No. 9/2003


1) Climate Change Info & Events
2) Research/Publications on Forest and Climate Change
3) Climate Change News
4) New Publications:
5) Web sites of interest:
6) Climate Change Jobs
7) Readers Communication / Saying Hello


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1) Climate Change Info & Events

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COP 9 ¿ CONFERENCEOF THE PARTIES 9 ¿ MILAN, ITALY, DECEMBER 1-12

The ninth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 9) will open in Milan on Monday, 1 December and close on Friday, 12 December. The Conference of the Parties, an association of all countries that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is the highest decision-making authority of the Convention. The nineteenth sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 19) and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 19) will be held in conjunction with COP 9. The Subsidiary Bodies advise the Conference of the Parties.

For further details visit:

http://unfccc.int/

Issues in the negotiating process:http://unfccc.int/issues/index.html

Side events and exhibits:http://regserver.unfccc.int/seors/new/finalreport/report.html

Guide to the Climate Change Convention Process:http://unfccc.int/resource/process/guideprocess-p.pdf

REVIEW ¿ WORKSHOPS ON FORESTS AND THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM IN LATIN AMERICA - October 29 - 30, 2003 and November 11-14, 2003 Mexico City, Mexico / Buenos Aires, Argentina

Jointly with its partners UNEP and IUCN, FAO is conducting a capacity building programme on forestry and climate change. FAO's contribution is funded through its regular programme and the FAO- Netherlands Partnership programme (FNPP). Building up on experiences gathered in the last three years with the FAO- supported Project "Bosques and Cambio Climatico" in Central America, the present programme consists of workshops for national negotiators under the UNFCCC, and for senior officers of national forestry administrations. Both types of workshops focus on forestry projects under the CDM. On October 29 and 30, 2003, FAO, IUCN and UNEP conducted in Mexico City the "Pre - Cop 9 consultation for Latin America on the Definition and Modalities for including Afforestation and Reforestation under the CDM". The objective of the consultation was to further discuss the implications of options for definitions and modalities for afforestation and reforestation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol, to be negotiated at the 9th Conference of Parties (COP 9) to the UNFCCC. It provided climate change negotiators with a neutral forum to informally discuss issues to be negotiated at COP 9. On November 11-14, 2003, FAO, IUCN and UNEP conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina the "Latin American Workshop on Forestry and Climate Change". It was the first of its kind in South America. The main objective was to inform senior forestry officers of the public forest administrations on the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol and possibilities emerging from the "Marrakech Accord" for the forestry sector.

REVIEW ¿ WORKSHOPS ON FORESTS AND THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM IN ASIA AND AFRICA - October 16 - 23, 2003 Manila, The Philippines / Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Developing countries stand a chance to reap benefits from the Kyoto Protocol¿s Clean Development Mechanism if they are able to articulate and defend their individual and common interests in the remaining negotiations up to COP9 in December, and if they can realistically assess opportunities, risks and necessary efforts in forestry associated with the CDM. In this context, the workshops on forests and climate change in Manila and Addis Ababa formed part of an ongoing effort by FAO / UNEP / IUCN to assist Latin America, Asian and African negotiators for land use and forestry issues under the Kyoto protocol to cope with the crucial issues currently under negotiation. Both workshops exposed and /or clarified the most critical issues for developing countries. They contributed in a very informal setting to breaking the isolation faced by many developing country negotiators. In the context of an introduction to the new IPCC Good Practice Guidance, country delegates recognized the need for updates and capacity building for National Forest Resource Assessments under the novel aspect of climate change.

The Manila workshop, the first in Asia, also resulted in selection of a regional focal point and creation of an informal expert network of forest and climate change experts for future work. In addition, the event succeeded in priming the forestry sector for possible developments after COP9 and gained active support from high level forestry administrators.

The Addis workshop succeeded in exposing a large audience from 30 African countries to the Kyoto Protocol, to decisive points currently under negotiations and to the IPCC Good Practice Guidance concerning forests.

