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Productivity and global climate revisited: the sensitivity of tropical forest growth to precipitation
Schuur, E.A.G. (2003)
Ecology 84 (5): 1165-1170
Abstract: The response of tropical forest carbon balance to global change is highly dependent on the factors limiting net primary productivity (NPP) in this biome. Current empirical global NPP-climate relationships predict that the response of NPP to climate diminishes at higher levels of mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT), but data have been relatively scarce in warm and wet tropical ecosystems. By integrating data from a new comprehensive global survey of NPP from tropical forests and a climate gradient from Maui, Hawaii, USA, along with data previously used to develop NPP-climate relationships, I show that there is a strong negative relationship between MAP and NPP in humid ecosystems. The relationships derived here clearly demonstrate that NPP in wet tropical forests is sensitive to climate, and that future forest growth may be limited by increased precipitation forecast by global climate models for the wet tropics.
Estimating soil carbon fluxes following land-cover change: a test of some critical assumptions for a region in Costa Rica.
Powers, J.S. ¿ Read, J.M. ¿ Denslow, J.S. ¿ Guzman, S.M. (2004)
Global Change Biology 10 (2): 170-181
Abstract: The objective of this work was to examine how assumptions about preconversion soil C storage and the effects of land-cover change influence estimates of regional soil C storage. We applied three models of land-cover change effects to two maps of preconversion soil C in a 140 000 ha area of northeastern Costa Rica. One preconversion soil C map was generated using values assigned to tropical wet forest from the literature, the second used values obtained from extensive field sampling. The first model of land-cover change effects used values that are typically applied in global assessments, the second and third models used field data but differed in how the data were aggregated (one was based on land-cover transitions and one was based on terrain attributes). Changes in regional soil C storage were estimated for each combination of model and preconversion soil C for three time periods defined by geo-referenced land-cover maps. The estimated regional soil C under forest vegetation (to 0.3 m) was higher in the map based on field data (10.03 Tg C) than in the map based on literature data (8.90 Tg C), although the range of values derived from propagating estimation errors was large (7.67-12.40 Tg C). Regional soil C storage declined through time due to forest clearing for pasture and crops. Estimated CO2 fluxes depended more on the model of land-cover change effects than on preconversion soil C. Cumulative soil C losses (1950-1996) under the literature model of land-cover effects exceeded estimates based on field data by factors of 3.8-8.0.
Surface wildfires in central Amazonia: short-term impact on forest structure and carbon loss
Haugaasen, T. ¿ Barlow, J. ¿ Peres, C.A. (2003)
Forest Ecology and Management 179 (1-3): 321-331
Abstract: Changes in forest structure were examined 10-15 months after an unprecedented understorey wildfire burnt previously undisturbed primary forest in central Brazilian Amazonia, following the severe 1997-1998 El Nino dry season. On the basis of 20 0.25 ha plots (10 m x 250 m) in both burnt and unburnt forest, we found marked differences in the overall live biomass, canopy openness and understorey vegetation. On average, 36% of all trees equal to or greater than 10 cm DBH were found to be dead in the burnt forest, and there was also a near-complete mortality in all pre-burn saplings. Using an allometric equation to predict biomass mortality we estimate that the tree mortality rates found would commit an additional 25.5 t C/ha to be released from these BFs. The dramatic increase of aboveground dead biomass in BF is of major global concern because of the increased flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, which has a role in enhancing the greenhouse effect and promoting climate change.
Understanding climate change risk and vulnerability in northern forest-based communities
Davidson, D.J. ¿ Williamson, T. ¿ Parkins, J.R. (2003)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33 (11): 2252-2261
Abstract: An important step in mitigation and adaptation will be to examine the ways that climate change risks manifest themselves in particular social localities. Certain social groups may be at greater risk, not solely because of their geographic location in a region of high climate sensitivity but also because of economic, political, and cultural characteristics. Combining the insights of economics and sociology, we provide an ideal-type model of northern forest-based communities that suggests that these communities may represent a particularized social context in regard to climate change. Although scientific research indicates that northern forest ecosystems are among those regions at greatest risk to the impacts of climate change, the social dimensions of these communities indicate both a limited community capacity and a limited potential to perceive climate change as a salient risk issue that warrants action. Five features of forest-based communities describe this context in further detail: (i) the constraints on adaptability in rural, resource-dependent communities to respond to risk in a proactive manner, (ii) the national and international identification of deforestation as a central causal mechanism in the political arena, (iii) the nature of commercial forestry investment planning and management decision-making, (iv) the potential by members of these communities to underestimate the risk associated with climate change, and (v) the multiplicity of climate change risk factors in forest-based communities.
