No. 5/2003


1) Climate Change Info & Events

* Linking JI and CDM to the EU emissions trading system - EU Commission´s "linking
directive" proposal

* Research and development project with special emphasis on land use change and forestry
commissioned by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA)

* World Climate Change Conference, Moscow, September 29 - October 3 2003

* International Conference on Climate Policy After Marrakech: Towards Global Participation

* Carbon Measurement and Monitoring Forum,15-17 October 2003, Manhattan, Kansas, US

* Verification Time (VT) Concept - Research news from the IIASA Forestry Project

_________________________________

2) Research/Publication on Climate Change and Forestry

Two special issues on Climate Change of "THE INDIAN FORESTER", the oldest scientific journal in forestry in the Indian Subcontinent - A complete list of the articles

"Equitable partnerships between corporate and small holder partners - relating partnerships to social, economic and environmental indicators" - Proceedings of a joint CIFOR / FAO workshop

"Les crédits temporaries: une restriction de plus pour les puits par reboisement dans les pays en développement" by André Gabus (in French)

"Conflicts between biodiversity and carbon sequestration programs: economic and legal implications" by A. Caparros, F. Jacquemont


"Modelling the short-term effects of climate change on the productivity of selected tree species in Nordic countries" by J. Bergh, M. Freeman, B. Sigurdsson, S. Kellomaki, K. Laitinen, S. Niinisto, H. Peltola, S. Linder

"Analysis of alternative methods for estimating carbon stock in young tropical plantations"
by Christopher J. Losi, Thomas G. Siccama, Richard Condit, Juan E. Morales

"Can the Risks of the Kyoto Mechanisms be Reduced Through Portfolio Diversification? Evidence from the Swedish AIJ Program" by Urs Springer

"The impact of private investor's transaction costs on the cost effectiveness of project-based Kyoto mechanisms" by W. Fichtner, S. Graehl, O. Rentz

"Transaction costs of the Kyoto Mechanisms" by Axel Michaelowa, Marcus Stronzik, Frauke Eckermann, Alistair Hunt

"Climate negotiations beyond Kyoto: developing countries concerns and interests" by Adil Najam, Saleemul Huqc, Youba Sokonae

"Inter-trading permanent emissions credits and rented temporary carbon emissions offsets: some issues and alternatives" by Roger A. Sedjo, Gregg Marland

"Making global initiatives local realities: carbon mitigation projects in Chiapas, Mexico" by Kristen C. Nelson, Ben H. J. de Jong

"An issue of permanence: assessing the effectiveness of temporary carbon storage" by Howard Herzog, Ken Caldeira, John Reilly

"Can Forest-protection carbon projects improve rural livelihoods? Analysis of the Noel Kempff Mercado climate action project, Bolivia" by Nigel M. Asquith, María Teresa Vargas Ríos, Joyotee Smith

"Fractions of permanence - Squaring the cycle of sink carbon accounting" by Michael Dutschke

"Estimation of biomass and sequestered carbon on farm forest plantations in northern New South Wales, Australia" by A. Specht, P. W. Westa

"A reassessment of carbon content in wood: variation within and between 41 North American species" by S. H. Lamlom, R. A. Savidge

"A generic approach to integrate biodiversity considerations in screening and scoping for EIA" by Roel Slootwega, Arend Kolhoff

"A review of remote sensing technology in support of the Kyoto Protocol" by Åke Rosenqvist, Anthony Milne, Richard Lucas, Marc Imhoff, CraigDobsone

"Potential carbon sequestration in China's forests" by Xiao-Quan Zhang, Deying Xu

_________________________________

3) Climate Change News

* RUSSIA AND KYOTO

* KYOTO 'WILL NOT STOP GLOBAL WARMING'

* WA SHIRE CREATES CARBON SINK

_________________________________

4) New Publications

* WILDLIFE RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE: NORTH AMERICAN CASE STUDIES

Stephen H. Schneider, Terry L. Root (Eds.)

