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Effects of subsistence farming system on soil surface CO2¿C flux on Cofre de Perote volcano slopes, Veracruz (Mexico)
Campos C., A. (2004)
Forest Ecology and Management 199 (2-3): 273-282
Abstract: Mountainous parts of the eastern slope of the Mexican Cofre de Perote volcano have suffered great ecological disturbance due to the conversion of forest to subsistence corn (Zea mays) cropland. This research was conducted in order to evaluate the response of surface soil CO2¿C flux to land use modification, specifically the adoption of subsistence farming in this mountainous forest¿cropland setting. The treatments consisted of a corn plot (CP), recently abandoned cropland (RA), old abandoned cropland (OA), and coniferous (Pinus species) forestland (CF). For an 8-month period (August 1999¿June 2000), CO2¿C flux concentration was measured monthly using the static chamber method. CO2¿C flux ranged from 1.80 to 5.22 g C m-2/day in the CF treatment, 2.76¿8.45 g C m-2/day in the CP treatment, 3.24¿7.48 g C m-2/day in the RA treatment, to 2.99¿8.84 g C m-2/day in the OA treatment. Results showed that the conversion of coniferous forest to corn cropland leads to a significant increase in CO2¿C flux concentration from the soil surface to the atmosphere. There were few differences between current and former agricultural plots, demonstrating that crop abandonment did not lower CO2¿C flux from the soil¿s surface. Soil temperature and moisture content were poorly correlated with CO2¿C flux; however, soil moisture data did show greater scattering. This indicates that soil temperature had a major effect on CO2¿C flux concentration. To offset some of the organic carbon depletion from soil caused by land use change, it is recommended that the subsistence farming system subject corn crop residue to a composting process. This can improve short-term soil fertility and increase corn crop yield, playing a central role in converting abandoned cropland into permanent cultures that facilitate forest conservation.
Wood density of trees in open savannas of the Brazilian Amazon
Barbosa, R.I. - Fearnside, P.M. (2004)
Forest Ecology and Management 199 (1): 115-123
Abstract: Studies on basic density of woody species in Amazonian savannas are needed to convert data on woody volume to biomass. These ecosystems, which have large carbon stocks, emit greenhouse gases annually due to frequent burnings. Basic density (g cm-3: oven-dry weight/wet volume), measured from complete sample disks (bark, sapwood and heartwood), was calculated for the most abundant woody species in three types of open savannas (Sg: grassy-woody savanna; Sp: savanna parkland; Tp: steppe-like parkland) in Roraima, a state in the northern part of Brazil¿s Amazon region. The species selected represent 90¿95% of the woody biomass estimated in these ecosystem types. Seven additional species were lumped in an "others" group. In total, we sampled 107 trees: 40 in Sg, 37 in Sp and 30 in Tp. Bowdichia virgilioides (0.516 ± 0.021 (S.E.) g cm-3) was the species with the highest basic density, followed by the "others" group (0.485 ± 0.057 g cm-3), Curatella americana (0.413 ± 0.028 g cm-3), Byrsonima crassifolia + B. coccolobifolia (0.394 ± 0.019 g cm-3), Himatanthus articulatus (0.375 ± 0.020 g cm-3) and B. verbascifolia (0.332 ± 0.020 g cm-3). Basic density of the species with the greatest woody biomass in Roraima¿s open savannas (C. americana and B. crassifolia + B. coccolobifolia) did not differ significantly at the 5% level (ANOVA) among the three ecosystem types studied. Wood basic density in these savannas (weighted MEAN = 0.404 ± 0.025 g cm-3) is lower than that in Amazonian forests (weighted MEAN = 0.680 g cm-3). These results reduce uncertainty in calculations of carbon stocks and of greenhouse gas emissions from clearing and burning tropical savanna.
Ecosystem carbon storage in arctic tundra reduced by long-term nutrient fertilization
Mack, M.C. - Schuur, E.A.G. - Bret-Harte, M.S. - Shaver, G.R. - Chapin, F.S. (2004)
Nature 431: 440-443
Abstract: Global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes, and observational evidence over the past 25 years suggests that this warming is already under way. One-third of the global soil carbon pool is stored in northern latitudes, so there is considerable interest in understanding how the carbon balance of northern ecosystems will respond to climate warming. Observations of controls over plant productivity in tundra and boreal ecosystems have been used to build a conceptual model of response to warming, where warmer soils and increased decomposition of plant litter increase nutrient availability, which, in turn, stimulates plant production and increases ecosystem carbon storage. Here we present the results of a long-term fertilization experiment in Alaskan tundra, in which increased nutrient availability caused a net ecosystem loss of almost 2,000 grams of carbon per square meter over 20 years. We found that annual aboveground plant production doubled during the experiment. Losses of carbon and nitrogen from deep soil layers, however, were substantial and more than offset the increased carbon and nitrogen storage in plant biomass and litter. Our study suggests that projected release of soil nutrients associated with high-latitude warming may further amplify carbon release from soils, causing a net loss of ecosystem carbon and a positive feedback to climate warming.
