No. 8/2003


1) Climate Change Info & Events
2) Research/Publications on Forest and Climate Change
3) Climate Change News
4) New Publications:
5) Web sites of interest:
6) Climate Change Jobs


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1) Climate Change Info & Events

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REGIONAL GREENHOUSE GAS BUDGET OF THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE European Geosciences Union ¿ 1st General Assembly Nice/France, 25-30 April 2004:

- Call for abstracts -

This special session is addressed to experimentalists and modellers working on surface fluxes of direct and indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs: CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, VOC) at landscape to continental spatial - and various temporal scales. Multi-gas studies for all relevant natural and managed landscape elements of the biosphere (agricultural systems, forests, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, coastal oceans) are welcome. Of special interest are comparisons of experimental data, parametrizations and models. The session will also focus specifically to 1) the scaling problems in atmosphere and ecosystem exchange processes, 2) feed-backs and trade offs between GHGs of various nature and interactions with land use, land management, and land use changes, 3) the separation between direct human-induced impacts versus environmental change effects on biospheric GHG budgets, and 4) implications for climate change mitigation measures in the terrestrial biosphere. Please check the general information athttp://www.copernicus.org/EGU/ga/egu04/

and for abstract format and submission:http://www.copernicus.org/EGU/ga/egu04/abstract_submission.htm

for further details contact:

Annette Freibauer (afreib@bgc-jena.mpg.de), Ivan A. Janssens

(ivan.janssens@ua.ac.be)

CLIMATE VARIABILITY: FROM OBSERVATION TO PREDICTION

3rd NCCR Climate Summer School, 29 August - 3 September 2004, Centro Stefano Franscini, Ticino, Switzerland The NCCR Climate invites PhD and postdocoral scientists to join leading researchers in a scenic southern Swiss Alpine setting for keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions on the occasion of the third NCCR Climate Summer School 2004. The topics covered will include

- Pertinent aspects of climate physics

- Climate phenomena and processes at seasonal to decadal time ranges

- Assessment of predictability and approaches to prediction

- Associated impacts of climate change on society and economy's vulnerability A small number of grants will be available for students from developing countries. DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS: 15 DECEMBER 2003 On-line information, preliminary programme and application forms are available athttp://www.nccr-climate.unibe.chNCCR Climate University of Bern Erlachstrasse 9a CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland

Tel: +41 31 631 31 45
Fax: +41 31 631 43 38
email:nccr-climate@giub.unibe.ch

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE: POSITIVE OPTIONS AND ROBUST POLICY

- Conference Call -

When? ¿ 24-26 June 2004

Where? ¿ most likely Paris

A quick response to Abrupt Climate Change must be based on large scale bio-energy, in turn involving an increase of forest coverage towards pre-industrial. Not a few hundred million-hectare mega-plantations but a few million hundred-hectare community-scaled plantation. Such a program, initiated soon and stretching over several decades, can bring great good or do great harm, depending on project design. One aim of the conference is to bring research in sustainable forestry, sustainable rural development, community motivation and related capacity building to bear on the implications of sustained policy-driven land use change in varied enviro-socio-economic situations.

Selected papers will be published in a special journal issue and presenting authors will be supported to attend. Other favourably refereed papers will be published on the conference web-site. Futher detail can be found on the conference web-sitehttp://www.iiasa.ac.at/~oberstei/ff/index.html?sb=1

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY

Proceedings of this year's conference (April 8-10, 2003), held at the University of East Anglia now available: This international conference presented the findings of the latest scientific research into how the natural world is being affected by climate change, and possible future impacts and responses. It provided a key forum for the world's biologists and conservationists engaged in climate change work. It was organised jointly by the RSPB, the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre, English Nature and WWF-UK. Details and the proceedings can be found on:http://www.unep-wcmc.org/climate/conference.htm

Forest-related papers include:

* Tree/grass dynamics in a changing world

* Climate change and biodiversity in tropical East Asian forests

* Climate change and Amazonian forest biodiversity

* Biodiversity and climate change in the tropical montane rainforests

of northern Australia

* Climate change and sea level rise impacts on mangrove ecosystems

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2) Research/Publications on Forest and Climate Change

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The Role of Forestry Sinks in the CDM - Analysing the Effects of Policy Decisions on the Carbon Market by Martina Jung