_________________________________

5) Websites of interest

* ELECTRONIC JOINT IMPLEMENTATION QUARTERLY

_________________________________

6) Climate Change Jobs / Job opportunities

*SENIOR FORESTRY OFFICER - Global Forest Resources Assessment, FAO, Rome

*MULTIDISCIPLINARY Ph.D. FELLOWSHIPS IN GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH / EARTH SYSTEM
MODELLING

_________________________________


1) Climate Change Info & Events
_________________________________

LINKING JI AND CDM TO THE EU EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEM - EU COMMISSION`S "LINKING DIRECTIVE" PROPOSAL

In July 2003 the EU Commission has proposed to the EU Parliament and the EU Council an internal emissions trading system from 2005 onward, which limits carbon dioxide emissions from a broad range of industries, such as power generation, and places them within a regulatory framework. The large carbon dioxide emitters will be allocated allowances on an annual basis through national allocation plans and required to match keep their emissions with their holdings of in the limits set by the allowances. If they reduce emissions to a level below their limits, they can sell the excess allowances to other companies or keep them for future use. Vice versa, companies that exceed their limits can invest in abatement technology or buy allowances on the market to match their emissions, whichever is the cheaper. In this way, the EU scheme envisages to allow emissions reductions to take place at minimum cost to the economy.

In addition, it is the aim of the EU to link its internal trading system to the marked-based flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, "Joint Implementation" and "Clean Development Mechanism". The proposal for a new Directive will allow European companies to carry out emissions-curbing projects around the world and convert the credits earned into emissions allowances under the European Union emissions trading scheme. Once this conversion of CERs from the CDM or ERUs from JI into EU allowances reaches 6% of the total EU allowances for the first commitment period, a certain review of this conversion process is triggered that might in the end limit the number of credits to be converted for the remainder of the commitment period.

The Commission's proposal suggests not to allow a conversion of credits that are derived from nuclear facilities, large hydro projects not meeting the provisions of the World Commission on Dams, and credits from afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM. However, the proposal acknowledges that the Commission will give due consideration to whether and, if so, how credits from afforestation and reforestation activities could be used in entity-level emissions trading in the Community scheme in the light of the application of modalities for afforestation and reforestation project activities. Internationally it is scheduled to decide on these modalities at COP9 in Milan in December this year.

For more information visit the Commission's "Climate" website at:

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climat/home_en.htm

Read the full text of the proposal at:

"Potential carbon sequestration in China's forests" by Xiao-Quan Zhang, Deying Xu

_________________________________

3) Climate Change News

* RUSSIA AND KYOTO

* KYOTO 'WILL NOT STOP GLOBAL WARMING'

* WA SHIRE CREATES CARBON SINK

_________________________________

4) New Publications

* WILDLIFE RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE: NORTH AMERICAN CASE STUDIES

Stephen H. Schneider, Terry L. Root (Eds.)

_________________________________

5) Websites of interest

* ELECTRONIC JOINT IMPLEMENTATION QUARTERLY

_________________________________

6) Climate Change Jobs / Job opportunities

*SENIOR FORESTRY OFFICER - Global Forest Resources Assessment, FAO, Rome

*MULTIDISCIPLINARY Ph.D. FELLOWSHIPS IN GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH / EARTH SYSTEM
MODELLING

_________________________________


1) Climate Change Info & Events
_________________________________

LINKING JI AND CDM TO THE EU EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEM - EU COMMISSION`S "LINKING DIRECTIVE" PROPOSAL

In July 2003 the EU Commission has proposed to the EU Parliament and the EU Council an internal emissions trading system from 2005 onward, which limits carbon dioxide emissions from a broad range of industries, such as power generation, and places them within a regulatory framework. The large carbon dioxide emitters will be allocated allowances on an annual basis through national allocation plans and required to match keep their emissions with their holdings of in the limits set by the allowances. If they reduce emissions to a level below their limits, they can sell the excess allowances to other companies or keep them for future use. Vice versa, companies that exceed their limits can invest in abatement technology or buy allowances on the market to match their emissions, whichever is the cheaper. In this way, the EU scheme envisages to allow emissions reductions to take place at minimum cost to the economy.

In addition, it is the aim of the EU to link its internal trading system to the marked-based flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, "Joint Implementation" and "Clean Development Mechanism". The proposal for a new Directive will allow European companies to carry out emissions-curbing projects around the world and convert the credits earned into emissions allowances under the European Union emissions trading scheme. Once this conversion of CERs from the CDM or ERUs from JI into EU allowances reaches 6% of the total EU allowances for the first commitment period, a certain review of this conversion process is triggered that might in the end limit the number of credits to be converted for the remainder of the commitment period.

