No. 10/2004

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change
2) Forest and Climate Change News
3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events
4) New Publications
5) Climate Change jobs
6) Websites of interest

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

The impact of land use on soil carbon in Miombo Woodlands of Malawi

Walker, S.M. - Desanker, P.V. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management - Article in Press, available online 6 October 2004

Abstract: In the Miombo Woodlands Region of south-central Africa, it is estimated 50¿80% of the total system's carbon stock is found in the top 1.5 m belowground. Deforestation and rapid population growth rates have led to reduced fallow periods and widespread land degradation in the south-central Africa area of the Miombo Woodlands. The impact of this land use conversion on belowground carbon and nitrogen stocks within the Miombo Woodlands has not been examined extensively in the past. We addressed how the soil carbon profile reacts to conversion to agriculture, the continuation of agriculture, and the ability of the soil carbon budget to recover following abandonment within the Chimaliro Forest Reserve and surrounding villages in Kasungu, Malawi. Protected natural Miombo Woodlands sites, agricultural fields of increasing ages, and fallow fields of increasing ages were sampled. Surface carbon levels in Miombo soils varied from 1.2 to 3.7%. Agricultural soil carbon was significantly depressed with surface layers ranging from 0.35 to 1.2% carbon. Unexpectedly, fallow carbon and nitrogen levels continued to be significantly repressed (surface soils 0.65¿2.3% C), pointing out the possible unsustainability of the current agricultural management cycle dominant in the area. On average, agricultural soils contain 40% less soil carbon than the natural Miombo Woodlands. Soil carbon declined logarithmically with depth within all land use types. Clay content was significantly positively correlated with soil carbon in the top 40 cm and therefore areas of higher clay content contained elevated carbon levels. Although a common attribute to many agricultural systems, bulk densities were not significantly altered by land use changes.

How ¿sustainable¿ is the ¿sustainable development objective¿ of CDM in developing countries like India?

Gundimeda, H. (2004)

Forest Policy and Economics 6 (3-4): 329-343

Abstract: The rural poor and landless require resilient, sustainable livelihood systems that are flexible in the short term due to dependence on multiple products. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects result in long-term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change. This long-term requirement to keep carbon in storage may conflict with the short-term needs of the poor. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential implications of the Land use change and forestry (LUCF) projects to the rural livelihoods in India. For this purpose the paper uses a linearised version of the almost ideal demand system (LA-AIDS) to analyse data collected from 69 206 rural households in India. Based on the analysis, the paper concludes that for CDM to be sustainable and result in sustainable development of the local people, three important criteria should be satisfied: (1) Integrating the energy substitution possibilities in the objectives of carbon sequestration; (2) Management of the CPR lands by the rural poor through proper design of the rules for sustenance of user groups; and (3) Ensuring that the maximum revenue from carbon sequestration is channelled to the rural poor. Otherwise CDM would just result in either leakage of carbon benefits or have negative welfare implications for the poor.

Comparison of soil attributes under Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus saligna established on abandoned farmlands with continuously cropped farmlands and natural forest in Ethiopia

Lemenih, M. - Olsson, M. - Karltun, E. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management 195 (1-2): 57-67

Abstract: Soil attributes under two fast growing exotic plantations (Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus saligna) established on abandoned farmlands were compared with soils of mechanized farming (MF), traditional farming (TF) and adjacent natural forest in Ethiopia. The plantations were established on an abandoned part of the MF site. All soils in the study were Humic Haplustands. Fifteen years after plantation establishment, the surface soil (0¿10 cm) under C. lusitanica had lower bulk density, higher soil C, total N, cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation (BS), available K, exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg than the soils of MF and TF. On the contrary, the same soil layer under E. saligna had lower soil C, total N, BS, CEC, available P, available K, and exchangeable Ca than the soils of TF and MF. Except for some soil properties under C. lusitanica that showed consistently high concentrations, most soil properties in the sub-soil layers (10¿20 and 20¿40 cm) did not show clear differences between the sites as in the surface 0¿10 cm soil layer. Comparison of the two farming situations showed higher soil compaction and poorer soil status under MF than TF. Computed deterioration index (DI) revealed a high positive index for the soil under C. lusitanica (DI=+337) suggesting a cumulative positive effect of the species on soil properties. Soil properties deteriorated under E. saligna (DI=-198) even compared to the soils subject to MF and TF (DI=-185 and -77, respectively). We concluded that forest plantations can be used to facilitate soil restoration on degraded farmlands, but that the degree, rate and direction of changes in soil attributes are species dependent. We suggest that long-term effects on soil properties should be considered as one of the criteria when selecting species for afforestation or reforestation of degraded farmlands.