HWWA DISCUSSION PAPER 241http://www.hwwa.de/Publikationen/Discussion_Paper/2003/241.pdf

Abstract:

The details on rules and modalities for the inclusion of forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are one of the last non resolved implementation issues of the Kyoto Protocol. We examine in detail the implications of different policy decisions concerning the inclusion of CDM forestry sink enhancement projects in the first commitment period of the climate regime (2008-2012). Our analysis is based on the development of marginal forestry cost curves which are implemented into the carbon market model CERT. The latter is a partial equilibrium model of the international market for emissions permits under the Kyoto Protocol. The scenario analysis sheds light on the role of CDM forestry sinks in the climate regime, the effect of different policy scenarios on the carbon market price as well as the distribution of benefits and losses between countries. The results suggest, that the role of forestry projects in CDM in the first commitment period will be rather small. The countries mainly benefiting from the introduction of forestry in the CDM are the Annex B and the Latin American and African countries while China and the hot air holding countries will lose as compared to a purely energy based CDM

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Journal: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

Volume: 119 Issues: 3-4 November 2003

- Net ecosystem CO"2 exchange of mixed forest in Belgium over 5 years A. Carrara, A.S. Kowalski, J. Neirynck, I.A. Janssens, J.C. Yuste, R. Ceulemans pp 209-227

Abstract:

In this paper, we present and discuss the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) results from 5 years (1997¿2001) of continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO2 flux above a mixed temperate forest. The forest was a 70-year-old coniferous (Scots pine)¿¿deciduous mixture, with slow growth rate and a leaf area index (LAI) of about 3, and was part of the European CARBOEUROFLUX research network. Effects of the data pre-treatment and the gap filling method on annual NEE estimates were analyzed. The u*-correction increased the annual NEE by +61 g C m-2 per year on average. The maximum difference in annual NEE estimates from different gap filling methods amounted up to 130 g C m-2 per year in a year with a large gap in the CO2 flux series. The estimated average annual NEE over the 5 years was + 110 g C m-2 per year (ranging from -9 to 255 g C m-2 per year) when using the most defensible gap filling strategy. We also analyzed the inter-annual variability of carbon balance, which was found to be mainly dependent on the length of the growing season and on the annual temperature. The observation that this forest acted as a CO2 source contrasts with previous results from most other temperate forests.

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Journal: Remote Sensing of Environment

Volume: 87 Issue: 1 September 2003

- Monthly burned area and forest fire carbon emission estimates for the Russian Federation from SPOT VGT

Y. -H. Zhang, M. J. Wooster, O. Tutubalina and G. L. W. Perry

pp 1-15

Abstract:

Russian boreal forests contain around 25% of all global terrestrial carbon, some of which is released to the atmosphere when the forests burn. Whilst it is well known that fire is widespread in the boreal environment, there is a lack of good quality quantitative data on the extent of fire activity in Russian forests and on its interannual variation. This study provides one of the first comprehensive monthly satellite-based studies of fires occurring across the entire Russian Federation using a single, standardised methodology designed to map burned areas down to a size of 2 km2. Using data from SPOT VEGETATION (VGT), we detect newly burned pixels via a series of multi-temporal spectral reflectance differencing criteria. For the year 2001, the method is applied to 21 VGT 10-day syntheses (S10) scenes covering the Russian fire season. We map 2764 fires with a total area of 41,782 km2, and our methodology successfully detects all fires present in a comparison Landsat ETM+ data set, although it underestimates their size by on average of 18%. Using frequency¿size relations, we estimate that 3790 fires of 1¿2-km2 area are likely to have remained unobserved by our method across the entire Russian region. Taking these corrections into account, we calculate the total burned area for the Russian Federation in 2001 as 51,546 km2, with 38,512 km2 occurring in forest and 13,034 km2 in other land use classes. Fire activity is strongest in August in Eastern Siberia and the northern part of the Russian Far East, and in May and October in the southern part of the Russian Far East. Using these data, we estimate direct carbon emissions from these Russian forest fires to be 39.3¿55.4 Mt, five to eight times that from the 2001 North American boreal forest fires and around 11¿17% of that year's Russian industrial carbon emissions. This methodology will, in the future, be applied to the full VGT archive to quantify burned area and direct carbon emissions over a 5-year period in order to better assess the interannual variation in burned area and emissions and the relation to local climate.