The Commission's proposal suggests not to allow a conversion of credits that are derived from nuclear facilities, large hydro projects not meeting the provisions of the World Commission on Dams, and credits from afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM. However, the proposal acknowledges that the Commission will give due consideration to whether and, if so, how credits from afforestation and reforestation activities could be used in entity-level emissions trading in the Community scheme in the light of the application of modalities for afforestation and reforestation project activities. Internationally it is scheduled to decide on these modalities at COP9 in Milan in December this year.

For more information visit the Commission's "Climate" website at:

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climat/home_en.htm

Read the full text of the proposal at:

http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/pdf/2003/com2003_0403en01.pdf

INTEGRATION OF BIODIVERSITY CONSIDERATIONS IN ACTIVITIES TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE

A research and development project with special emphasis on land use change and forestry commissioned by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) with funds of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.

Aim of the project:

The project aims to examine how various instruments and methods can be used to integrate biodiversity considerations into currently discussed project-based climate mitigation activities, especially land use, land use change and forestry. Based on the work of a precursor study commissioned by UBA (HEROLD, A., EBERLE, U., PLOETZ, Ch., SCHOLZ, S. (2001): Requirements of climate protection with regard to the quality of ecosystems: Use of synergies between the Framework Convention of Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Research project 200 41 204 on behalf of the Federal Environmental Agency of Germany. Berlin, October 2001.), the project will describe

current developments in climate-related activities and possible conflicts and synergies
between the aims of climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation

· evaluate existing instruments and tools for integrating biodiversity aspects into project
design, development and implementation


· identify further need for adaptation and development of these instruments for the
integration of biodiversity considerations into climate mitigation projects.


· work on possible tools (handbook) aimed at organisations that fund, or carry out climate
projects, as well as international climate and biodiversity policy.

For further details please contact:

Andreas Häusler (ibn), haeusler@biodiv.de
Christiane Ploetz (VDI), ploetz@vdi.de

WORLD CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE

Moscow, September 29 - October 3 2003

Main goals of the Conference:

- comprehensive discussion of the scientific aspects of natural and anthropogenic climate
change

- impacts

- measures for adapting human society, economies and ecosystems to on-going and future
climate change

- integrated approaches to reducing anthropogenic interference with the climate system

The Conference will endeavor to foster maximum mutual understanding on these issues between various stakeholders (governments, scientific community, business, non-governmental organizations, and the public).

The Conference is not an inter-governmental forum.

For further information, topics and sections of the Conference and registration information visit:

http://www.wccc2003.org/index_e.htm

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE POLICY AFTER MARRAKECH: TOWARDS GLOBAL PARTICIPATION

Hawaii Imin International Conference Center

1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

4-6 September 2003

The Honolulu-based East-West Center is organizing a three-day International Conference on "Climate Policy After Marrakech: Towards Global Participation", 4-6 September 2003. The Conference aims to bring together experts fromgovernments, academia, business and NGOs

- to discuss and share views on recent developments in climate policies and initiatives around the globe;

- to advance our understanding of the actions and policy frameworks that can contribute to compliance with Kyoto emissions targets; and

- to facilitate discussion on how, when, and under what conditions a climate regime can move from where we are now to a global regime of wider participation and deeper emissions cuts.

Dr. ZhongXiang Zhang [ZhangZ@EastWestCenter.org] has the overall responsibility for organizing the international conference. Ms. Penny Higa, Program Officer, is in charge of the conference's registration and logistics. For further information, please contact Ms. Higa at higap@EastWestCenter.org or by phone: +1-808-944-7131

CARBON MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING FORUM

The Coalition for Agricultural Soils Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases is sponsoring a "Carbon Measurement and Monitoring Forum" on 15-17 October 2003, in Manhattan, Kansas, US. For more information, see:
http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/ctec/Fall_Forum.htm

VERIFICATION TIME (VT) CONCEPT - RESEARCH NEWS FROM THE IIASA FORESTRY PROJECT

The issue of verifying uncertain net GHG emission changes (emission signals) under the Kyoto Protocol is not yet resolved. For the purpose of information sharing, the IIASA Forestry Project has made an educational Excel file available on

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/vt_concept.html.

This Excel file is made available on the Internet to satisfy scientific and educational purposes. It is meant for experts as well as for students, who want to get acquainted with the issue of temporal verification of GHG emission signals under the Kyoto Protocol. The Excel file is based on the study by Hudz (IIASA Interim Report IR-02-066), which introduces a probabilistic based VT concept advancing the deterministic VT concept of IIASA's Forestry Project and which provides the scientific and numerical background for the file.