Methods of facilitating reforestation of tropical degraded land with the native timber tree, Terminalia amazonia

Carpenter, F.L. - Nichols, J.D. - Pratt, R.T. - Young, K.C. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management 202 (1-3): 281-291

Abstract: We experimentally compared the effect of fertilization to the effect of interplanting two species of legume trees (Inga edulis and Gliricidia sepium) on growth of a native tropical tree, Terminalia amazonia (Combretaceae). The experiment was a randomized block design with trees planted in eroded cattle pasture in Southern Costa Rica. After 8 years, both block and treatment significantly explained variance in tree growth. Blocks differed in degree of erosion and initial soil nitrate and phosphate. All three factors significantly predicted tree growth, erosion negatively and N and P positively. However, erosion best explained block effect. Fertilizer (10N:30P:10K) had no effect on tree growth. In the treatments with legume trees, I. edulis survived and grew better than G. sepium. Concordantly, plots in which I. edulis was interplanted with T. amazonia showed a stronger positive effect on T. amazonia than plots in which G. sepium was the interplanted species. Possibly I. edulis increased nitrogen availability and-or aided growth by partial shading. A treatment that mixed all three species also improved growth of T. amazonia significantly over controls. This result suggests that fertilizing native trees outplanted for restoration or forestry may be wasted investment. However, intermixing legume trees may increase economic benefits to farmers interested in reforesting degraded land.

Tree¿crop interactions and their environmental and economic implications in the presence of carbon-sequestration payments

Wise, R. - Cacho, O. (2004)

Environmental Modelling & Software - Article in Press, available online 2 October 2004

Abstract: The growing emphasis on market-based solutions to environmental problems, both under and outside of the UNFCCC, means that carbon sequestered in the biomass and soils of agroforestry systems is likely to acquire a direct market value. If the incentive provided by carbon markets is large enough, this may alter the economics of growing trees, which is often not an attractive land-use alternative due to high establishment costs and delayed revenues. In this paper, the effect of carbon payments on the economic attractiveness of growing trees is investigated for a tree¿crop agroforest in Indonesia using a simulation-modelling approach. An economic model is developed to analyze the economic implications of carbon payments from the standpoint of the individual landholder. The simulation is implemented in WaNuLCAS, a model that accounts for water, nutrients, light and carbon in agroforestry systems. The value of switching from a continuous-cropping system to an agroforestry system participating in carbon trading was estimated at $109 ha-1 in present value terms. Although these results vary depending on assumptions regarding carbon prices and costs of carbon monitoring, they essentially show that the benefits of participating in markets for carbon sequestration can exceed the costs. The optimal management regime, both with and without carbon payments, was to plant 15% of the area to trees and to adopt a low firewood-harvest regime, with 75% of tree prunings being returned to the soil to restore carbon and nutrients. Approximately 22% of the economic benefits obtained by switching land use were attributed to carbon trading and the remaining 78% were attributed to improvements in land productivity. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the implications of the findings for policy and management.

Impacts of urban greenspace on offsetting carbon emissions for middle Korea

Hyun-kil Jo (2002)

Journal of Environmental Management 64 (2): 115-126

Abstract: Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas and a major agent of climate change. This study quantified carbon (C) emissions from energy consumption and C storage and uptake by greenspace for three cities in middle Korea: Chuncheon, Kangleung, and Seoul. Carbon emissions were estimated using C emission coefficients for fossil fuels consumed. Carbon storage and uptake by woody plants were computed applying biomass equations and radial growth rates. The soils in Chuncheon were cored to analyze organic C storage. Annual C emissions were 37·0 t/ha/yr in Kangleung, 47·2 t/ha/yr in Chuncheon, and 264·9 t/ha/yr in Seoul. Mean C storage by woody plants ranged from 26·0 to 60·1 t/ha for natural lands within the study cities, and from 4·7 to 7·2 t/ha for urban lands (all land use types except natural and agricultural lands). Mean annual C uptake by woody plants ranged from 1·60 to 3·91 t/ha/yr for natural lands within the cities, and from 0·53 to 0·80 t/ha/yr for urban lands. There were no significant differences (95% confidence level) between the cities in C storage and uptake per ha for urban lands. Organic C storage in Chuncheon soils (to a depth of 60 cm) averaged 31·6 t/ha for natural lands and 24·8 t/ha for urban lands. Woody plants stored an amount of C equivalent to 6·0¿59·1% of total C emissions within the cities, and annually offset total C emissions by 0·5¿2·2%. Carbon storage in soils was 1·2 times greater than that by woody plants in Chuncheon. The C reduction benefits of woody plants were greater in Chuncheon and Kangleung, where areal distribution of natural lands was larger and the population density lower than in Seoul. Strategies to increase C storage and uptake by urban greenspace were explored.