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Journal: Remote Sensing of Environment

Article in Press, Corrected Proof

- Studies of land-cover, land-use, and biophysical properties of vegetation in the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia

Dar A. Roberts, , , Michael Keller, and João Vianei Soares

Abstract:

We summarize early research on land-cover, land-use, and biophysical properties of vegetation from the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere (LBA) experiment in Amazônia. LBA is an international research program developed to evaluate regional function and to determine how land-use and climate modify biological, chemical and physical processes there. Remote sensing has played a fundamental role in LBA in research planning, land-cover mapping and in long-term monitoring of changes in land-cover and land-use at multiple scales. This special issue includes 12 papers that cover a range in spatial scales from regional mapping to local scales that cover only a portion of a Landsat scene. Several themes dominate, including land-cover mapping with an emphasis on wetlands and second-growth forest, evaluation of pasture sustainability and forest degradation and the impact of land-cover change on stream chemistry. New techniques introduced include automated Monte Carlo unmixing (AutoMCU) and several new approaches for mapping land-cover. A diversity of sensors are utilized, including ETM+, IKONOS, SPOT-4, Airborne P-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and L-band SAR. Census data are fused with an existing land-cover map to generate spatially explicit estimates of land-use from historical data. Several papers include important, new field measures of species composition, forest structure and biomass in mature forest and secondary succession.

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Journal: Journal of Environmental Management

Volume: 69 Issue: 2 October 2003

- An integrated strategy for sustainable forest¿energy¿environment interactions in Nigeria

J. -F. K. Akinbami, A. T. Salami and W. O. Siyanbola

pp 115-128

Abstract:

The Nigerian forests have been subjected to unguarded exploitation over the years. Although there is overwhelming empirical evidence, which show that Nigeria's forest, may soon vanish, available statistics have shown its increasing importance in the energy sector. With increasing population come the attendant demands on the biotic environment through increased land clearing, deforestation, devegetation, desertification, with attendant soil erosion, flooding, sand dune formation, and changes in the micro-climate with consequent loss of biological productivity and associated socio-economic and socio-political problems in the country. There is therefore the need to adopt measures that will shift the attention of the Nigerian populace from the forest to satisfy their energy needs. However, such measures that will address the challenges confronting the forestry, forest-based energy systems and the environment should be consistent with the development needs, resources and priorities of the nation. Hence, for sustainable forest¿energy¿environment interactions, a holistic and integrated strategy that can be adopted to minimise the observed forest depletion must take cognisance of options from various land use practices, energy and forest sectors. The focus of this paper is on a strategy of options from both the energy and forest sectors. Based on the socio-economic, socio-political and environmental analyses of various options from the energy and forest sectors, the philosophy behind the mosaic approach to sustainable development has been considered in developing the proposed strategy. Policy measures to implement this strategy of options in the national development programs are also suggested.

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Journal: Biomass and Bioenergy

Volume: 26 Issue: 1 January 2004

- Optimizing forest biomass exploitation for energy supply at a regional level

Davide Freppaz, Riccardo Minciardi, Michela Robba, Mauro Rovatti, Roberto Sacile, Angela Taramasso

pp 15-25

Abstract:

A decision support system for forest biomass exploitation for energy production purposes is presented. In the proposed approach, geographic information system based techniques are integrated with mathematical programming methods to yield a comprehensive system that allows the formalisation of the problem, decision taking, and evaluation of effects. The aim of this work is to assess the possibility of biomass exploitation for both thermal and electric energy production in a given area, while relating this use to an efficient and sustainable management of the forests within the same territory. The decision support system allows for the locating of plants and the computing of their optimal sizing (defining which kind of energy is convenient to produce for the specific area), taking into account several aspects (economic, technical, regulatory, and social) and deciding how to plan biomass collection and harvesting. A case study applied to a small Italian mountain area is presented.