Variation in soil carbon in pine plantations and implications for monitoring soil carbon stocks in relation to land-use change and forest site management in New Zealand
Oliver, G.R. ¿ Beets, P.N. - Garrett, L.G. - Pearce, S.H. - Kimberly, M.O. - Ford-Robertson, J.B. - Robertson, K.A. (2004)
Forest Ecology and Management: Article in Press, Available online 11 September 2004.
Abstract: Various methods were assessed to determine the impact of forest harvesting on mineral soil carbon (C) in Pinus radiata stands at Puruki catchment in the central North Island of New Zealand. Previous work at this site reported a reduction in soil carbon of 3.6 Mg ha-1 in the top 0.1 m over one 23-year rotation of pine on improved pasture. In this study, by sampling before and after harvesting, a further reduction of 3.1 Mg ha-1 (significant at P = 0.05) in mineral soil carbon stocks to 0.1 m depth was found to be associated with harvesting disturbance. However, less intensive sampling was unable to detect any significant harvesting effects in depths down to 2 m. Variation between plots was large, and it was estimated that to detect a 10% change in carbon content with 95% confidence 19 permanent plots would be required for 0¿0.1 m depth and 40 permanent plots required to detect changes to 1 m depth. Soil C content to 1 m depth in Puruki Rua subcatchment was estimated to average between 143 and 164 Mg ha-1. In two paired-site studies comparing pasture with second rotation pine, the difference between land-uses in mineral soil C content to 0.1 m depth was 19.6 Mg ha-1 in volcanic soil at Kaingaroa and 8.5 Mg ha-1 in high clay activity soil at Ngaumu. Significant differences in mineral soil C between pine and pasture were found with cumulative depth down to 2 m, well below the rooting depth of pasture, which suggests that historic factors overshadowed influences of the current land-use and can account for the difference in soil carbon. At Kaingaroa, variability in soil carbon content was high at all depths measured, and to detect a 10% difference in soil carbon content with 95% confidence approximately 60 pits measured to 1 m depth would be required.
Climate change and the effect of temperature backlashes causing frost damage in Picea abies
Jönsson, A.M. - Linderson, M.J. - Stjernquist, I. - Schlyter, P. - Bärring, L. (2004)
Global and Planetary Change: Article in Press, Available online 11 September 2004.
Abstract: In boreal and nemoboreal forests, tree frost hardiness is modified in reaction to cues from day length and temperature. The dehardening processes in Norway spruce, Picea abies, could be estimated to start when the daily mean temperature is above 5 °C for 5 days. Bud burst will occur approximately after 120¿170 degree-days above 5 °C, dependent on genetic differences among provenances. A reduced cold hardiness level during autumn and spring and an advanced onset of bud burst are expected impacts of projected future global warming. The aim of this study was to test if this will increase the risk for frost damage caused by temperature backlashes. This was tested for Sweden by comparing output from the Hadley Centre regional climate model, HadRM3H, for the period 1961¿1990 with future IPCC scenario SRES A2 and B2 for 2070¿2099. Different indices for calculating the susceptibility to frost damage were used to assess changes in frost damage risk. The indices were based on: (1) the start of dehardening; (2) the severity of the temperature backlash; (3) the timing of bud burst; and (4) the cold hardiness level. The start of dehardening and bud burst were calculated to occur earlier all over the country, which is in line with the overall warming in both climate change scenarios. The frequency of temperature backlashes that may cause frost damage was calculated to increase in the southern part, an effect that became gradually less pronounced towards the north. The different timing of the onset of dehardening mainly caused this systematic latitudinal pattern. In the south, it occurs early in the year when the seasonal temperature progression is slow and large temperature variations occur. In the north, dehardening will occur closer to the spring equinox when the temperature progression is faster.