Carbon storage of harvest-age teak (Tectona grandis) plantations, Panama

Kraenzel, M. - Castillo, A. - Moore, T. - Potvin, C. (2003)

Forest Ecology and Management 173 (1-3): 213-225

Abstract: Reforestation is being considered as a mitigation option to reduce the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and predicted climate change. Forestry-based carbon storage projects are being introduced in many tropical countries, and assessment of carbon storage potentials is made difficult by a lack of species-level information. We measured above- and belowground biomass and tissue carbon content of 20-year-old teak (Tectona grandis) trees in four Panamanian plantations to estimate carbon storage potential. A regression relating diameter at breast height (DBH) to total tree carbon storage was constructed and used to estimate plantation-level tree carbon storage, which averaged 120 t/ha. Litter, undergrowth and soil compartments were estimated to contain 3.4, 2.6 and 225 t C/ha, respectively. The soil carbon was a one-time measurement, not an estimate of soil C accumulation. We estimate carbon storage in Panamanian harvest-age teak plantations to be 351 t C/ha. Various methods of calculation of carbon storage in short-rotation plantations are discussed.

Modelling the spatial distribution of two important South African plantation forestry pathogens

van Staden, V. - Erasmus, B.F.N. - Roux, J. - Wingfield, M.J. - van Jaarsveld, A.S. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management 187 (1): 61-73

Abstract: Pathogens, pests and diseases impact heavily on commercial plantation forestry in South Africa, and must thus be considered in any diversified and adaptive management approach. Two important fungal pathogens of Pinus and Eucalyptus species, respectively, are Sphaeropsis sapinea and Cryphonectria cubensis. The aim of this study was to explore the use of bioclimatic modelling to predict the habitat distribution for these pathogens, and to consider potential distribution patterns under conditions of climate change. High-risk areas identified for Sphaeropsis dieback coincide with the summer rainfall hail belt, emphasising the need for planting resistant Pinus spp. in these regions. A much smaller area of South Africa is predicted to be suitable for the occurrence of C. cubensis than for S. sapinea, but a range shift westward in suitable habitat for C. cubensis is predicted under a climate change scenario. Of concern is that many of these areas are currently being planted with disease susceptible Eucalyptus clones. These preliminary results, and further refinement of the model, will lay a valuable foundation for future risk assessment and strategic management planning in the South African forestry industry.

Monitoring and economic factors affecting the economic viability of afforestation for carbon sequestration projects

Robertson, K. - Loza-Balbuena, I. - Ford-Robertson, J. (2004)

Environmental Science & Policy 7 (6): 465-475

Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol is the first step towards achieving the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and aims among others to promote ¿the protection and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs¿. To encourage afforestation for carbon sequestration a project must be economically viable. This study uses a model to analyse the impact on project viability of a range of carbon monitoring options, international carbon credit value and discount rate, applied to a Pinus radiata afforestation project in New Zealand. Monitoring carbon in conjunction with conventional forest inventory shows the highest return. Long-term average carbon accounting has lower accounting costs, compared to annual and 5 yearly accounting, as monitoring is only required every 5¿10 years until the long-term average is attained. In this study we conclude that monitoring soil carbon stocks is not economically feasible using any of the accounting methods, when carbon is valued at US$ 10/t. This conclusion may be relevant to forest carbon sequestration projects elsewhere in the world and suggests care is needed in selecting the appropriate carbon monitoring options to avoid the risk that costs could be higher than any monetary benefits from terrestrial carbon sequestration. This would remove any commercial incentive to afforest for carbon sequestration reasons and severely limit the use of forest sinks as part of any package of measures addressing the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC.

Trees for carbon sequestration or fossil fuel substitution: the issue of cost vs. carbon benefit

Baral, A. - Guha, G.S. (2004)

Biomass and Bioenergy 27 (1): 41-55

Abstract: This study compares the costs and quantity of carbon mitigation by afforestation and fossil fuel substitution based on simple mathematical models of carbon stocks and flows assuming the growth conditions of trees in the southern US. Significant carbon benefit can be obtained by substituting biomass derived from short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) for coal or gasoline as opposed to sequestering carbon in standing trees. When biomass substitutes fossil fuel, the use of a given piece of land is not limited to just the period until the forest matures, as in the case of afforestation. At present high costs of existing biomass-based technologies and unavailability of cost-effective technologies (e.g., biomass-integrated gasifier/steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG)) limits carbon sequestration to afforestation/reforestation for which the costs have been found to be modest. If growth rates of trees in afforested/reforested lands could be increased to the levels that are comparable to SRWC, more carbon benefit could be realized for a short-term horizon from afforestation than using biomass to displace fossil fuels. Carbon sequestered through afforestation projects can be used to earn carbon credits to meet carbon reduction targets through Kyoto mechanisms. As biomass-based technologies such as BIG/STIG or conversion of biomass to ethanol become commercially viable in the future, growing SRWC for substituting fossil fuels may become a cost-effective strategy to combat climate change.