Change in soil carbon cycling for stand development of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantations following clear-cutting
Shutou, K. ¿ Nakane, K. (2004)
Ecological Research 19 (2): 233-244
Abstract: Soil carbon cycling was studied in Japanese cedar plantations with different stand ages after clear-cutting and was analyzed by a compartment model. The amount of biomass and the litterfall rate increased rapidly with the growth of Japanese cedar, which were approximated by a simple logistic function of stand age. The accumulation of A0 layer decreased from 21 t ha-1 to 5 t ha-1 during the 10 years following clear-cutting, and then recovered to nearly the same level as before clear-cutting within 20 years after clear-cutting, although the amount of soil carbon in the mineral soil recovered more than 40 years after clear-cutting. The total and mineral soil respiration rates increased rapidly after clear-cutting and gradually decreased in young stands and stabilized in old stands. The relative decomposition rate of the A0 layer and organic matters in mineral soil was high in the young stands because of the relatively high soil temperature rather than the soil moisture content. After the closing up of the canopy, the relative decomposition rates of the A0 layer and humus in the mineral soil stabilized at 0.14 to 0.16 y-1 and 0.005 to 0.013 y-1, respectively. Consequently, soil carbon cycling was strongly affected by clear-cutting. The amount of soil carbon rapidly decreased because of the cessation of litterfall and the increase of the relative decomposition rate of the A0 layer and humus, and recovered gradually to the level before clear-cutting with the growth of the cedar plantation. The change in soil carbon cycling with stand development was partly caused by the change in soil temperature and moisture content but was mainly caused by the amount of cedar litterfall which changed significantly in the early stage of the stand following clear-cutting, and became slower and leveled off in the late stage with stabilization of the environmental conditions and litterfall rate.
Prototype carbon fund: afforestation of degraded agricultural land in Romania.
Abrudan, I.V. ¿ Blujdea, V. ¿ Brown, S. ¿ Kostyushin, V. ¿ Pahontu, C. - Phillips, H. ¿ Voicu, M. (2003)
Revista Padurilor 118 (1): 5-17
Abstract: An area in Romania of 6728 ha to be afforested over a four year period forms the first afforestation project under the World Bank Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) mechanism. The PCF will purchase the net carbon sequestered by the newly established plantations. Afforestation represents an alternative land use on abandoned land. During the baseline study conducted in 2002, the method for estimating and predicting future carbon sequestered by the established plantations was developed together with the methodology for estimating carbon stocks (above- and below-ground) under current land use options. An economic analysis shows that afforestation is the preferred future land use. However, without the sale of carbon to the Prototype Carbon Fund, the afforestation is not economically viable and would not be financially convenient for the National Forest Administration. Risks due to leakage are identified together with mitigation measures. The baseline study set out the plan for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration and also the monitoring of social and biodiversity impacts throughout the project life.
Are Pinus halepensis plantations useful as a restoration tool in semiarid Mediterranean areas?