Forest productivity of the Altay and Tianshan Mountains in the dryland, northwestern China
Ni, J. (2004)
Forest Ecology and Management: Article in Press, Available online 11 September 2004.
Abstract: Biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of coniferous forests in the Altay Mountains (AM) and Tianshan Mountains (TM), which are located in the dryland of northwestern China, were estimated using intensive data derived from a national forest inventory. Conifer forests in these two mountains have total biomass of 9.1¿771.7 t ha-1 (mean = 312.6) and total NPP of 2.2¿18.3 t ha-1 year-1 (mean = 9.6) at 21 sampling sites with elevations mostly from 1600 to 2400 m. Forest biomass and NPP have linear (positive and negative) relationships with their geographic location (longitude and latitude), but these relationships are not significant. However, forest biomass has non-linear relationship with elevation and forest NPP has significant negative linear relationship with elevation. Comparison between these two mountains showed that forest NPP in the Altay Mountain is higher than in the Tianshan Mountain (by approximately 0.9 t ha-1 year-1), while biomass in the Altay Mountain is lower than in the Tianshan Mountain (by approximately 42 t ha-1), although the Altay Mountain is located north to the Tianshan Mountain. Biomass and NPP of different forest types in these two mountains also have differences. Spruce forest has higher biomass, larch and larch-spruce forests have median biomass, and larch-spruce-fir and larch-spruce-birch forests have lower biomass. However, larch forest has higher NPP than other four types of forests that have median and similar NPP values. Compared to other studies, forest biomass in the Altay and Tianshan Mountains are higher than that of both zonal and mountainous boreal forests in northern China and all over China, but forest NPP in these two mountains is in the reasonable ranges with both Chinese and global boreal forests. This study of forest productivity in high mountains has practical significance in local environmental protection and biodiversity conservation in dryland of northwestern China, and also has theoretical significance in involving mountainous vegetation in the study of global carbon cycle.
Growth patterns and carbon balance of Pinus radiata and Pseudotsuga menziesii plantations under climate change scenarios in Italy
Magnani, F. - Consiglio, L. - Erhard, M. - Nolè, A. - Ripullone, F. - Borghetti, M. (2004)
Forest Ecology and Management: Article in Press, Available online 11 September 2004.
Abstract: The process-based model HYDRALL has been applied to simulate growth patterns and carbon balance of three Pinus radiata and one Pseudotsuga menziesii plantations growing in different sites in Italy, under current climate and climate change scenarios. In three out of four cases, growth patterns simulated by the model under current climatic conditions showed good convergence with measured growth patterns, as provided by stem analysis. Climatic variables for the period 1990¿2100 have been obtained from the General Circulation Model (GCM) projections of the HadCM2 model. At all sites simulations predicted an increase of both temperature and precipitation. The effects of climate change on forest growth were explored by simulating 50-year stand rotations starting from different dates in the 1960¿2100 period. Climate change had a positive effect on stand growth patterns; with the largest effect found for P. menziesii (73 and 55% increase for stand volume and height at the age of 40). Mean annual increment (MAI) was also stimulated by climate change, whereas no change in MAI temporal patterns was observed. In three out of four cases the model predicted an increase in the allocation of carbon to the foliage compartment. A positive effect of climate change on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was observed only for the P. menziesii stand; in contrast, water-use efficiency, estimated as the ratio between net primary production and stand transpiration, increased in all sites.
Influence of Project Scale and Carbon Variability on the Costs of Measuring Soil Carbon Credits
Mooney, S. - Antle, J. - Capalbo, S. - Paustian, K. (2004)
Environmental Management 33 (Supplement 1): 252-263
Abstract: A large body of research suggests that US cropland soils can also sequester significant amounts of C and are a promising source of C credits. This paper presents a framework for assessing the transactions costs associated with per-hectare and per-credit contract types and addresses the potential magnitude of transactions costs associated with measuring soil C credits under a per-credit contract within the dry-land crop region of Montana, USA. In the empirical analysis, we estimate the total measurement costs for soil C credits and investigate how changes in contract (and region) size as well as increases in C credit variability affect total measurement costs. The empirical analyses suggest that increasing the size of the contract and aggregating credits over a larger number of producers can lower measurement costs associated with the per-credit contract, even in the face of increasing C variability. Thus contracts for large quantities of soil credits increase the likelihood that the per-credit contract remains more efficient than the per-hectare contract. However, these empirical results reflect the specific data and conditions present within the case study region. The theoretical expectation is that sample size and measurement costs can either increase or decrease as the population to be sampled increases. Thus the measurement costs associated with a per-credit contract could respond differently from this analysis across the spatial extent of the US.