The Conference on Forests and the Clean Development Mechanism, organized by APAFRI back-to-back with the FAO/UNEP/IUCN workshop in Manila. dealt more with the scientific aspects of carbon sequestration under the Clean Development Mechanism. More detail can be found athttp://www.enfor.com.ph/

EIGHTH EUROPEAN PhD WORKSHOP ON INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE POLICY

April 23-24, 2004, London, United Kingdom

The eighth Ph. D. workshop of the European Ph.D. network on International Climate Policy will be held at Imperial College of Science and Medicine and hosted by the Energy Policy and Management Group (EPMG) on April 23-24, 2004 in London, U.K.

The workshop is open to Ph.D. students and researchers from all disciplines working on different aspects of International Climate Policy. It offers a forum to present (preliminary) Ph.D. research ideas and results and discuss them with other students and researchers working in the field. The workshop will be held in English. There is no workshop fee. However we may ask you for a financial participation to the drinks and snacks that will be provided during the two days . We cannot offer funding to cover travel costs or accommodation.

Further information on the workshop, as well as on past Ph.D. workshops, is available on the website of the European Ph.D. network on International Climate Policy:

http://www.sls.wageningen-ur.nl/enr/ICP/

For registration, please contact Sophie Jablonski (sophie.jablonski@imperial.ac.uk), including your name, name of institution or university and subject of Ph.D. thesis. Registration closes on March 15 , 2004.

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2) Research/Publications on Forest and Climate Change

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LOCAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EFFECTS OF FOREST CARBON PROJECTS IN BRAZIL AND BOLIVIA: A VIEW FROM THE FIELD by Peter H. May (coordinator), Emily Boyd, Fernando Veiga, Manyu Chang

Abstract:

The Kyoto Protocol and its flexibility mechanisms triggered a global debate on the valuation of forests as sources of environmental services important to economic growth and development. Pilot forest carbon projects focusing on conservation and restoration of degraded lands and industrial reforestation across a range of tropical biomes in Latin America have helped us understand how forest ecosystems can generate global and local co-benefits. This study seeks to bridge critical gaps that remain in the understanding of social and environmental incentives and impacts at the interface between people, forests and carbon, fundamental to successful project design, implementation and outcomes.

To receive a copy of this paper please feel free to contact directly Peter H. May at:

Peter H. May

Prof. Graduate Program in Development, Agriculture and Society Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (+55 21) 9899-0164 pmay@pronatura.org.br

The results of this paper were presented in May 2003 at the CIFOR/GTZ/ICRAF International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity in Bonn. See conference website at:http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/docs/_ref/highlights/bonn_conference.htm

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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA FOR FORESTRY PROJECTS OPERATING UNDER CARBON MARKETS

- Workshop Proceedings by Esteve Corbera and Yatziri Zepeda now available

The workshop held at El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico City in July 2003 aimed to bring stakeholders together to discuss the importance of sustainable development criteria within carbon projects, and outline the implications of their inclusion in CDM projects or other carbon-based forestry initiatives.

Download the Proceedings from:http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/events/past_events/sdc.pdf

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Journal: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Volume: 8 Issue: 3 2003

- Potential of Co2 emission reductions by carbonizing biomass waste from industrial tree plantation in South Sumatra, Indonesia Yasuyuki Okimori, Makoto Ogawa, Fumio Takahashi pp 261-280

Abstract:

Approximately half of the carbon in trees can be fixed to charcoal by carbonization. Porous charcoal is useful as a soil amendment for crop fields and forests, and also as a water purifying agent. Given these facts, charcoal production should be recognized as one of the most promising CO2 sequestration methods. A project on biomass utilization and forest conservation is proposed as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project, by incorporating the carbonization of biomass residue and waste from tree plantations and pulp mills, and also the utilization of carbon products in various fields. A feasibility study was conducted with the existing project of an industrial tree plantation and pulp production in Indonesia. If conventional charcoal-making methods are used, a total of 368,000 t yr-1 of biomass residue and waste could be transformed into charcoal of 77,000 t yr-1, and the carbon emission reductions by the project reaches 62,000 t-C yr-1 (or 230,000 t-CO2 yr-1) in consideration of the project baseline. This charcoal project could provide jobs for approximately 2,600 people. The soil fertility in man-made forests could be maintained by returning charcoal to the original forests. Therefore, the project would be beneficial to the regional economy. In addition, the present charcoal project is expected to give more positive impacts than negative ones, or leakage, beyond the project boundary