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Journal: Forest Ecology and Management

Volume: 186 Issues 1-3 December 2003

- Studies of the impact of forests on peak flows and baseflows: a European perspective

M. Robinson, A. -L. Cognard-Plancq, C. Cosandey, J. David, P. Durand, H. -W. Führer, R. Hall, M. O. Hendriques, V. Marc, R. McCarthy, M. McDonnell, C. Martin, T. Nisbet, P. O'Dea, M. Rodgers and A. Zollner

pp 85-97

Abstract:

Most of the scientific studies of forest impacts on stream flows have been conducted in North America. Many were primarily concerned with felling effects. These have generally found forests to be associated with reducing both peak and low flows. Their results, however, may not necessarily be directly applicable to European forests due to differences in tree species, forest management, catchment physiography and climate. Forests are a major land cover in Europe, and there are plans to promote and further expand the area of European forests. The recent droughts and floods in different parts of Europe have heightened interest in the role of forests on river flow regimes, particularly flood peak and dry weather baseflows. This paper presents the hydrological results from 28 basins across Europe sampling a wide range of forest types, climate conditions and ground conditions. The aim was to determine if forestry can have significant impacts on stream flows and to identify particularly critical situations. The findings highlighted coniferous plantations on poorly drained soils in NW Europe and eucalyptus in Southern Europe as the situations where the most marked changes to flows are likely to occur. In contrast, other forest types, and changes in forest cover at a regional scale will be likely to have a relatively small effect on peak and low flows.

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Journal: European Journal of Agronomy

Article in Press, Corrected Proof

Review - Carbon sequestration in croplands: the potential in Europe and the global context

Pete Smith

Abstract:

Biospheric carbon sinks and sources can be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. In this paper, the role of croplands in the European carbon budget and the potential for carbon sequestration in European croplands are reviewed. The global context is then considered.

Croplands are estimated to be the largest biospheric source of carbon lost to the atmosphere in Europe each year, but the cropland estimate is the most uncertain among all land-use types. It is estimated that European croplands (for Europe as far east as the Urals) lose 300 Mt C per year. The mean figure for the European Union is estimated to be 78 (S.D. 37) Mt C per year. There is significant potential within Europe to decrease the flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cropland, and for cropland management to sequester soil carbon, relative to the amount of carbon stored in cropland soils at present.

The biological potential for carbon storage in European (EU15) cropland is of the order of 90¿120 Mt C per year with a range of options available including reduced and zero tillage, set-aside, perennial crops and deep rooting crops, more efficient use of organic amendments (animal manure, sewage sludge, cereal straw, compost), improved rotations, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification, organic farming, and conversion of arable land to grassland or woodland. The sequestration potential, considering only constraints on land-use, amounts of raw materials and available land, is up to 45 Mt C per year. The realistic potential and the conservative achievable potentials may be considerably lower than the biological potential due to socioeconomic and other constraints, with a realistically achievable potential estimated to be about 20% of the biological potential. As with other carbon sequestration options, potential impacts on non-CO2 trace gases need to be factored in.

If carbon sequestration in croplands is to be used in helping to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the changes in soil carbon must be measurable and verifiable. Changes in soil carbon can be difficult to measure over a five-year commitment period and this has implications for Kyoto accounting and verification. Currently, most countries can hope to achieve only a low level of verifiability during the first commitment period, whilst those with the best-developed national carbon accounting systems will be able to deliver an intermediate level of verifiability. Very stringent definitions of verifiability would require verification that would be prohibitively expensive for any country.

Carbon sequestration in soil has a finite potential and is non-permanent. Soil carbon sequestration is a riskier long-term strategy for climate mitigation than direct emission reduction and can play only a minor role in closing carbon emission gaps by 2100. However, if atmospheric CO2 concentrations are to be stabilised at reasonable levels (450¿650 ppm), drastic reductions in carbon emissions will be required over the next 20¿30 years. Given this, carbon sequestration should form a central role in any portfolio of measures to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the next 20¿30 years, whilst new energy technologies are developed and implemented. Given that improved agricultural management often has a range of other environmental and economic benefits in addition to climate mitigation potential, such "win-win" strategies to improve soil carbon storage are attractive and should be implemented as part of integrated sustainability policies.