A Revised Methodology for Estimation of Forest Soil Carbon from Spatial Soils and Forest Inventory Data Sets
Amichev, B.Y. - Galbraith, J.M. (2004)
Environmental Management 33 (Supplement 1): 74-86
Abstract: Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents the largest constituent of the global C pool and is used by researchers in C cycling, global climate change, and soil quality studies. Spatial, pedon, and soil interpretation record databases are widely used to estimate regional SOC. This study compared published SOC estimates with estimates of mass SOC to 2 m in Maine and Minnesota using STATSGO data tables edited and filled by automated software scripts. Valid STATSGO soil property data were used to produce replacement values for invalid or missing data after grouping by soil order, MLRA, layer number, and texture. Area-weighted mass SOC was calculated using log-transformed data. Between 30% and 54% of the large rock fragment data were invalid, and between 18% and 48% of the missing OM values were replaced. The log-transformed area-weighted mass SOC to 2 m was 7.88 kg/m2 (SD = 9.24 kg C/m2 CV = 117.2%) for Maine and 17.38 kg/m2 (SD = 15.30 kg C/m2 CV = 88.1%) for Minnesota. These values were lower than earlier estimates because of the log-transformation and because our error checking increased the volume of rock fragments. The FIA database was merged with STATSGO to produce mass SOC by forest-type group. The elm¿ash¿cottonwood (7.22 kg C/m2) and the spruce¿fir (17.73 kg C/m2) forest-type groups had the highest SOC (to 1 m depth) in Maine and Minnesota, respectively. The methods and scripts used in this study can be easily adjusted, and as they are improved, they in turn can improve the quality of data in STATSGO tables.
A Proposed Model for Deadwood C Production and Decay in Loblolly Pine Plantations
Radtke, P.J. - Prisley, S.P. - Amateis, R.L. - Copenheaver, C.A. - Burkhart, H.E. (2004)
Environmental Management 33 (Supplement 1): 56-64
Abstract: Analysis of long-term study data indicates deadwood C production in loblolly pine plantations averages between 50 and 1700 kg/ha/year in stands age 15 to 35 years. In order to accurately predict deadwood carbon stocks over the life of individual stands, information is needed on the size distribution of deadwood and the rates of decay of various-size deadwood pieces. Effects of management activities on mortality and subsequent decay should also be accounted for in model predictions of deadwood C. We describe a proposal for augmenting a loblolly pine stand-level growth and yield model to account for deadwood C production and yield over an entire rotation. Deadwood size distributions are predicted from stand-level variables. Decay rates after mortality are predicted from stand attributes and piece-size information and are used to predict C accumulation in deadwood. The resulting model will be used to predict aboveground carbon stocks in loblolly pine stands, or in regional assessments when linked to geographic databases.
Changes in carbon storage and net carbon exchange one year after an initial shelterwood harvest at Howland Forest, ME
Scott, N.A. - Rodrigues, C.A. - Hughes, H. - Lee, J.T. - Davidson, E.A. - Dail, D.B. - Malerba, P. - Hollinger, D.Y. (2004)
Environmental Management 33 (Supplement 1): 9-22
Abstract: Although many forests are actively sequestering carbon, little research has examined the direct effects of forest management practices on carbon sequestration. At the Howland Forest in Maine, USA, we are using eddy covariance and biometric techniques to evaluate changes in carbon storage following a shelterwood cut that removed just under 30% of aboveground biomass. Prior to harvest, the stand contained about 76 Mg C/ha (30 m2/ha basal area) in aboveground and belowground live biomass. Harvesting removed about 15 Mg C/ha (SEM = 2.1) and created about 5.3 Mg C/ha (SEM = 1.1) of aboveground and 5.2 Mg C/ha (SEM = 0.7) of root/stump detritus. Leaf-area index (LAI) and litterfall declined by about 40% with harvest. Approximately half of the harvested wood was used for paper products and half for longer-lived wood products. Eddy covariance measurements in a nearby unharvested stand indicated that net ecosystem exchange (NEE) averages about 1.8 Mg C/ha/year of C sequestration. A comparison of NEE at unharvested and harvested stands, both preharvest and postharvest, indicated that NEE declined following the harvest by about 18%, which is less than expected based on basal area and LAI changes. Soil respiration declined slightly (but nonsignificantly, P = 0.23) with harvest, suggesting no major soil C loss after harvest. When decay of paper and wood products is included in a preliminary carbon budget, we calculate a postharvest net source of C to the atmosphere for at least 5 years, assuming preharvest growth rates of trees. How quickly the carbon balance becomes positive will depend largely on whether postharvest growth rates increase.