Cost estimates for carbon sequestration from fast growing poplar plantations in Canada

McKenney, D.W. - Yemshanov, D. - Fox, G. - Ramlal, E. (2004)

Forest Policy and Economics 6 (3-4): 345-358

Abstract: With concern over human activities affecting the Earth's climate, the potential role of forests to sequester carbon is of growing interest to national policy-makers. Countries like Canada may be able to use afforestation of marginal agricultural lands to sequester carbon in a cost-effective manner. A spatial simulation study that links the biology and economics of afforestation of marginal agricultural lands in Canada using a modified Hartman-type model is presented. The model recognizes wood production and carbon sequestration and calculates ¿break-even¿ carbon prices inclusive of an opportunity cost for agricultural production values. A simplified carbon budget-tracking algorithm is used that predicts accumulation of carbon in soil, litter, standing aboveground and root biomass, carbon flows among ecosystem components and CO2 release from biomass and forest products decay. Variables are represented as probability distribution functions. Monte-Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis techniques are used to help assess both biological and economic uncertainty. Some results are presented for Canada and issues identified to improve model results (e.g. spatially varying estimates of productivity). Substantively more land is attractive for afforestation in Western Canada than Eastern Canada but results are highly sensitive to growth and yield assumptions and spatial variation in agricultural production opportunity costs.

Forests and climate change ¿ lessons from insects

Battisti, A (2004)

Forest@ 1 (1): 17-24

Abstract: The climate change may indirectly affects the forest ecosystems through the activity of phytophagous insects. The climate change has been claimed to be responsible of the range expansion northward and upward of several insect species of northern temperate forests, as well as of changes in the seasonal phenology. Several papers have dealt with the prediction of the most likely consequences of the climate change on the phytophagous insects, including some of the most important forest pests. Increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere involve an increase of the C/N balance of the plant tissues, which in turn results in a lower food quality for many defoliating insects. Some insects respond by increasing the level of leaf consumption and consequently the damage to the tree, whereas others show higher mortality and lower performance. The level of plant chemical defenses may also be affected by a change of CO2. The temperature is affecting either the survival of the insects which are active during the cold period, such as the pine processionary moth, or the synchronization mechanism between the host and the herbivores, as in the case of the larch bud moth. An increase of temperature may alter the mechanism by which the insects adjust their cycles to the local climate (diapause), resulting in faster development and higher feeding rate, as in the case of the spruce webspinning sawfly outbreaks in the Southern Alps.

Quantifying forest above ground carbon content using LIDAR remote sensing

Patenaude, G. - Hill, R.A. - Milne, R. - Gaveau, D.L.A. - Briggs, B.B.J. - Dawson, T.P. (2004)

Remote Sensing of Environment 93 (3): 368-380

Abstract: The UNFCCC and interest in the source of the missing terrestrial carbon sink are prompting research and development into methods for carbon accounting in forest ecosystems. Here we present a canopy height quantile-based approach for quantifying above ground carbon content (AGCC) in a temperate deciduous woodland, by means of a discrete-return, small-footprint airborne LiDAR. Fieldwork was conducted in Monks Wood National Nature Reserve UK to estimate the AGCC of five stands from forest mensuration and allometric relations. In parallel, a digital canopy height model (DCHM) and a digital terrain model (DTM) were derived from elevation measurements obtained by means of an Optech Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper 1210. A quantile-based approach was adopted to select a representative statistic of height distributions per plot. A forestry yield model was selected as a basis to estimate stemwood volume per plot from these heights metrics. Agreement of r=0.74 at the plot level was achieved between ground-based AGCC estimates and those derived from the DCHM. Using a 20×20 m grids superposed to the DCHM, the AGCC was estimated at the stand level and at the woodland level. At the stand level, the agreement between the plot data upscaled in proportion to area and the LiDAR estimates was r=0.85. At the woodland level, LiDAR estimates were nearly 24% lower than those from the upscaled plot data. This suggests that field-based approaches alone may not be adequate for carbon accounting in heterogeneous forests. Conversely, the LiDAR 20×20 m grid approach has an enhanced capability of monitoring the natural variability of AGCC across the woodland.