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Journal: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Volume: 8 Issue: 4 2003

- Combining carbon sequestration objectives with timber management planning Fan-Rui Meng, Charles P.-A. Bourque, Steven P. Oldford, D. Edwin Swift, Helen C. Smith

pp 371-403

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach to assessing carbon (C) sequestration in commercial forests at spatial scales relevant to forest managers. The approach combines C-sequestration objectives with timber and non-timber (i.e., wildlife habitat) management objectives. As a demonstration, the approach is applied to a 105,000 ha special management area in northern New Brunswick, Canada over a simulated time horizon of 80 years. Carbon stock calculations are carried out by multiplying a series of simple wood volume-to-C conversion factors to wood supply projections generated with the Woodstock¿ wood supply (RemSoft Inc.) and CWIZ¿ linear programming software. Basic input requirements to the wood supply model include (i) current forest stand inventory and forest age structure, (ii) growth and yield curves for naturally developing stands, (iii) modified growth and yield curves to describe post-treatment stand response, (iv) non-timber objectives, and (v) specific harvesting prescriptions, including extent of application area and intensity. Spatial blocking of stands is carried out by importing the treatment schedule from the 80-year plan and by providing spatial constraints such as green-up delays and adjacency rules over a 25-year planning horizon. Model projection indicates that C stock in the forest of the special management area will increase in the next 40 years under the proposed harvesting plan and start to decrease thereafter. Under the no-disturbance scenario (both natural and man-made), the carbon stock in the forest will increase for the next 60 years and start to decline thereafter. For the whole planning period, carbon stock in the forest following current industrial practices will be less than naturally growing forest without any form of disturbance. Although model calculations are not exact, combining C objectives with timber management objectives provides a good framework for assessing C sequestration in commercial forests, given the excellent quality of the forest input data regarding above ground biomass. Improvements to modelled C-sequestration projections may take place as scientific information about the details of the C cycle in managed forests becomes available.

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Journal: Environment, Development and Sustainability

Volume: 6 Issues: 1-2 2004

- Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Tropical Agriculture: Scope and Research Priorities Reiner Wassmann, Paul L.G. Vlek

pp 1-9

Abstract:

The scope of mitigation options in tropical agriculture is discussed for three different activities (a) agroforestry, (b) rice-based production systems and (c) pasture/animal husbandry. The prevention of deforestation ¿ and the re-forestation of degraded land ¿ could become a key elements to national climate protection programs of some developing countries. Agroforestry may offer economically viable windows of opportunity for sustainable use of tropical forests whereas additional funds (e.g. through "Clean Development Mechanism") will be required to make re-forestation programs profitable. Alternative management practices in rice-based systems may offer win¿win options to reduce emissions and ¿ at the same time ¿ to obtain another improvement in the production system, namely through optimized timing of nitrogen fertilizer, temporary drainage in irrigated rice fields and integrated residue management. Introducing pasture in degraded land can sequester substantial amounts of carbon (similar to re-forestation). Future research has to include participation of stakeholders from all conceivable levels, i.e. farmers' cooperatives, non-governmental organizations, national agricultural research centers and extension services, to devise simple and financially interesting incentives for reducing emissions. The feasibility of environmentally friendly production techniques has to be disseminated to the public through 'success stories' (documented in public media) and demonstration farms.