Land-Use Change, Carbon Sequestration and Poverty Alleviation
Leslie Lipper, L. - Cavatassi, R. (2004)
Environmental Management 33 (Supplement 1): 374-387
Abstract: In this article, we seek to identify where the greatest potential for synergies between carbon sequestration and poverty alleviation lie and ways they can be enhanced. We assess the amount and eligibility criteria of sequestration payment sources to developing countries. Many land-use changes accessible to low-income land users are potentially competitive in a market where payments are likely to range between between $11 to $15 per carbon ton sequestered. We present a conceptual framework of land-use decision-making to assess the potential for sequestration adoption among the poor. The determinants of adoption vary according to the impact of adoption on the returns to productive factors in the absence of any payment for sequestration. Where sequestration leads to a decrease in returns, the key determinant is the return to sequestration and labor, which are driven by the potential sequestration supply per unit land area and labor-use requirements. When sequestration adoption leads to an increase in returns, barriers to land-use change are present, which is frequently the case for the poor. Adoption is determined by the capacity of sequestration payments to overcome constraints. Barrier removal may involve designing payments to overcome risk or investment constraints, or wider institutional reform. Sequestration values may be insufficient to cover costs of institutional reform, requiring incorporation into wider development programs. A survey of results from empirical studies lends support to the analysis. We conclude with an assessment of transaction cost impacts on sequestration adoption among the poor, and how these can be addressed.
The carbon we do not see¿the impact of low molecular weight compounds on carbon dynamics and respiration in forest soils: a review
van Hees, P.A.W. - Jones, D.L. - Finlay, R. - Godbold, D.L. - Lundström, U.S. (2004)
Soil Biology and Biochemistry Article in Press, Available online 20 August 2004.
Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM), typically quantified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), has been hypothesized to play many roles in pedogenesis and soil biogeochemical cycles, however, most research to date concerning forest soils has focussed on the high molecular weight (HMW) components of this DOM. This review aims to assess the role of low molecular weight (LMW) DOM compounds in the C dynamics of temperate and boreal forest soils focussing in particular on organic acids, amino acids and sugars. The current knowledge of concentrations, mineralization kinetics and production rates and sources in soil are summarised. We conclude that although these LMW compounds are typically maintained at very low concentrations in the soil solution (<50 µM), the flux through this pool is extremely rapid (mean residence time 1¿10 h) due to continued microbial removal. Due to this rapid flux through the soil solution pool and mineralization to CO2, we calculate that the turnover of these LMW compounds may contribute substantially to the total CO2 efflux from the soil. Moreover, the production rates of these soluble transitory compounds could exceed HMW DOM production. The possible impact of climate change on the behaviour of LMW compounds in soil is also discussed.
Introducing effects of temperature and CO2 elevation on tree growth into a statistical growth and yield model
J. Matala, J. - Ojansuu, R. - Peltola, H. - Sievänen, R. - Kellomäki, S. (2004)
Ecological Modelling Article in Press, Corrected Proof - Available online 23 August 2004.
Abstract: Impacts of elevated temperature and CO2 on tree growth were introduced into a statistical growth and yield model for Finnish conditions based on corresponding predictions obtained from a physiological growth model. This one-way link between models was made by means of species-specific transfer functions describing the increase in stem volume growth of trees as a function of elevated temperature and CO2, stand density and the tree's competition status in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), silver birch (Betula pendula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). This method allows the inner dynamics of the statistical model to be followed when the impacts of temperature and CO2 elevation on tree growth are introduced into the calculation of volume growth and further allocated between diameter and height growth. In this way compatibility with previous predictions of tree growth by means of statistical models and related model systems under current climatic conditions could be retained. The performance of the statistical model with species-specific transfer functions was evaluated by comparing its predictions with corresponding predictions given by a physiological model under conditions of elevated temperature and CO2. These calculations revealed that the growth response of individual trees to elevated temperature and CO2 can be introduced into the statistical model from a physiological growth model with an outcome that results in fairly satisfactory growth responses at the stand level as well.