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Journal: Climatic Change

Volume: 61 Issues 1-2 November 2003

- Increased Carbon Sink in Temperate and Boreal Forests

Jari Liski, Alexander V. Korotkov, Christopher F. L. Prins, Timo Karjalainen, David G. Victor, Pekka E. Kauppi

pp 89-99

Abstract:

An intense search is under way to identify the `missing sink' in the world carbon budget of perhaps 2 Pg year-1 (petagrams, or billion tonnes) of carbon, but its location and mechanism have proved elusive. Here we use a new forest inventory data set to estimate the carbon sink and the carbon pool of woody biomass in 55 countries that account for nearly all temperate or boreal forests and approximately half the world's total forest area. In each country there was a net accumulation of biomass; together, the carbon sink of woody biomass was 0.88 Pg year-1 during the 1990s with estimated uncertainty from 0.71 to 1.1 Pg year-1. This estimate, already about half of the missing sink, would probably be even larger if carbon accumulation in soil and detritus were also accounted for, but we are unable to quantify that additional sink. The sink is twice that estimated for the woody biomass of these forests a decade ago due to higher estimates for tree growth throughout the region and decreased timber harvests in Russia. In contrast, the new data indicate a carbon pool that is smaller than earlier estimates because of improved data for Russia and Australia.

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Journal: Climatic Change

Volume: 61 Issues 1-2 November 2003

- Forestry Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism?

O. P. R. van Vliet, A. P. C. Faaij, C. Dieperink

pp 123-156

Abstract:

Afforestation is considered an important option for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Recently, plantation projects have been suggested for inclusion under the Clean Development Mechanism. While considered a cheap option, significant uncertainties make it difficult to determine the (net) carbon benefits and profitability of forestry projects. The current uncertainties about the regulatory framework of the CDM and the environmental and economic performance of plantation forestry could create uncertainties with respect to the additionality of such projects and thus their acceptance under the mechanism. Six plantation forestry projects that were proposed in Brazil have been used as cases to study sources of uncertainty for carbon benefits and economics for such projects. These cases vary widely in terms of productivity and products delivered. A quantitative model for calculating greenhouse gas balances and financial benefits and costs, taking a broad range of variables into account, was developed. Data from the developers of the proposed projects was used as main source material. Subsequently, scenario's were evaluated, containing different and realistic options for baseline vegetation, carbon crediting systems and CDM modalities, fluctuations in product prices, discount rates and carbon prices. The real cost of combined carbon sequestration and substitution for the case projects was below $3 per ton of carbon avoided, when based exclusively on data supplied by project developers. However, potential variations in carbon impact and costs based on scenario options were very large. Different baseline vegetation or adopting a different discount rate cause carbon credits to vary by as much as an order of magnitude. Different carbon crediting systems or fluctuations in (commodity) product prices cause variations up to 200% in carbon credits and NPV. This makes the additionality of such projects difficult to determine. Five of the six case projects seem uneligible for development under the CDM. A critical attitude towards the use of plantation projects under the CDM seems justified.

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3) Climate Change News

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COP 9 TO DEAL WITH GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION MEASURES

The Party Conference of the UN Framework Convention for Climate Change, referred to as COP 9, which will take place in Milan from 1 to 12 December, will deal with the negotiation on "the measures and the projects for the long and medium period objectives for the reduction of global emissions". This was stated by the Italian Minister of the Environment, Altero Matteoli.http://www.agi.it/english/news.pl?doc=200310062016-1128-RT1-CRO-0-NF82&page=0&id=agionline-eng.italyonline

[from Point Carbon]

CANADIAN GOVERNMENT AND PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY AGREE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AGREEMENT The Canadian government has signed climate change Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Forest Products Association of Canada.http://www2.ccnmatthews.com/scripts/ccn-release.pl?/current/1106054n.html

[from Point Carbon]

SEMICONDUCTOR COMPANY MAKES FOREST CARBON SINK INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA In September 2003, one of the world's largest semiconductor companies signed a contract with State Forests to establish and manage up to 12,000 hectares of new plantations in northern NSW. The plantations will be planted over a period of about seven years, entirely on land that was cleared for grazing and cropping decades ago. [Carbon Monitor; November 2003; scroll down to section ¿Web sites of interest¿ how to subscribe to Carbon Monitor]

AIRBORNE OZONE CAN ALTER FOREST SOIL

Researchers at Michigan Technological University and the North Central Research Station of the USDA Forest Service have discovered that ozone can reduce soil carbon formation. Their findings are published in the Oct. 16 issue of the journal Nature.