Greenhouse gas production and emission from a forest nursery soil following fumigation with chloropicrin and methyl isothiocyanate

Spokas, K. - Wang, D. - Venterea, R. (2004)

Soil Biology and Biochemistry - Article in Press, available online 28 September 2004

Abstract: Soil fumigation is commonly used to control soil-borne pathogens and weeds. Our aim was to examine the effects of soil fumigation with chloropicrin (CP) and methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) on CH4, N2O and CO2 production and emission. These effects on a SE USA forest nursery soil were examined in field and laboratory experiments. Following field fumigation, CH4 surface emissions and concentrations in the soil atmosphere were unaffected. Both fumigants increased N2O emissions rates significantly compared to non-fumigated controls, and the effects were still evident after 48 d. These findings are in contrast to fertilizer-induced N2O emissions, which generally return to background within 2 wk after application. Depths of N2O production were different for the two fumigants as determined by soil gas sampling, suggesting fumigant-specific stimulation mechanisms. CO2 emissions (0¿15 d) were not altered significantly, although sub-surface CO2 concentrations did increase following fumigation with CP or MITC and remained elevated for CP treatment on d 48. CP-induced N2O production was also stimulated in aerobic laboratory incubation studies, with surface soils exhibiting 10 to 100-fold greater production rates. MITC and a combination of CP/MITC also stimulated N2O production, but the effect was significantly less than for CP alone. MITC suppressed and CP did not effect CO2 production in the laboratory incubation. By comparing sterilized to non-sterile soils, >95% of these effects appear to be of biotic origin.


2) Forest and Climate Change News


Niger: From Wood to Coal in an Effort to Stop Deforestation

The competition between energy and environmental needs in Niger has taken centre stage of late, with authorities seeking to promote the use of coal in a bid to halt deforestation in the North African country.

(from AllAfrica)

Kyoto Is Too Little to Fix Warming, Says U.N. Climate Chief

OSLO, Norway ¿ Although saved recently with Russian help, the Kyoto pact on global warming offers too little to arrest climate change and governments should adopt more radical solutions, the top U.N. climate expert said.

(from ENN)

New Zealand: Kyoto tree planting credits won't be much help

With the Kyoto Protocol set to come into force, does the New Zealand government have a credible set of policies and measures to meet its obligations? Kyoto's accounting rules allow New Zealand to claim a credit for the carbon dioxide taken out of the atmosphere by trees, provided trees used for credit were planted since 1990 on land that was not previously forested.

(from National Business Review)

Climate fuelling fires

Increase in forest blazes linked to greenhouse gases

Canadian climate researchers have found compelling evidence linking the rise in severe forest fires across the country to higher summer temperatures from greenhouse gas warming.

(from Toronto Star)

New state rules first in the US to fight global warming and save native forests

California¿s Climate Action Registry Approves New Standards

In a precedent-setting move, California today adopted new rules that put the state¿s endangered forests to work curbing global climate change. Forestry ¿protocols¿ which were developed under the four-year-old California Climate Action Registry law, set forth a rigorous yet practical accounting of carbon emissions and reductions via forest conservation, improved management practices, and reforestation.

Press release:

Forestry Protocols

The Registry's Forest Workgroup worked for the past year to develop reporting and certification protocol recommendations for the forest sector. The Forest Protocols were approved at the Registry's Board of Director's meeting on October 21, 2004, and are now available for use.

An overview of the Forest Protocols and a summary of key public comments can be found at:

Chile promueve incorporación de proyectos forestales a mercado de carbono

Países desarrollados podrán financiar iniciativas de forestación y recuperación de suelos que ayudan a reducir los gases de efecto invernadero, como el desarrollado por Forestal Terranova en la VIII Región.

Pagina web:


3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events


UNFCCC: 16th Meeting of the Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism

21-22 October 2004, Bonn, Germany

Issues relating to procedures for afforestation and reforestation project activities

The Board considered the report of the second meeting of the working group on afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM (A/R WG) and oral updates by Mr. Eduardo Sanhueza, Chair of the Working Group.

The Board agreed to amend the document ¿Procedure for submission and consideration of a proposed new methodology for afforestation and reforestation project activities¿ by replacing paragraph 4 with the following text:

¿If project participants intend to propose a new A/R baseline or A/R monitoring methodology for consideration and approval by the Executive Board, they shall

prepare the A/R methodologies forms for baseline and monitoring methodologies

(CDM-AR-NMB and CDM-AR-NMM) along with a draft project design document

(CDM-AR-PDD) and, as a minimum, complete sections A to D, including relevant


The Board requested the A/R WG to consider comments from project participants on the use of the existing project design documentation and report to the Board.