Model of forest carbon sequestration incorporating aerial wood radiative budget
Longdoz, B. - Aubinet, M. - François, L.M. (2004)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125 (1-2): 83-104
Abstract: The CHANCE model, simulating CO2, energy and water fluxes in a forest ecosystem, is presented. The components of the simulated canopy are the leaves, the branches, the trunks and the soil. The first three are divided into sunny and shaded zones. The model has been calibrated and validated in comparison with measurements performed in the temperate beech forest of Vielsalm (Belgium). For the reproduction of half-hourly net CO2 fluxes, the quality of the CHANCE results is comparable to other models (systematic error of 14%¿0.51 mol m-2 s-1, R2=0.79). The differences between simulated and measured fluxes result essentially from noise in the data, underestimation of the stomatal conductance during very dry days and heterogeneity of the south, southeast sector (presence of conifer patches). Three sensitivity tests have been performed. The first one, neglecting the contribution of aerial wood in the radiation budget, doubles the annual carbon sequestration (Seco). This trend is strengthened in the second test where common radiative and photosynthetic properties are assigned to leaves and branches. The third test induces a 30% reduction of Seco when the calculation of canopy component temperatures using the complete energy balance is replaced by the use of air temperature.
Enhancement of Carbon Sequestration in US Soils
Post, W.M. - Izaurralde, R.C. - Jastrow, J.D. - McCarl, B.A. - Amonette, J.E. - Bailey, V.L. - Jardine, P.M. - West, T.O. - Zhou, J. (2004)
BioScience 54 (10): 895-908
Abstract: Improved practices in agriculture, forestry, and land management could be used to increase soil carbon and thereby significantly reduce the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Understanding biological and edaphic processes that increase and retain soil carbon can lead to specific manipulations that enhance soil carbon sequestration. These manipulations, however, will be suitable for adoption only if they are technically feasible over large areas, economically competitive with alternative measures to offset greenhouse gas emissions, and environmentally beneficial. Here we present the elements of an integrated evaluation of soil carbon sequestration methods.
Russian decision on ratification ¿ major step towards entry into force of Kyoto Protocol
Bonn, 30 September 2004 ¿ The decision of the Russian cabinet to forward the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on climate change to the Russian Parliament (or Duma) for ratification will ¿ if the Duma moves to adopt ¿ re-energize international cooperation on cutting greenhouse gas emissions, the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Climate Change Convention said today.
(UNFCCC Press release)
Climate change may endanger Monarch butterfly
WASHINGTON (AP) ¿ Monarch butterflies, which journey hundreds of miles to spend the winter in a mountain forest in Mexico, may be endangered within 50 years because a changing climate could make their winter refuge too wet and cool.
(from USA Today)
Climate fear as carbon levels soar
Scientists bewildered by sharp rise of CO2 in atmosphere for second year running
An unexplained and unprecedented rise in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere two years running has raised fears that the world may be on the brink of runaway global warming.
(from The Guardian)
Hurricanes to intensify as Earth warms
Global warming will cause more intense hurricanes in decades to come, according to a study published by The Journal of Climate that confirms earlier efforts to establish such a link. One hurricane expert said, "This clinches the issue." Researchers said it was unclear whether the frequency of storms will be affected by global warming.
(from UN Wire)
UNFCCC - Clean Development Mechanism: Propose a new methodology for afforestation and reforestation project activities
Subsequent round for submission of new A/R methodologies open until 17 November 2004
Project participants willing to validate / register a CDM A/R project activity shall:
- use a A/R methodology previously approved by the Executive Board;
- propose a new A/R methodology to the Executive Board for consideration and approval, if appropriate
- To submit proposed new methodologies for afforestation and reforestation project activities:
- The project participant shall propose a new A/R methodology, through a designated operational entity or an applicant entity, submitting the CDM afforestation and reforestation project design documents ( CDM-AR-PDD, CDM-AR-NMB and CDM-AR-NMM).
- The DOE / AE, contracted by the project participants, shall determine whether the proposed project activity intends to use a new baseline or monitoring methodology for afforestation and reforestation project activities.
- The DOE /AE shall check whether documents are complete (draft CDM-AR-PDD, CDM-AR-NMB and CDM-AR-NMM, as well as relevant annexes) and forward, without further analysis, the proposed new A/R methodology to the Board for its consideration and approval, if appropriate, using form
- The secretariat shall make the proposed new A/R methodology publicly available on the UNFCCC CDM web site and invite public inputs for a period of 15 working days. Public inputs on a proposed new methodology shall be made using the Proposed new A/R methodology - public comment form (F-CDM-AR-NMpu ver01) (128 KB). Comments shall be forwarded to the working group on afforestation and reforestation at the moment of receipt and made available to the public at the end of the 15 working day period.