Fernando, T.M. - Cortina, J. (2004)
Forest Ecology and Management 198 (1-3): 303-317
Abstract: In the semiarid areas of the Mediterranean basin, restoration activities during the XXth century have mainly relied on extensive plantations of Pinus halepensis, which now cover thousands of hectares. Here we review studies that have evaluated the effects of these plantations on soils, vegetation, faunal communities, and forest fires. The effects of P. halepensis plantations on soil properties are highly dependent on the planting technique employed. Plantations frequently show enhanced runoff and soil losses when compared to natural shrublands, as well as limited improvement in most physio-chemical properties, which rarely reach the values shown by natural shrublands even 40 years after planting. The increase in tree cover resulting from the introduction of P. halepensis is commonly accompanied by an increase in water use, which may have relevant hydrological consequences at the catchment scale. Most studies performed so far have shown an overall negative effect of P. halepensis plantations on spontaneous vegetation. In these plantations, vegetation is dominated by early-successional species, and the establishment of late-successional sprouting shrubs¿even after several decades¿has been rarely reported. Our review contributes to the debate on the suitability of mono-specific extensive P. halepensis plantations, and suggests that afforestation programmes should be revised.
How costly are carbon offsets? A meta-analysis of carbon forest sinks
Abstract: In this study, meta-regression analysis is used to examine 981 estimates from 55 studies of the costs of creating carbon offsets using forestry. Baseline estimates of costs of sequestering carbon through forest conservation are US$ 46.62¿US$ 260.29/t C ($12.71¿$70.99/t CO2). Tree planting and agroforestry activities increase costs by more than 200%. When post-harvest storage of carbon in wood products, or substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy production, are taken into account, costs are lowest ¿ some $12.53¿$68.44/t C ($3.42¿$18.67/t CO2). Average costs are greater, between $116.76 and $1406.60/t C ($31.84¿$383.62/t CO2), when appropriate account is taken of the opportunity costs of land. Peer review of the studies increases costs by a factor or 10 or more, depending on the model. The use of marginal cost estimates instead of average cost results in much higher costs for carbon sequestration, in the range of thousands of dollars per t C, although few studies used this method of cost assessment.
Hamrick, J. L.
Forest Ecology and Management (Available online 1 July 2004)
Abstract: Characteristics of tree species may uniquely situate them to withstand environmental changes. Paleoecological evidence indicates that the geographic ranges of tree species have expanded and contracted several times since the last glacial epoch in response to directional environmental changes. For most tree species, these range fluctuations have been accomplished without any apparent loss of genetic diversity. A possible explanation that distinguishes most trees from many herbaceous plants is that much of the genetic variation within tree species is found within rather than among their populations. Thus, the extinction of a relatively large proportion of a tree species¿ populations would result in relatively little overall loss of genetic diversity. Furthermore, phylogeographic studies indicate that for some tree species, habitat heterogeneity (elevation, slope aspect, moisture, etc.) in glacial refugia may have preserved adaptive genetic variation that, when recombined and exposed to selection in newly colonized habitats, gave rise to the local adaptation currently seen. The maintenance of genetic diversity in the face of extensive habitat fragmentation is also a concern. Many forest trees, however, may be buffered from the adverse effects of habitat fragmentation. First, the longevity of individual trees may retard population extinction and allow individuals and populations to survive until habitat recovery occurs. Second, considerable evidence is available that both animal and wind-pollinated tree species in fragments experience levels of pollen flow that are sufficient to counteract the effects of genetic drift. The combination of individual longevity, high intra-population genetic diversity and the potential for high rates of pollen flow should make tree species especially resistant to extinction and the loss of genetic diversity during changing environmental conditions.
Carbon Sequestration in Dryland Ecosystems
Rattan, L. (2004)
Abstract: Drylands occupy 6.15 billion hectares (Bha) or 47.2% of the world's land area. Of this, 3.5 to 4.0 Bha (57%-65%) are either desertified or prone to desertification. Despite the low soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration, total SOC pool of soils of the drylands is 241 Pg (1 Pg = petagram = 1015 g = 1 billion metric ton) or 15.5% of the world's total of 1550 Pg to 1-meter depth. Desertification has caused historic C loss of 20 to 30 Pg. Assuming that two-thirds of the historic loss can be resequestered, the total potential of SOC sequestration is 12 to 20 Pg C over a 50-year period. Land use and management practices to sequester SOC include afforestation with appropriate species, soil management on cropland, pasture management on grazing land, and restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems through afforestation and conversion to other restorative land uses. Tree species suitable for afforestation in dryland ecosystems include Mesquite, Acacia, Neem and others. Recommended soil management practices include application of biosolids (e.g., manure, sludge), which enhance activity of soil macrofauna (e.g., termites), use of vegetative mulches, water harvesting, and judicious irrigation systems. Recommended practices of managing grazing lands include controlled grazing at an optimal stocking rate, fire management, and growing improved species. The estimated potential of SOC sequestration is about 1 Pg C/y for the world and 50 Tg C/y for the U.S. This potential of dryland soils is relevant to both the Kyoto Protocol under UNFCCC and the U.S. Farm Bill 2002.