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Journal: Environment, Development and Sustainability

Volume: 6 Issues: 1-2 2004

- An Amazon Perspective on the Forest¿Climate Connection: Opportunity for Climate Mitigation, Conservation and Development? Georgia Carvalho, Paulo Moutinho, Daniel Nepstad, Luciano Mattos, Márcio Santilli

pp 163-174

Abstract:

Amazonia contains more carbon (C) than a decade of global, human-induced CO2 emissions (60¿80 billion tons). This C is gradually being released to the atmosphere through deforestation. Projected increases in Amazon deforestation associated with investments in road paving and other types of infra-structure may increase these C emissions. An increase of 25¿40% in Amazon deforestation due to projected road paving could counterbalance nearly half of the reductions in C emissions that would be achieved if the Kyoto Protocol were implemented. Forecasted emission increases could be curtailed if development strategies aimed at controlling frontier expansion and creating economic alternatives were implemented. Given ancillary benefits and relative low costs, reducing deforestation in Amazonia and other tropical areas could be an attractive option for climate mitigation. Projects that help contain deforestation and reduce frontier expansion can play an important role in climate change mitigation but currently are not allowed as an abatement strategy under the climate regime. Creating incentives for forest conservation and decreased deforestation can be a unique opportunity for both forest conservation and climate mitigation.

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Journal: Environment, Development and Sustainability

Volume: 6 Issues: 1-2 2004

- GHG Mitigation Potential and Cost in Tropical Forestry ¿ Relative Role for Agroforestry Willy R. Makundi, Jayant A. Sathaye pp 235-260

Abstract:

This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

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Journal: The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics

Volume: 47 Issue: 2 June 2003

- Carbon-accounting methods and reforestation incentives

Cacho O.J.; Hean R.L.; Wise R.M.

pp 153-179

Abstract:

The emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, and the consequent potential for climate change are the focus of increasing international concern. Temporary land-use change and forestry projects (LUCF) can be implemented to offset permanent emissions of carbon dioxide from the energy sector. Several approaches to accounting for carbon sequestration in LUCF projects have been proposed. In the present paper, the economic implications of adopting four of these approaches are evaluated in a normative context. The analysis is based on simulation of Australian farm¿forestry systems. Results are interpreted from the standpoint of both investors and landholders. The role of baselines and transaction costs are discussed.

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3) Climate Change News

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WHY WE DON'T GIVE A DAMN

Once again, world leaders meet to hear of new threats posed by global warming. Once again, they appear unable to act.

Newstatesman Cover Story by George Marshall and Mark Lynas.

On the web free for one week:http://www.newstatesman.co.uk/nscoverstory.htm

or after that on the personal website of one of the authors:

www.marklynas.org

[from Climate Change Info Mailing List]

PLAN GIVES US FARMERS A ROLE IN FIGHTING GLOBAL WARMING

In the US, Kansas farmers may be given the chance to gain carbon credits through carbon sequestration projects.http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/25/science/earth/25CARB.html?ex=1070341200&en=c68a2eb55c62fa75&ei=5062&partner=GOOGLE

[from Point Carbon]

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4) New Publications:

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THE INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE REGIME: A GUIDE TO RULES, INSTITUTIONS AND PROCEDURES

The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive, authoritative, objective and accessible guide to the climate change regime. The book thus describes and analyses the rules set out in the Convention, Kyoto Protocol and COP decisions, together with the institutions and procedures that govern the climate change negotiations. An advance draft is available at:

http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/env/climatechange.html

TROPICAL FORESTS, INTERNATIONAL JUNGLE ¿ THE UNDERSIDE OF GLOBAL ECOPOLITICS By Marie-Claude Smouts

2003, xiii + 266 pp, Palgrave MacMillian; Basingstoke; UK2003, ISBN 1-4039-6203-0

Abstract:

This book, containing an introduction and 6 chapters, explores the complexities of what are tropical forests, what role they play not only in the environment but in trade, health care, energy, and almost every facet of natural and social life for those living there and beyond. It analyses almost all the major issues in connection with tropical forests, sometimes quite new perspectives and occasionally with slashing insights and almost at least shedding new light on some well established concepts including: tropical forest deforestation/degradation; competition for land uses in the tropics; illegal logging; overcapacity of timber industries in some tropical countries and their quest for resource supply; the involvement of and benefits accruing to local communities; criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management; carbon sequestration, climate change and the Kyoto Protocol; substitution and boycotts of tropical timber products and certification; timber industry, trade and the environment; and international cooperation.