Outcomes of UNFCCC Workshop on Harvested Wood Products
Lillehammer, Norway from 30 August to 1 September 2004
Specific topics to be discussed at the UNFCCC workshop on Harvested Wood Products (HWP) included definitions and scope of estimation, reporting and accounting of harvested wood; approaches for accounting of harvested wood products as well as the implications of different approaches; and methods for estimation and reporting of wood products.
The workshop participants agreed that the IPCC should include HWP methodologies in the 2006 Guidelines; a minimum set of quantities should be identified that should be reported in national greenhouse gas inventories to allow the application of the approaches and that methodologies to estimate emissions/removals and other quantities to allow calculation under any of the approaches should be provided (IPCC Default, Stock Change, Atmospheric Flow and Production approaches).
Terms for common understanding and scope of estimation, reporting and accounting of emissions and removals resulting from HWP: The technical paper by the secretariat (http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/tp/tp0307.pdf) can be seen as a basis for common understanding of the meaning of terms, however further elaboration is still needed.
Methods for estimation and reporting of emissions and removals resulting from HWP: The methods provided by IPCC have to be comprehensive to allow for the calculation of all possible emissions resulting from HWP. Methodology guidance should ensure consistency with regards to the transfer of carbon between pools. With regard to data availability, there are some countries in which data is limited or not very accurate. Methods should consider the use of default value where appropriate and state where country specific values are needed. Some particular elements such as the treatments of recycled materials need to be included in the methods;
Approaches for accounting emissions and removals from HWP and their implications: During the discussion of the pros and cons of various approaches (¿Default approach¿, the ¿production¿, the ¿stock change¿ and the ¿atmospheric flow approaches¿; and the ¿simple decay approach¿) it became clear that the analysis of the implication of each of the approaches is a complex issue which needs further consideration. Further analysis should be undertaken to have a more sophisticated and deeper understanding of the socio-economic and environmental implication of applying each approach. The basis for such an assessment should be the application of each in comparison to the IPCC default approach. Some elements for the assessment of these approaches could include issues like equity between consuming and producing countries, the accountability, provision of incentives for increased use of bio fuels, reduction of emissions and sustainable forest management.
Seminar invitation: Forestry, Climate Change & Development Opportunities Seminar
Cosponsored by the CIDA Forestry Advisors Network and the Science, Technical and Advisory Services Directorate
Date: Wednesday, November 28th, from 8:45 am to 4:45 pm
To retrieve the seminar's program:
COST ACTION E 21
The final plenary meeting took place in Dublin, Ireland from October 7-10th, 2004. Those interested in all aspects of biomass and carbon inventories in forests and soils should consult the Cost E 21 website, where presentations will be posted soon. The site also exhibits results of earlier workshops that are highly relevant for the fledgling art of carbon inventories in forests.
Climate change and forestry in Sweden ¿ a literature review
Report from Climate and the Forest Committee
Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry (KSLA): Issue 143, Nr 18, Year 2004
Summary: The scope of the study was to review the relevant literature regarding the impact of climate change on forestry in Sweden, to synthesise current knowledge, to draw conclusions on likely effects of climate change and to identify areas in which further research and knowledge are required. We have limited
the study to the effects over short and medium time spans (20¿100 years), focussing on direct climatic effects on the trees, and indirect effects mediated by the climatic impact on soils, herbivores, insects, pests and diseases. This literature review has revealed major deficiencies in our knowledge about the effects that expected climate change will have on the forest ecosystems. For instance, the potential effects of climatic changes on the structure and processes of forest ecosystems are even less certain than the likely nature and magnitude of the climatic changes per se. However, the most likely effects of climate change can be predicted. They generally include an increase in potential biomass production, possibilities to grow new species commercially and increased risk of several kinds of damage. Climate change appears to offer new opportunities to forestry, while increasing the risk of calamities. This calls for radical approaches to both forest- and risk management. The reviewed literature contains indications that a better understanding of the links between climate, the forest and forestry is required. However, the study also identified three major obstacles that need to be overcome in order to improve our understanding of the issues, risks and possibilities associated with the potential impact of continued climate change on forests and forestry:
- Studies undertaken so far have generally addressed some specific aspect of the overall forestry/forest system, instead of adopting a more integrated approach in which the system as a whole and various feedback mechanisms are considered.