UNFCCC CDM NEWS: Proposed new methodology for afforestation and reforestation CDM project activities

The following proposal on new baseline and monitoring methodologies has been submitted to the CDM Executive Board for its review and is available for public input as of 05/11/2004:

¿ARNM0001: The Mountain Pine Ridge Reforestation Project¿

For call for inputs please visit the URL:

Methodologies for CDM project activities:

Methodologies for afforestation and reforestation CDM project activities:

Background on COP 10 - Decisions on Simplified Modalities and Procedures: What Effects on Small-Scale Forestry Projects under the CDM?

Reference: Locatelli B., Pedroni L., 2004. Will Simplified Modalities and Procedures Make More Small-Scale Forestry Projects Viable Under the Clean Development Mechanism?

Accepted in: 'Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'


Abstract: Simplified modalities and procedures (M&P) for small-scale afforestation and reforestation (AR) project activities under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are expected to increase the viability of project activities removing less than 8 kilotons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per year. Using a model to calculate the minimum project scale above which the CDM is a positive financial incentive for eligible AR project activities, the paper analyzes whether a reduction of transaction costs under simplified M&P will be a sufficient incentive to motivate small-scale participation in the CDM. Results show that the scale of 8 kilotons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per year corresponds to highly diverse areas, from 200 to 6000 hectares, depending on the project type and the method for measuring scale. Model results show that, even under optimistic assumptions on carbon market conditions and transaction costs, small-scale project activities will not benefit from simplified M&P. Results also show that project activities removing more than 8 kilotons of CO2e per year and registered as small-scale would be the ones that could benefit the most from simplified M&P. It is concluded that the participation of small-scale project activities to the CDM requires more than simplified M&P, the price of expiring Certified Emission Reductions being one of the most critical parameters.

Workshop on Bio- and Geosequestration

Melbourne on 17 November 2004.

The Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting is providing new opportunities for Australians to learn more about issues surrounding both biological sequestration and geological sequestration of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

In Melbourne, the CRC for Greenhouse Accounting has joined forces with the CRC for Greenhouse Gas Technologies and Australasian Emissions Trading Forum to present a seminar on Business and Carbon Sequestration - Prospects for Biological and Geological Sequestration in Australia.

Details of the Melbourne seminar are available at:

For more information contact Bruce Wright

Program Manager - Communication and Education

Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting

Phone +61 2 6125 5593


Web site:


4) New Publications


Climate Change and the Forestry Sector: Possible Legislative Responses for National and Subnational Governments

Rosenbaum, K.L. - Schoene, D. ¿ Mekouar, A. (2004)

FAO Forestry Paper 144

Abstract: This discussion paper examines the development of international law of climate change and examines what issues national and subnational legislative bodies may have to consider regarding climate change mitigation and forests. It analyses the different conclusions Parties to the UNFCCC have reached in national legislation to foster the role of forests in the international response to climate change. It is shown that to date, national legislative activity on the issue of forests and climate change has been limited, with some exceptions constituted by countries such as Costa Rica, Australia, or the Dominican Republic. The legal and institutional issues of laws promoting forest-based mitigation, including afforestation, reforestation and forest management are presented. Among these, an approach of a national command-and-control system to encourage forest sinks for direct regulation of forest use and management, the application of subsidies to promote the use of forests as sinks, as well as the enhancement of forest carbon sequestration through the use of informational mechanisms (e.g. extension services, forest certification, and promotion of research), are explained and discussed. It is concluded, that by finalizing the majority of rules on LULUCF in COP-9, the international role of forests in meeting sequestration goals was made clearer and should help those Parties that wish to adopt laws on LULUCF activities. However, in spite of uncertainties on when the Kyoto Protocol will enter into force, Parties will have to start responding nationally soon if they hope to meet impending deadlines. Nations should now be tackling the question of whether and how to encourage and integrate the use of forests as carbon sinks into national legal regimes.

The publication will be made available soon at:

Assessing carbon stocks and modelling win¿win scenarios of carbon sequestration through land-use changes

Ponce-Hernandez, R. (2004)

With contributions from Parviz Koohafkan and Jacques Antoine

FAO, 2004

Abstract: This report presents a methodology to assess the stocks of carbon pools both aboveground and belowground under various land-use systems, the status of their biodiversity and that of land degradation. The report also describes methods to analyse ¿win¿win¿ land use and land management scenarios. These aim to reduce land degradation while enhancing soil fertility, land productivity and carbon sequestration. The report presents the related models and software tools and the test results of case studies in selected areas of Mexico and Cuba. The methodology has been applied in the various watersheds of the case study areas.