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5) Web sites of interest:

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* The Earth Council Online Learning Center for Sustainable Development offers on its virtual campus ¿LearnSD¿ three different courses on Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) projects in the CDM:

- Climate Change, the CDM and LULUCF: An Introductory Course

- LULUCF Projects in CDM: Baselines/ Additionality, Permanence and Leakage

- Measurement of Carbon Stocks in LULUCF Projects

For further details visit:http://www.learnsd.org/angel/courses.asp

* JIN WORKSHOP ON BASELINES

The Foundation Joint Implementation Network held a workshop on 6 and 7 November 2003 on the determination of baselines for Joint Implementation

and Clean Development Mechanism projects.

Find Report and Presentations at:http://www.northsea.nl/JIQ/workshop.htm

* Recent research results from the UK¿s Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research available online. Theses papers are downloadable from:http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/publications/working_papers/working_papers.shtml

Latest additions to this series include for example:

¿Integrating mitigation and adaptation into climate and development policy: three research questions¿ by Richard J.T. Klein, E. Lisa Schipper and Suraje Dessai, November 2003

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6) Climate Change Jobs

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POLICY ANALYST, CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY PROGRAM

- The David Suzuki Foundation

The purpose of the Policy Analyst position is to build public support for the goals of the Climate Change Program. The primary responsibilities of the Policy Analyst include: developing and implementing strategies and tactics to achieve campaign goals and objectives, research and writing assignments, policy development, alliance building and public engagement activities. This is a full-time position, and will commence as soon as possible in 2004. Salary is commensurate with experience. The Foundation offers a 4-day workweek as well as an extensive benefits package. Please note that the position is based in our Vancouver office, and some travel will be required. Application Process: The application form is available atwww.davidsuzuki.org/about_us/employment

Closing Date:

Please submit your application to The David Suzuki Foundation, #219-2211 West 4th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V6K 4S2 or fax 604-732-0752 by January 2, 2004. Only those selected for interviews will be contacted. To allow a fair competition, no phone or email inquiries will be accepted.

The Technical Support Unit for IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme announces the following two positions:

- Head:http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/recruit_Head_20031126.htm

- Programme Officer:http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/recruit_PO_20031126.htm

Closing date for application is 15 January 2004.

**** for all FAO Vacancies visit:http://www.fao.org/VA/Employ.htm****

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7) Readers Communication / Saying Hello

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Our valuable reader Fidoline Nonga, Economist at the University Ydé II-Soa-Cameroun would like to share some preliminary research results with CLIM-FO readers for comments. We quote part of her letter to CLIM-FO and present the French abstract of her latest research. For further details, as well to obtain a copy of the document mentioned below, please contact Fidoline Nonga directly at: fiona_nonga@yahoo.fr

Fidoline Nonga wrote:

¿ je voudrais par ce document joint, partager mes opinions sur la manière dont les pays sous développés peuvent participer à la lutte contre l'effet de serre. Je serais heureuse de recevoir des commentaires là dessus avant une eventuelle étude empirique au Cameroun.¿

Changement climatique: nécessaire acceptabilité sociale des engagements de gestion durable de la forêt au Cameroun - par Fidoline N Nonga

Résumé:

Notre communication tend à démontrer que tout engagement de contrôle des productions de GES et de constitution de « puits » de carbone pris par le Cameroun pourrait être respecté, dès lors que les citoyens qui vivent de la forêt et qui subissent des effets négatifs du changement climatique sont associés à la prise de décision en matière de gestion durable de la forêt. L¿acceptabilité sociale des camerounais à s¿approprier les décisions de gestion durable de la forêt est cependant conditionnée par la réduction effective de la pauvreté et par le financement des coûts et des surcoûts liés au développement et à l¿adoption par les acteurs de la forêt de nouvelles méthodes de production des produits forestiers.

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Thank you for your inputs for this issue:

Esteve Corbera Elizalde, Peter H. May, Faisal Moola, Fidoline Nonga

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The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Products Division (FOP).

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last updated:  Thursday, March 25, 2004