For further details please contact:

Matthias JONAS, Ph.D.

IIASA - International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

Forest Resources Project

A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria

E-Mail: jonas@iiasa.ac.at

________________________________________________


2) Research/Publication on Climate Change and Forestry
________________________________________________

"THE INDIAN FORESTER" , the has brought out two special issues on Climate Change in June and July 2003. A complete list of the articles is given below:

"THE INDIAN FORESTER"

JUNE, 2003 VOL. 129 NO. 6
CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTRY SPECIAL - I

1. INDIAN'S INITIAL NATIONAL COMMUNICATION (NATCOM) TO UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE FORESTRY SECTOR
Subodh K. Sharma, Sumana Bhattacharya and Amit Garg

2. REDEFINING BASELINE FOR FORESTRY PROJECTS UNDER CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM
Promode Kant and R.P.S. Katwal

3. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM AND FORESTRY PROJECTS : STRAGETY FOR OPERATIONALIZATION IN INDIA
N.H. Ravindranath and Indu K. Murthy

4. ROLE OF WOOD PRESERVATION IN CARBON LOCKING
A.K. Rana, Sadhna Tripathi and Indra Dev

5. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STORE IN DIFFERENT FORESTS OF INDIA
M.N. Jha, M.K. Gupta, Alok Saxena and Rajesh Kumar

6. FOREST FIRE, HAZE POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Rajiv K. Srivastava and Dhan Singh

7. CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH COMMUNITY BASED FOREST MANAGEMENT - A CASESTUDY FROM SAMBALPUR FOREST DIVISION, ORISSA
Mohit Gera, N.S. Bisht and Neelu Gera

8. GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE - EFFECTS AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS MITIGATION.
S.D. Bhardwaj and Pankaj Panwar

9. VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF TIDAL FORESTS IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN INDIA
H.S. Singh

10. EVIDENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN AND AROUND DOON VALLEY
J.D.S. Negi, P.S. Chauhan and Mridula Negi

11. POSSIBLE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY IN LOWLAND EVERGREEN FORESTS OF KERALA, WESTERN GHATS
U.M. Chandrashekara and K.A. Sreejith

12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION WITH FORESTRY AND LAND USE/COVER CHANGE : AN OVERVIEW
S.C. Rai and P. Sharma

13. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON FOREST BIODIVERSITY
Vijay Rawat, Dhan Singh and Pankaj Kumar

14. ROLE OF FORESTS IN CARBON SEQUESTRATION
N. Bala, G. Singh, Pramod Kumar and A.K. Sinha

"THE INDIAN FORESTER"

JULY, 2003 VOL. 129 NO. 7
CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTRY SPECIAL - II

1. FORESTS AS CARBON SINK - THE INDIAN SCENARIO
Alok Saxena, M.N. Jha and J.K. Rawat

2. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM AND JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME IN INDIA
N.H. Ravindranath, Indu K. Murthy, Sudha P. And Sahana C.A.

3. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM AND FORESTRY SECTOR : CHALLENGE, OPPORTUNITIES AND ISSUES
V. Jeeva, N. Hooda and S. Singsit

4. POTENTIAL OF FARM FORESTRY IN CARBON SEQUESTRATION

T.P. Singh

5. CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ROLE OF CARBON EMISSION FROM FOREST FIRE ON CLIMATE CHANGE
Rajiv K. Srivastava, Dhan Singh and V.P. Khanduri

6. ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION OF NWFPs.
P.L. Soni, Rameshwar Dayal and Vineer Kumar

7. CARBON SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF COMMON ACCESS RESOURCES IN ARID AND SEMI ARID REGIONS OF NORTH-WESTERN INDIA
G. Singh, N. Bala, K.K. Chaudhuri and R.L. Meena

8. CLIMATE CHANGE AND RESTORATION OF TROPICAL FORESTS.
Prafulla Soni

9. ECONOMIC WORTH OF CARBON STORED IN ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF INDIA'S FORESTS
Ajay Kumar Lal and Preet Pal Singh

10. ESTIMATION OF CARBON FLUX THROUGH LITTER FALL IN FOREST PLANTATIONS OF INIDA.
A Raizada, A.K. Parandiyal and B.N. Ghosh

11. CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION APPROACH THROUGH PLANTATION FORESTRY IN
INDIA
Vijay Rawat and Laxmi Rawat