Qualitative Survey of Five Beech Damaging Coleoptera
(Scolytidae and Lymexylonidae) in Wallonia (Southern Belgium)
Henin, J.-M. - Huart, O. - Lejeune, P. - Jacques Rondeux, J.
IUFRO Proceedings: Ecology, Survey and Management of Forest Insects GTR-NE-311
Abstract: As a consequence of an exceptional frost that severely affected beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) over a broad area of Southern Belgium in November 1998, populations of T. domesticum and T. signatum (Col.: Scolytidae) reached epidemic levels in 2000 and 2001 were one of the main causes of the depreciation of more than 1,600,000 m³ of standing beech trees, Fagus sylvatica L., in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). In 2001, a survey aiming at assessing the range of those indigenous ambrosia beetles, so far discreet and poorly studied, pointed out that they are omnipresent all over Wallonia.
First meeting of the UNFCCC Afforestation and Reforestation Working Group (AR WG)
The report of the first meeting of the CDM working group on afforestation and reforestation, carried out from 12 - 13 July 2004 in Bonn (Germany), is now available and can be retrieved at http://cdm.unfccc.int/EB/Panels/ar/index.html.
The working group recommended a draft Project Design Document form for Afforestation and Reforestation project activities (CDM-AR-PDD) to the Executive Board, that should contain descriptions of the baseline and monitoring methodology, a plan on estimation of net anthropogenic GHG removals by sinks, description of the social and environmental impacts as well as stakeholders¿ comments on proposed A/R CDM project activity. Furthermore, the working group proposed draft new methodologies and draft guidelines for completion of documents for A/R baseline and monitoring as well as for the Project Design Document.
Burning In Amazon Linked To Accelerating Global Warming
Greenhouse gases generated by the burning of the Amazon are currently able to be absorbed by the rest of the rainforest, but that will change if deforestation continues to accelerate, scientists said at an environmental conference in Brazil.
(from UN Wire)
Preventing Forest Fires Requires Local Involvement, FAO Says
With human activity causing 95 percent of all fires worldwide, local communities must play a more active role in preventing forest fires, the Food and Agriculture Organization said yesterday. "If humans are the main cause of forest fires, prevention and control have to involve people at local level," FAO forest fire expert Mike Jurvelius said. "The traditional approach of focusing on legislation and expensive equipment alone is not sufficient."
(from UN Wire)
Amazon Burning Makes Brazil One Of Top 10 Polluters
Brazil is one of the world's top 10 polluters due to its burning of the Amazon forest, scientists say. Within months, the government is expected to publish an inventory of Brazil's gas emissions, which researchers say will show that most of the country's greenhouse gas emissions come from smoke linked to deforestation of the Amazon, whereas in most countries fossil fuels cause greenhouse gas emissions. About 200 million of the 300 million metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent Brazil produces annually come from logging and burning of the Amazon, and the inventory should reflect this, said Paulo Moutinho, a researcher at the nongovernmental Institute for Amazon Research.
(from UN Wire)
2003 summer hottest in 500 years
European researchers say last summer was the hottest on the continent for at least five centuries. According to the study, published by this week's Science magazine, European winters are also getting warmer. Average winter and annual temperatures during the past three decades were the warmest for 500 years, it says.
(from BBC News)
Ninth European Ph.D. Workshop on International Climate Policy
October, 15-16, 2004, Viterbo, Italy
The Ninth Ph.D. workshop of the European Ph.D. network on International Climate Policy will be held at the University of Tuscia, hosted by the Department of Forest Science and Resources on October 15-16, 2004 in Viterbo, Italy.