- The studies published so far differ in their choices of climate change scenarios. Thus, the findings refer to different shifts in temperatures, precipitation and other climate variables, making it difficult to collate and integrate the findings.
- The transience of the anticipated climate changes have not been included in the studies, as they typically refer to impacts under a specific, static, new climatic regime. However, instead of switching instantaneously to a new climatic regime sometime in the future, the forest and forestry will probably face continuous, ongoing changes in climate, implying that conditions will constantly change within a typical treecrop rotation and from one rotation to the next. Future research on the effects of climate change on forestry and forest ecosystems has to take account of a broad spectrum of scientific fields, but a multidisciplinary scientific approach will probably be essential.
Report available for download: http://www.ksla.se/sv/retrieve_file.asp?n=361
The Carboncredits.nl team at SenterNovem is inviting applicants for the position of Project Officer. The project officer will work to evaluate business plans and project proposals and will cooperate with host country governments (mostly Central and Eastern Europe) to facilitate transfer of emission reductions. We are looking for a candidate with about five years experience in the field of climate change policy, sustainable energy, international cooperation and/or investments in emerging markets.
A full description is available at:
SenterNovem Dutch Government Agency
Juliana van Stolberglaan 3
P.O. Box 93144
2509 AC THE HAGUE
Phone +31 70 373 54 95
Fax +31 70 373 51 00
VACANCY FOR CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY EXPERT AT CAN-EUROPE
Climate Action Network Europe is seeking a climate technology specialist, to be based in Brussels. CAN Europe is the co-ordinating office for western Europe of the Climate Action Network, a global network of environmental NGOs working on climate change and sustainable energy issues. There are 85 member organisations within the EU and associated countries. CAN Europe is a highly regarded NGO partner in climate and energy policy development in Brussels. As part of CAN International, it also plays an important role within the United Nations Framework Convention process on climate change.
Responsibilities will include:
- Active engagement (as part of a team) on relevant policy issues at EU level.
- Lobbying activities with the European institutions as well as think tanks, industry groups and member state actors.
- Provision of information to member organisations on EU policy developments.
- Co-ordination of joint position papers, press statements and letters from the network on relevant policy issues.
- Participation in the international conferences of the UNFCCC as well as related processes.
- Give support for fund raising
- Co-ordination with other parts of CAN.
The ideal candidate will have:
- 3-5 years experience on climate technology and EU energy and climate policies. These could include but are not limited to: alternative vehicle technologies and fuels, CO2 capture and storage, hydrogen and fuel cells, fluorinated greenhouse gases, the CDM and JI, policies in the European Climate Change Programme, energy markets: environmental aspects of liberalisation, energy efficiency, nuclear energy
- A strong commitment to environmental protection and human development.
- Good communication skills, both written and spoken.
- Strong interpersonal skills, and ability to work with people from a wide range of cultures.
- Fluent spoken and written English. Skills in other languages an important advantage.
- Good computer skills
- Work as a self-employed consultant
Consultancy fee is based on experience (indication 3000 Euro/152 hours). The position is based in Brussels.
Interested candidates should send a covering letter with their c.v. to Karla Schoeters, firstname.lastname@example.org and cc to email@example.com. Closing date for applications is Sunday 24 October 2004. For further information on Climate Action Network Europe consult our web site at http://www.climnet.org
Forests, Trees, and Climate Change: Recent Experiences in Asia
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
The CIDA Forestry Advisers Network (CFAN) has posted a new feature on its website:
Forests, Trees, and Climate Change: Recent Experiences in Asia - Three examples of Canada Climate Change Development Fund (CCCDF)-supported carbon sequestration projects in Asia are briefly described. Each of them recognizes the importance of community participation in its implementation strategy.
Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change
The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change is dedicated to discovering and disseminating scientific information pertaining to the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on climate and the biosphere. The website offers to retrieve the CO2 Science Magazine, which contains reviews of five different peer-reviewed scientific journal articles relating to various aspects of the global change debate. In addition, editorials, book reports, journal reviews, climate and plant growth data as well as an extensive subject index can be obtained from the website.
The website can be found under: http://www.co2science.org/center.htm
Thank you for your Inputs for this Issue: Romina Cavatassi, Thomas Hofer, Osamu Hashiramoto
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