12. LAND CARBON BUDGET AND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF THE NATURAL FORESTS OF MADHYA PRADESH (INDIA)
P.K. Pande

13. ESTIMATION OF CARBON CONTENT IN SOME FOREST TREE SPECEIS
Vivek Dhand, A.K. Tripathi, R.K. Manhas, J.D.S. Negi and P.S. Chauhan

14. TERMITES AND GLOBAL WARMING - A REVIEW.
R.K. Thakur, N. Hooda and V. Jeeva

15. FLOWERING PLANTS : THE FIRST INDICATOR OF CLIMATE CHANGE
V.P. Khanduri, Dhan Singh, Sumer Chandra and C.M. Sharma

***

EQUITABLE PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN CORPORATE AND SMALL HOLDER PARTNERS - RELATING PARTNERSHIPS TO SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS Proceedings of a joint CIFOR / FAO workshop in Bogor,Indonesia, 21-23 May 2002

Demand for forest products will continue to grow as world population and incomes grow. Environmental and social impacts of plantation schemes pose the greatest challenge to plantation foresters in the new millennium. In the future, the key questions will not be whether there will be enough wood, but rather where it should come from, who will produce it, and how it should be produced. Responding trends have been moving from large-scale state industrial plantations toward private sector and smallholder plantations, and the partnership between the two. In the global context, partnership has become a fashionable approach in filling the gaps in forest management.

"Equitable partnerships between corporate and small holder partners" develops guidelines aimed at facilitating the transparency of negotiations and the development of mutually beneficial partnerships in production forestry. These guidelines focus on the operational level, specifically on the forest management unit of small-scale plantations and could thus play a role in the current negotiations of LULUCF in the CDM.

To read the full document go to:

http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4803E/Y4803E00.HTM

***

LES CRÉDITS TEMPORAIRES: UNE RESTRICTION DE PLUS POUR LES PUITS PAR REBOISEMENT DANS LES PAYS EN DÉVELOPPEMENT

by André Gabus (in French)

The paper suggests that the approach of temporary credits for land use, land-use change and forestry projects within the CDM should not be seen as unique solution. The author argues that regular Certified Emissions Reduction units should be also delivered, but associated with a number of constraints for dealing with the non-permanence risk issue of forest carbon sinks.

http://www.mysunrise.ch/users/agabus/eff'endi/carbon/postface.html

For more information contact the author by e-mail:

agabus@bluewin.ch

***

Journal: Ecological Economics

Volume: 46 Issue: 1 August 2003

- Conflicts between biodiversity and carbon sequestration programs: economic and legal implications
A. Caparros, F. Jacquemont
pp 143-157

Abstract:

The economic and legal implications of the interrelationship between carbon sequestration programs and biodiversity are analyzed. Firstly, the current treatment of this issue under the Framework Convention on Climate Change process is presented. Secondly, the implications of carbon incentives for existing forests are studied (basing the analysis on an extension of the Hartman model including carbon sequestration and biodiversity values). Then, the expected influence of this policy on decisions about which type of forest to use for afforestation and reforestation is discussed. An optimal control model is used to analyze the choice between two types of forests: (i) one with high timber and carbon sequestration values but lower, or negative, biodiversity values; and (ii) one with lower timber and carbon sequestration benefits, but with high biodiversity values. Finally, the relationship between the Kyoto process and the Convention on Biological Diversity is investigated, to assess whether or not the latter is expected to have any influence on the outcomes obtained in the analysis above. Results show that creating economic incentives for carbon sequestration may have negative impacts on biodiversity, especially for afforestation and reforestationprograms.

***

Journal: Forest Ecology and Management
Volume: 183 Issue: 1-3 September 2003

- Modelling the short-term effects of climate change on the productivity of selected tree species in Nordic countries
J. Bergh, M. Freeman, B. Sigurdsson, S. Kellomaki, K. Laitinen, S. Niinisto, H. Peltola, S. Linder
pp 327-340

Abstract:

A boreal version of the process-based simulation model, BIOMASS, was used to quantify the effect of increased temperature and CO2-concentrations on net primary production (NPP). Simulations were performed for both coniferous (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies) and deciduous broad-leaves stands (Fagus sylvatica, Populus trichocarpa), growing in different Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), representing a climatic gradient from a continental climate in Finland and Sweden to a maritime in Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Simulations with elevated temperature increased NPP by ca. 5-27% for the coniferous stands, being less for a Scots pine stand growing in a maritime climate (Norway) compared with a continental (central Sweden, eastern Finland). The increase in NPP could largely be ascribed to the earlier start of the growing season and more rapid recovery of the winter-damaged photosynthetic apparatus, but temperature-driven increases in respiration reduced carbon gain. The effect of elevated temperature on NPP was similar in the P. trichocarpa stand on Iceland, mainly caused by an earlier budbreak and a more rapid leaf development in spring. Increased temperature reduced, however, NPP for the F. sylvatica stand in Denmark, since elevated temperature had no effect on budbreak but increased the water deficit and water demand during the summer and lowered photosynthesis. Increased CO2-concentrations had an additional effect on NPP by 25-40% for the conifers and beech, which originated from increased photosynthesis, through enhanced carboxylation efficiency in summer and improved water use efficiency (beech). The effect of elevated CO2 on NPP was somewhat less for the P. trichocarpa by 13%.

***

Journal: Forest Ecology and Management
Volume: 184 Issues: 1-3 October 2003

- Analysis of alternative methods for estimating carbon stock in young tropical plantations

Christopher J. Losi, Thomas G. Siccama, Richard Condit, Juan E. Morales

pp 355-368

Abstract:

Estimates of carbon stock in forest plantations are generally based on allometric equations relating either carbon or biomass to diameter at breast height (DBH). These equations are usually based on measurement of the fresh mass of each tree with sub-samples taken to determine moisture content to convert to dry weight. However, drying time and the number of sub-samples varies between studies. Furthermore, the carbon concentration of different tree parts is rarely measured directly, but generally assumed to be 50% of dry weight.

This study analyzed those assumptions and determined their effect on regression equations and on species-specific stand level estimates of carbon stock for Anacardium excelsum and Dipteryx panamensis growing in 7-year-old mixed-species plantations in Panama. Four methods were used to develop aboveground carbon estimates for the same sample of trees. Results indicated that the drying time, the number of sub-samples taken, and whether or not carbon was measured directly had only a small effect on the estimate of carbon stock for the entire cohort of trees. None of the methods developed using the same sample of Panamanian trees gave stand level estimates of carbonstock that differed by more than 10% from the best estimate for either species.

Another sample of slightly larger D. panamensis trees growing in 5- and 6-year-old mixed-species plantations in Costa Rica [J. Trop. For. Sci. 13 (3) (2001) 450] was used to develop a second set of regression equations. We hypothesized that a regression equation would give a more accurate estimate of carbon stock if the range of tree sizes used to produce the regression more closely matched the range of sizes that the regression was being applied to. When the Costa Rican equation developed using the full range of trees was compared to a Panamanian equation developed using the full range of tree diameters that we sampled, the estimates of carbon stock for the Panamanian plantation differed by 10.2%. However, when two additional regression equations were created using the range of tree diameters that overlapped, the estimates of carbon stock for the Panamanian plantation differed by only 5.2%, supporting our hypothesis.

***

Journal: Environmental and Resource Economics

Volume: 25 Issue: 4 August 2003

- Can the Risks of the Kyoto Mechanisms be Reduced Through Portfolio Diversification? Evidence from the Swedish AIJ Program

Urs Springer

pp 501-513

Abstract:

Through Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism, reductions of greenhouse gas emissions achieved abroad can be credited to domestic firms. However, the technical, economic and political risks involved may prevent the private sector from investing in such projects. This paper describes three types of risks which emission reduction projects are exposed to. Eleven pilot projects carried out under the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) program and financed by Sweden are evaluated. Actual project costs are found to exceed projected costs in all cases. Annual emission reductions also deviate from their expected values and vary strongly over time, supporting the hypothesis that such projects are risky business. The risk management tool portfolio diversification is applied to a sample of Swedish AIJ projects. The results indicate that diversification can reduce the risks of greenhouse gas mitigation projects significantly. Thus, carbon funds are a promising way of lowering the risks of the Kyoto Mechanisms for private sector investors.