Data from each of the three sites were used to create georeferenced databases. Carbon

simulation models (i.e. RothC-26.3 and CENTURY) were run using these databases.

The study also investigated the effect of alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture on carbon dynamics in two locations in the Yucatan Peninsula (Quintana Roo), Mexico. Scenarios of land-use changes were generated through the models, and management approaches relating to soil organic matter and carbon dynamics necessary for stabilizing slash-and-burn agriculture were identified. ¿Soil-C¿, a customization of the CENTURY model (v. 4.0) including visual input and output interfaces and parameterization options for tropical and subtropical conditions, was implemented (beta version). The study included comprehensive research on measurements of biomass and carbon stock estimation. A methodology for plant biodiversity estimation was also researched. Procedures were elaborated for assessing biomass and carbon stock of relatively large areas through field measurements and remote sensing. A dedicated Internet-GIS system was developed to serve map and attribute data from the three case study sites, and to allow for remote spatial queries and basic GIS functionality on the Internet. The software tools are designed to facilitate their customization and transferability to other areas.


Toolkit: Integration of Biodiversity Concerns in Climate Change Mitigation Activities

German Federal Environmental Agency (2004)

Abstract: The objective of this toolkit is to provide practical guidance on designing climate mitigation projects or activities in a way that will also benefit biodiversity. It is designed for experts who plan, implement or evaluate climate change mitigation activities. It is also a useful tool for stakeholders that are involved in a project cycle for CDM or JI project activities.

The first part of the toolkit provides an overview of possible climate mitigation activities, especially in the LULUCF and energy sector, and their possible benefits and negative impacts on biodiversity. The second part introduces selected instruments that could be applied for the integration of biodiversity aspects in climate change mitigation activities. The advantages and disadvantages of these instruments for the indicated purpose are discussed and further literature for practical work with these instruments is presented. The third part of the toolkit is intended to help project planners or evaluators (e.g. Designated Operational Entity (DOE), Independent Entity or Designated National Authority (DNA)) to apply these instruments and the relevant biodiversity aspects on an activity-specific basis. This section contains a series of decision trees and checklists for the most common project types.

You find the toolkit under: If you prefer hardcopies you can order them by the website

The background report "Suitable Instruments for Integrating Biodiversity Considerations in Climate Change Mitigation Activities, particularly in the Land Use and Energy Sector" is also available there.

Economic Efficiency and Competitiveness of Forest GHG Sequestration Projects in Germany

Dieter, M. ¿ Elsasser, P. (2004)

Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft

Arbeitsbericht des Instituts für Ökonomie; 11/2004

Abstract: In a study commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Consumer Protection, Nutrition and Agriculture, we investigate the future economic feasibility of forestry sink projects, and of selling sink certificates generated by such projects, for German forest owners. Due to existing international predeterminations (Kyoto-process, EU emission trade directive), already the transaction costs associated with the verification of sink effects turn out to be prohibitive, at least in the standard verification procedures conceivable by now: These transaction costs are in an order of magnitude between 100,000-250,000 ¿ per project, which would normally require project sizes of far more than 1,000 ha. Additional opportunity costs would further increase minimum project sizes, even if they are difficult to determine empirically. However, this result may change dramatically under simplified verification procedures which are also internationally discussed, at least when favourable growth conditions (i.e. substantial additional growth potentials as compared to the respective reference scenarios) and favourable price developments for sink certificates are given. Under such circumstances, project minimum sizes may drop down to 100 ha, and additional (transaction cost free) revenues of up to 80 ¿/ha/a can be possible for forest enterprises. The cap presently effective for Germany (1.24 Mt C/a) would however necessitate market access restrictions in some form or the other. Therefore we basically recommend that an integration of sink projects into the trade system be endorsed. Prerequisites are that a simplified verification procedure (comparable to JI-track 1) can be used, that standardised procedures for the determination of baseline/reference scenarios will be accepted, and that projects are permitted which involve several enterprises. These conditions may be supported by governmental risk adoption (or a continuance guarantee for the sink effects, respectively) in order to stabilise certificate prices. This simultaneously strengthens the aims of climate protection and of supporting the profitability of forest enterprises. Additionally we discuss a coordination of sink projects at national level and alternatively, a compensation for sink services by means of the forest subsidisation system.