The workshop is open to Ph.D. students and researchers from all disciplines working on different aspects of International Climate Policy. It offers a forum to present (preliminary) Ph.D. research ideas and results and discuss them with other students and researchers working in the field. The workshop will be held in English.
Further information on the workshop, as well as on past Ph.D. workshops, is available on the following websites:
For registration, please contact Lucia Perugini (email@example.com), including your name, name of institution or university and subject of Ph.D. thesis.
Registration form is also available on this website http://gaia.agraria.unitus.it/phd_ws9. The Registration closes on September 10th, 2004.
COST E21 - Contribution of Forests and Forestry to the Mitigation of Greenhouse Effects
University College Dublin, 6-9th October, 2004
Details of the upcoming final plenary meeting of COST E21 can be downloaded from http://www.ucd.ie/ferg/coste21dublin.pdf
Please send/fax your submission and your registration details to Carly Green (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Fax: +353 1 716 1102
UNFCCC workshop on Harvested Wood Products
Lillehammer, Norway, 30 August - 1 September 2004
Specific topics to be discussed include:
(a) Definitions and scope of estimation, reporting and accounting of harvested wood products, including system boundaries, changes in carbon stocks and emissions in relation to wood products, and the relationship to waste and energy sectors.
(b) Approaches for accounting of harvested wood products and implications of different approaches in Parties included in Annex I to the Convention and Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention, impacts on sustainable forest management and biomass use, impacts on countries that export and import wood, and impacts on trade
(c) Methods for estimation and reporting of wood products, including inventory methods, assumptions, availability of data, classes of wood products, accuracy and uncertainties, feasibility and costs.
The provisional agenda, relevant documents as well as information for participants can be obtained at: http://unfccc.int/sessions/workshop/300804/
INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP - Climate Change and Forest Sector: Clean Development Mechanism in Tropical Countries
Objective: An overall objective of the workshop is to promote the development of carbon markets through the implementation of clean development mechanism (CDM) forest activities such as afforestation and reforestation of degraded forest land in the tropics. One of objectives of the workshop is to enhance understanding of CDM carbon forestry and to identify the opportunities for forest industry and rural communities in the Asia-Pacific region.
Date: -- September 21 - 23, 2004
Venue: The workshop will be held at the HOAM CONVENTION CENTER in SNU.
International Scientific Conference: Climate Change - Natural Ecosystems and Landscape
Technical University Zvolen ¿ The Faculty of Forestry
Forest Research Institute Zvolen
Zvolen, Slovak Republic, 20¿23 September 2004
Objective: The objective of the conference is to promote exchange of information and experience in the field of Climate Change research among forest research institutions, nongovernmental organisations, scientists and international organisations on topics like forest ecosystems, natural ecosystems, landscape ecology, and soil protection.
The following main research areas related to global climate change will be topics of the conference:
¿ Global climate change (GCC) and forest ecosystems ¿ general view
¿ The impact of GCC on landscape and natural ecosystems
¿ The impact of GCC on soil and water management
¿ The impact of GCC on forest and landscape biodiversity
¿ Sustainable forest and landscape management influenced by GCC
¿ Influence of GCC on carbon cycle related to land use and land use change
¿ The relation of GCC and another injurious factors influenced forest ecosystems
¿ Political, economical and social impact of GCC on forested lands.
Target groups: The conference is open to everybody involved in ecosystem research, forest and landscape management, environmental and conservation scientists, policy and decision makers.
Language: The working language of the conference is English.
Date and venue of the seminar: The Conference will take place at Technical University in Zvolen (Slovak Republic) from 20. 9. 2004 to 23. 9. 2004.
Internet: The announcement can be also found at the web page www.fris.sk
Services available from the Forestry Library at FAO
The FAO Forestry Branch Library is accessible to external users to provide information about forestry and related areas in English, French, Spanish and Italian. Reference and information assistance can be supplied on requested topics, either in person, by e-mail or telephone.