***

Journal: Climate Policy

Article in Press, Corrected Proof

- The impact of private investor's transaction costs on the cost effectiveness of project-based Kyoto mechanisms

W. Fichtner, S. Graehl, O. Rentz

Abstract:

From a private investor's point of view transaction costs of project-based Kyoto mechanisms relate mainly to project management and interaction with government representatives. However, when analysing the cost effectiveness of project-based Kyoto mechanisms these transaction costs are often underestimated or completely ignored1 due to limited data availability. This paper presents an analysis of transaction costs of project-based Kyoto mechanisms by applying cost estimates from comparable activities, for example, activities implemented jointly (AIJ). The findings show that transaction costs of AIJ projects range between 7% and more than 100% of production costs with 80% of projects lying between 14 and 89%. Furthermore the data clearly illustrate that "bigger" projects have lower specific project costs indicating the existence of economies of scale. Due to the fact that high transaction costs will push many promising projects out of the market, efforts should be undertaken to reduce transaction costs by improving procedures and business environments, for example, by standardisation.

***

Journal: Climate Policy

Article in Press, Corrected Proof

- Transaction costs of the Kyoto Mechanisms

Axel Michaelowa, Marcus Stronzik, Frauke Eckermann, Alistair Hunt

Abstract:

Transaction costs will reduce the attractiveness of the Kyoto Mechanisms compared to domestic abatement options. Especially the project-based mechanisms Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) are likely to entail considerable costs of baseline development, verification and certification. The Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) pilot phase and the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) programme give indications about the level of these costs. Under current estimates of world market prices for greenhouse gas emission permits, projects with annual emission reductions of less than 50,000 t CO2 equivalent are unlikely to be viable; for micro projects transaction costs can reach several hundred ¿ per t CO2 equivalent. Thus, the Marrakech Accord rule to have special rules for small scale CDM projects makes sense, even if the thresholds chosen advantage certain project types; projects below 1000 t CO2 equivalent per year should get further exemptions. An alternative solution with no risk for the environmental credibility of the projects would be to subsidise baseline setting and charge lower, subsidised fees for small projects for the different steps of the CDM/second track JI project cycle.

***

Journal: Climate Policy

Article in Press, Corrected Proof

- Climate negotiations beyond Kyoto: developing countries concerns and interests

Adil Najam, Saleemul Huqc and Youba Sokonae

Abstract:

Five years down the road from Kyoto, the Protocol that bears that city's name still awaits enough qualifying ratifications to come into force. While attention has been understandably focussed on the ratification process, it is time to begin thinking about the next steps for the global climate regime, particularly in terms of a deeper inclusion of developing countries' concerns and interests. This paper begins doing so from the perspective of the developing countries. The principal argument is that we need to return to the basic principles outlined in the Framework Convention on Climate Change in searching for a north-south bargain on climate change. Such a bargain may be achievable if we can realign the policy architecture of the climate regime to its original stated goals of sustainable development.

***

Journal: Climate Policy

Article in Press, Corrected Proof

- Inter-trading permanent emissions credits and rented temporary carbon emissions offsets: some issues and alternatives

Roger A. Sedjo, Gregg Marland

Abstract:

Permit trading among polluting parties is now firmly established as a policy tool in a range of environmental policy areas. The Kyoto Protocol accepts the principle that sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere can be used to offset emissions of carbon from fossil fuel combustion and outlines mechanisms. Although the lack of guaranteed permanence of biological offsets is often viewed as a defect, this paper argues that the absence of guaranteed permanence need not be a fundamental problem. We view carbon emissions as a liability issue. One purpose of an emissions credit system is to provide the emitter with a means to satisfy the carbon liability associated with her firm's (or country's) release of carbon into the atmosphere. We have developed and here expand on a rental approach, in which sequestered carbon is explicitly treated as temporary: the emitter temporarily satisfies his liability by temporarily "parking" his liability, for a fee, in a terrestrial carbon reservoir, or "sink," such as a forest or agricultural soil. Finally, the paper relates the value of permanent and temporarysequestration and argues that both instruments are tradable and have a high degree of substitutability that allows them to interact in markets.

***

Journal: Global Environmental Change

Volume: 13 Issue: 1 April 2003

- Making global initiatives local realities: carbon mitigation projects in Chiapas, Mexico

Kristen C. Nelson, Ben H. J. de Jong

pp 19-30

Abstract:

Global, environmental initiatives create macro-level agreements, but the true test is how local communities respond. From 1995 to 2001, we investigated the evolution of Fondo Bioclimatico, a carbon mitigation project, using interviews and document review. Even under tremendous uncertainty the project grew seven-fold. Its social structure shifted from a development emphasis to a brokering relationship, from shared to concentrated power, from social fund to carbon bank. Social selection of systems with fewer tree species and single ecosystems is a concern for biodiversity. The challenge is to remain critical, monitor, and support indigenous communities in their endeavor to implement clean development mechanism projects.

