
  • Registration of the A/R CDM project activity
  • Certification/Verification of the A/R CDM project activity

Please visit:http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/pac/pac_ar.html

Climate, Forests and People Information Desk

IUCN-UNEP-WWF

What investors need to know about carbon forestry within the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

The aim of the website is to discuss approaches to environmentally sound and socially equitable afforestation and reforestation activities in developing countries at a project scale and how to address the synergies and trade-offs that may arise. The website will draw lessons from past and current examples of land use activities, including carbon sequestration projects and non-carbon forest projects.

To developing nation¿s negotiators
in the climate policy process, the website offers information on how these activities could assist their country in achieving sustainable development.

To investors in carbon forestry
the website will give advice on how investments can be made in projects that show high long-term carbon uptake effectiveness, that are financially attractive and that are consistent with environmental and socio-economic objectives.

Project developers and project managers
will be assisted on how well-designed projects could deliver the necessary mix of goods and services to fulfil climate, development and environmental objectives.

Internet:
http://www.iucn.org/themes/carbon/

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Thank you for your Inputs for this Issue: Till Neeff, Trevor Booth

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