Although books cannot be borrowed by external users, if you are interested in a title, you can request that the article you require be copied and sent to you (limited to FAO publications), request a copy of the document (limited to FAO publications) or arrange for your local library to borrow the book on your behalf. For assistance, contact the librarian at email@example.com.
The library¿s website http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/library includes a link entitled external users that notes the services that are available upon request. They include bibliographic research (a list of titles can be supplied on a given topic of interest) and supply of documents (those marked "free" in the FAO Sales Catalogue http://www.fao.org/icatalog/inter-e.htm and copies of duplicate books).
The library is open to visitors Tuesdays and Thursdays from 9.30 to 16.00 by appointment. However, unless you happen to be in Rome, the most productive search tool is the FAO Corporate Document Repository (http://www.fao.org/documents/). The Repository is an electronic library that holds over 6,000 FAO publications and meeting documents in full-text, electronic format which can be viewed online, downloaded as pdf files, or purchased in hard copy. To find the newest documents, select in the last day/week/month/year from the pull-down menu.
Additional links of interest include the library catalogue, library databases (namely Current Contents - an excellent source of article abstracts), and the FAO Forestry publications and resources.
For more information, please visit the website http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/library or contact: Forestry Library, Room B308bis, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Tel. +39 06 5705 4161, Fax +39 06 5705 5137, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Approaches for inclusion of harvested wood products in future GHG inventories under the UNFCCC, and their consistency with the overall UNFCCC inventory reporting framework
Pingoud, K. - Schlamadinger, B. - Grönkvist, S. - Brown, S. ¿ Cowie, A. ¿ Marland, G. (2004)
IEA Bioenergy Task 38
Abstract: This research paper aims to provide technical information on the consistency of different HWP approaches with IPCC Inventory Guidance, and is relevant for the discussions at the workshop on HWP that will be organized by the UNFCCC in August of 2004. The scope of this paper encompasses approaches for including HWP in future UNFCCC national GHG inventories (based on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines), which may eventually also serve as the basis for negotiating an international ¿Kyoto-like¿ agreement beyond 2012. The paper does not attempt to interpret whether and how HWP should be included in UNFCCC inventories based on the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, or in GHG inventories in the Kyoto Protocol first commitment period (based on the 2003 IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF). Key conclusions of our note are as follows:
1) Guidance on the choice of the HWP accounting approach is needed from the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) in the near future if reporting of HWP in UNFCCC national inventories is to be facilitated by the IPCC 2006 Guidelines.
2) The choice of the approach cannot be made without consideration of other parts of the inventory guidance, as the approach must be consistent with the whole reporting framework.
3) The mandate and boundaries of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories should be considered when choosing the approach.
4) The preferred placement of HWP reporting in the 2006 GL should be discussed, e.g., during preparation of the IPCC 2006 Guidelines.
The research paper is available at:
Second Latin American Symposium on Carbon Sequestration
The website features the presentations, posters and articles of the second Latin American Symposium on Carbon Sequestration held from April 21st to April 24th, 2004 in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
Download of presentations: A general introduction on the topic is given in English and Spanish, the presentations (ppt format) on topics such as afforestation and reforestation under CDM regulations, case studies of A&R projects in Latin America, or the Mercosur market perspective on a trade of CERs can be downloaded in Portuguese.
Website of CARBOEUROPE ¿ GHG project
Concerted action: Synthesis of the European Greenhouse Gas Budget
Description: The overarching goal of the project is ¿to provide a synthesis based on current research results of the European greenhouse gases budget, including both human induced and biospheric sources and sinks and recommendations for a multi-disciplinary integration in order to provide the scientific foundation for a full carbon and, even broader, full greenhouse gas accounting system by 2010.¿ The focus is on the European continental scale, but will include the separation of the EU15 contribution to the overall GHG budget.
The website offers downloads concerning information on the project, and description of work, reports, and a calendar of meetings.
No offers received
V. Sivakumar from Tamil Nadu, India wrote:
we consider to utilise the waste liquid which is abundant in a nearby distillery to reclaim saline and alkaline areas or upgrade the soil quality and plant forest trees.
Who can help regarding use of distillery waste and its application to upgrade the environment?
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