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5) Climate Change jobs


International Emissions Trading Association

Job Title: Manager
Location: Geneva, Switzerland
Reporting to: Executive Director
Task and Responsibilities: Help coordinate and implement the Work Program as approved by the Annual General Meeting

1. Responsible for the IETA work on implementation and future review of the EU ETS as well as other DETSs

2. Working Groups

Coordinate and provide support to some of the existing IETA Working Groups
Provide support to the ED in managing Working Groups
Catalyze and promote the start-up of new working groups within the membership

3. Development of material to promote emissions trading

Coordinate and undertake research relevant to IETA in areas such as synthesis of market activity, market size, etc
Development of material related to emissions trading as a concept

4. Contribute to the development of IETA promotional material.

Folders, brochure, membership kit, etc
Manage and maintain the IETA web site
Production of a newsletter

5. Member relations

Maintain existing members
Attract new members

6. Management of the Association.

While many of the administrative tasks have been contracted to the WBCSD, the manager will also be responsible for managing the relationship with WBSCD.
Provide support to the ED for the preparation of material for the Board and Annual General Meetings
Required experience and skills:
3-5 yrs work experience and/or completion of at least a master¿s degree level
Knowledge of and interest in climate change and market mechanisms
Good inter-personal skills, team player
Ability to prioritize and work under tight deadlines
Ability to work in parallel with issues of substance and management

Research and analytical skills
Knowledge of computer software, including PowerPoint, Word, etc. Knowledge of web software would be useful.
Those interested please contact Andrei Marcu at or phone +1 416 487 8591.

UNIDO: Recruiting national consultants from Mexico and South Africa

We are pleased to inform you that the Austrian Government is supporting a UNIDO pilot CDM capacity building project with the target countries being Mexico, South Africa and Vietnam.

The objective of the project is to build capacity through identification and preparation of CDM projects in priority sectors of the participating countries and to foster partnerships that bring them to the market, including through the Austrian CDM programme.

We are now recruiting national consultants from Mexico and South Africa (they must also be resident in their home country) and require nominations and CVs (please use the UNIDO Personal History Form (

Candidates MUST have CDM project development skills (please provide a list of projects worked/working on) and be fully familiar with their national approval processes, criteria and institutions.

More details are available on the project Web pages starting at; these pages will be updated and added to as we move forward.

We look forward to hearing from you in the very near future.

Marina Ploutakhina & Peter Pembleton

Multilateral Environmental Agreements Branch - UNIDO


6) Websites of interest


FAO Land and Water Development Division: Soil Carbon Sequestration

The website contains information regarding Background of the programme, ongoing activities as well as events and features an extensive collection of documents, tools, and links.

The main purpose of this Soil Carbon Sequestration website is to provide information on the activities of the Land Service of the Land and Water Development Division (AGLL) of FAO on soil carbon sequestration within the framework of its programme on the integrated planning and management of land resources for sustainable rural development.

Carbono & Bosques

El Centro de Investigación Carbono & Bosques (C&B) es una organización pionera en Latinoamérica en el desarrollo de actividades de consultoría, investigación y capacitación en temas relacionados con la ecología terrestre y el cambio ambiental global.

El equipo técnico de C&B es un grupo de expertos forestales con amplia trayectoria en la cuantificación y valoración de bienes y servicios provenientes de actividades forestales y de uso de la tierra. C&B hace uso del estado del arte y crea conocimiento científico para la evaluación técnica y económica de la captura y dinámica del CO2 asociadas a cambios en el uso de la tierra en el trópico y para el diseño de sistemas productivos eficientes y sostenibles en el largo plazo, en términos económicos, ambientales y sociales.

Pagina Web:


This message is to draw your attention to the release of TimberCAM, a new carbon accounting model that tracks the fate of carbon in wood products, from harvest to disposal. TimberCAM was developed as part of a project within the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting (CRCGA) in Australia. It was designed to facilitate the modelling of the effect on carbon storage of different forest harvesting scenarios for a range of different wood products.

The main focus of TimberCAM is on the storage of carbon in wood products, and most of the data behind it was generated from several research projects within the CRCGA. It is envisaged that the tool will be of assistance particularly to public and private forest growing agencies with interest in carbon trading, the forest products industry and industry associations.

TimberCAM is available free of charge for research purposes only and can be downloaded from the following link:

We would be particularly interested in any comments/suggestions regarding the user-friendliness of the model. Any comments on the usefulness of the parameters included and suggestions for inclusion of alternative parameters are also welcome. A user's guide for the model is also provided.


Fabiano Ximenes Tel: +61 2 9872 0143
Research Officer Fax: +61 2 9871 6941
Forests R&D Division - NSW Dept. of Primary Industries
PO BOX 100 - Beecroft NSW 2119


Thank you for your Inputs for this Issue: Andreas Kress, Fabiano Ximenes,

Lorenza Colletti, Till Neeff, Wulf Killmann



The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Resources Division, Forest Conservation Service (FORC).





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last updated:  Tuesday, November 18, 2008