The scientists exposed forest stands to increased levels of two atmospheric pollutants, ozone and carbon dioxide. Soil carbon formation dropped off dramatically in the plots fumigated with a mix of ozone and carbon dioxide compared to carbon dioxide alone. see press release:http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-10/srs--dad101603.php

FORESTS MAY NOT SOAK UP AS MUCH, RESEARCH SHOWS

Striking findings are emerging from research at the world's largest open-air climate-change experiment that will prove troubling to Canada's policy-makers and challenging for scientists. The results strongly suggest that Canada's forests won't be able to soak up anywhere near as much excess carbon dioxide as the federal Kyoto action plan assumes.http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=thestar/Layout/Article_Type1&c=Article&cid= 1066947009173&call_pageid=968332188774&col= 968350116467[from CLIMATE-L NEWS]

FARM BUREAU LAUNCHING PILOT CARBON CREDIT TRADING

A four-year pilot program to aggregate and trade carbon credits from Iowa fields has been announced by the Iowa Farm Bureau Federation in the US.http://www.ifbf.org/publication/spokesman/story.asp?number=21813&type=News

[from Point Carbon]

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4) New Publications:

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THE CROWDED GREENHOUSE: POPULATION, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND CREATING ASUSTAINABLE WORLD By John Firor and Judith E. Jacobsen, Yale University Press, New Haven, CN, 2002, ISBN 0-300-09320-9, xiii+237 pp

¿a brief, authoritative book that ties together issues of population, climate change and equity¿ The coverage of climate change is a fine overview for the layperson, making a complex scientific topic understandable. Among others, Firor covers such critical issues as the possibility of atmospheric nonlinearities producing sudden, even catastrophic climatic events (illustrated by the Younger Dryas); the ways in which climate models are validated (e.g. testing them against the results of the Pinatubo eruption); and the superiority of climate models over economic models (some of the latter produce questionably optimistic predictions of the costs of climate change). [Book review in Ecological Economics, Volume 46, Issue 3, October 2003, Pages 512-513 by Paul R. Ehrlich]

L'ÉCONOMIE MONDIALE FACE AU CLIMAT -- À responsabilités accrues, opportunités nouvelles By André Gabus, Eds L'Harmattan, Paris, september 2003, 276 pp.; ISBN : 2-7475-5050-8

Abstract:

After a short and balanced account of the enhanced greenhouse effect as a physical phenomenon, André Gabus's book presents a rare exposition (for a Frenchspeaking readership) on the political economy of climate policy. Ways and means of climate change mitigation are shown as both economic constraints and business opportunities. Prospects for institutional, economic and in particular technological changes are depicted in vivid scenarios. The book conceals another one for foresters wishing to introduce themselves into the tomorrow's business of carbon stock management, and not just as sink promoters and timber producers. The publication is well organized with numerous boxes, technical notes and documents in appendix, a glossary and a useful index for e.g. looking at national efforts by country or technological innovations by domain. As reference book for the non-English reader, this will appreciate being able to access to major sources mostly published in Shakespeare's language. [Editor's Note]

Résumé :

Après une brève mais équilibrée présentation de l'amplification de l'effet de serre comme phénomène physique, le livre d'André Gabus expose -- ce qui est rare pour un lectorat francophone -- les fondements sociétaux et économiques de la politique "climat". Les voies et moyen de l'atténuation de l'effet de serre sont traités à la fois comme contraintes économiques et possibilités d'affaires pour les entreprises. Une prospective institutionnelle, économique et surtout technologique fait l'objet de scénarios attrayants. Le livre en cache un autre pour les forestiers entendant conduire la croissance ligneuse aussi pour participer à la prévention climatique, non seulement en tant que promoteurs de puits, mais aussi gestionnaires de stocks de carbone. L'ouvrage est bien organisé avec de nombreux encadrés, des notes techniques et des documents en annexe, un glossaire et un index utile, par exemple, pour recenser les efforts entrepris par pays ou se renseigner sur les innovations par domaines technologiques. En tant que livre de référence, le lecteur non-anglophone appréciera de pouvoir accéder aux sources majeures qui sont publiées pour la plupart en Anglais. [Note de l'Editeur]

Details by chapter can viewed onhttp://www.effet-de-serre.gouv.fr/fr/etudes/somleco.html

AIR POLLUTION, GLOBAL CHANGE AND FORESTS IN THE NEW MILLENIUM Edited by: D.F. Karnosky, K.E. Percy, A.H. Chappelka, C. Simpson, J. Pikkarainen, ELSEVIER, 2003, ISBN: 0-08-044317-6, 484 pages

The chapters in this book present a snapshot of the state of knowledge of air pollution effects at the beginning of the 21st century. From their different disciplines, a distinguished collection of authors document their understanding of how leaves, trees, and forests respond to air pollutants and climate change. Scenarios of global change and air pollution are described. The authors describe responses of forests to climate variability, tropospheric ozone, rising atmospheric CO2, the combination of CO2 and ozone, and deposition of acidic compounds and heavy metals. The responses to ozone receive particular attention because of increasing concern about its damaging effects and increasing concentrations in rural areas. Scaling issues are addressed - from leaves to trees, from juvenile trees to mature trees, from short-term responses to long-term responses, and from small-scale experiments and observations to large-scale forest ecosystems.

This book is one major product of a conference sponsored by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, the USDA Forest Service Global Change Northern Stations Program, the Arthur Ross Foundation, NCASI, the Canadian Forest Service, and Michigan Technological University. The conference, held in May 2000 in Houghton, Michigan, USA, was appropriately titled "Air Pollution, Global Change, and Forests in the New Millennium". The Editors, David Karnosky, Kevin Percy, Art Chappelka, Caroline Simpson, and Janet Pikkarainen organized the conference and edited this book.

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5) Web sites of interest:

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NEWS FROM THE WORLDWATCH INSTITUTE

Vital Signs Fact of the Week, October 23, 2003

Global Temperatures climb:

The year 2002 was the second hottest since record keeping began in the 1880s. The global average temperature climbed to 14.52 degrees Celsius. The nine warmest years on record have occurred since 1990, and scientists expect that the temperature record set in 1998 will be surpassed by a new high in 2003.www.worldwatch.org/brain/media/pdf/pubs/vs/2003_carbon-temp.pdf

CURB ILLEGAL LOGGING AND PROMOTE RESPONSIBLE FOREST INVESTMENT

The International Labour Organization estimates that global forest-based employment provides approximately 47 million jobs -- including both industrial and non industrial forest harvesting and industrialized forest products manufacturing -- with more than 60 percent of the jobs in developing countries. A meeting at World Bank headquarters, October 22-23, focused on strategies for encouraging investment in socially and environmentally sustainable forestry in developing countries and those with transition economies.http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20134117~menuPK:34463~pagePK:64003015~piPK:64003012~theSitePK:4607,00.html

CARBON MONITOR

- a newsletter published by Environmental Intermediaries & Trading Group Limited. It covers many issues on commercializing carbon offsets created by Kyoto and provides regular updates with commentary. You can sign up for the newsletter free by emailing Richard Hayes :rhayes@nznet.gen.nz

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6) Climate Change Jobs

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POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCHER IN CLIMATE MODELING

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Center for Global Change Science

Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Climate Modeling Initiative is developing the a new generation of atmosphere - ocean - climate model using state-of-the-art algorithmic, numerical and physical approaches. The model is based on a novel approach in which atmosphere-ocean fluid isomorphisms are used to derive, from a single hydro-dynamical core, atmospheric and oceanic counterparts. Sought is a scientist with experience in climate modeling to work on a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity for studies of millennial climate variability.

A Ph.D. in a field relevant to global climate modeling is required. Candidates with experience in atmospheric and/or coupled climate modeling are preferred. Salary is negotiable. Proposed start date is as soon as possible.

To apply, send a CV, a statement of research interests, a list of publications, and the names, addresses, email addresses and phone numbers of three references to: Prof John Marshall, MIT Room 54-1526, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA (marshall@gulf.mit.edu). Further information:http://paoc.mit.edu/cmi/

**** for all FAO Vacancies visit:http://www.fao.org/VA/Employ.htm****

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Thank you for your inputs for this issue:

Annette Freibauer, André Gabus, Lera Miles

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last updated:  Thursday, March 25, 2004