***

Journal: Climatic Change

Volume: 59 Issue: 3 August 2003

- An issue of permanence: assessing the effectiveness of temporary carbon storage

Howard Herzog, Ken Caldeira, John Reilly

pp 293-310

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a method to quantify the effectiveness of carbon mitigation options taking into account the `permanence' of the emissions reduction. While the issue of permanence is most commonly associated with a `leaky' carbon sequestration reservoir, we argue that this is an issue that applies to just about all carbon mitigation options. The appropriate formulation of this problem is to ask `what is the value of temporary storage?' Valuing temporary storage can be represented as a familiar economic problem, with explicitly stated assumptions about carbon prices and the discount rate. To illustrate the methodology, we calculate the sequestration effectiveness for injecting CO2 at various depths in the ocean. Analysis is performed for three limiting carbon price assumptions: constant carbon prices (assumes constant marginal damages), carbon prices rise at the discount rate (assumes efficient allocation of a cumulative emissions cap without a backstop technology), and carbon prices first rise at the discount rate but become constant after a given time (assumes introduction of a backstop technology). Our results show that the value of relatively deep ocean carbon sequestration can be nearly equivalent to permanent sequestration if marginal damages (i.e., carbon prices) remain constant or if there is a backstop technology that caps the abatement cost in the not too distant future. On the other hand, if climate damages are such as to require a fixed cumulative emissions limit and there is no backstop, then a storage option with even very slow leakage has limited value relative to a permanent storage option.

***

Journal: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Volume: 7 Issue: 4 2002

- Can Forest-protection carbon projects improve rural livelihoods? Analysis of the Noel Kempff Mercado climate action project, Bolivia

Nigel M. Asquith, María Teresa Vargas Ríos, Joyotee Smith

pp 323-337

Abstract:

We studied the Noel Kempff Mercado Climate Action Project (NKMCAP), Bolivia, to assess whether forest protection carbon (C) projects can significantly benefit local people. We hypothesized that forest protection can only securelydeliver C if significant stakeholders are meaningfully and transparently involved, traditional or customary rights are recognized and their loss compensated for, and there are direct linkages between conservation and development objective. Our research focused on 53 members of the communities of Florida, Porvenir and Piso Firme and 36 secondary stakeholders. In each of the villages we held half-day meetings with community leaders, complemented by semi-structured one-hour interviews with 5, 10, and 7 families, representing 20%, 10% and 8% of each community. The long-term impact of the NKMCAP on the local communities may well be positive. However, in the short run, certain sections of the local communities are financially poorer. Forest protection projects clearly have the potential to sequester C, protect biodiversity and simultaneously contribute to sustainable rural development, but if they really are to improve rural livelihoods, they must be designed and implemented carefully and participatively.

***

Journal: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Volume: 7 Issue: 4 2002

- Fractions of permanence - Squaring the cycle of sink carbon accounting

Michael Dutschke

pp 381-402

Abstract:

As vegetation is an unstable dynamic system, emission credits generated by carbon (C) sink projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol suffer from an inherent permanence risk. There are basically two approaches how to balance greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and C uptake in vegetation. The merit of the so-called `ton-year approach' is to destroy the fiction of infinity when talking about permanent sequestration. The merit of the temporary credits is to destroy the fiction of comparability between technological emission reduction and sequestration in natural systems. This present article discusses the pros and cons of both approaches, which have been brought forward as more or less unrelated alternatives. By making use of both methodologies and providing a link between both proposals on permanence in CDM forestry, the article puts forward the proposal of leasing reduction certificates.

***

Journal: Biomass and Bioenergy

Volume: 25 Issue: 4 October 2003

- Estimation of biomass and sequestered carbon on farm forest plantations in northern New South Wales, Australia

A. Specht, P. W. Westa

pp 363-379

Abstract:

Tree stem diameters were measured in a stratified random sample of plots in each of 19 forest plantation estates in northern New South Wales. The estates were 0.2-170 ha in area and the plantations were 1-10 years old, growing eucalypts, sub-tropical rainforest species or an exotic conifer, both in single-species and mixed-species plantations. A sample of trees was measured also for biomass and estate- and region-specific allometric relationships developed to predict tree biomass from tree diameter. With the stratified random sample data, the allometric relationships were used to predict the total amount of carbon sequestered in tree biomass, and its 95% confidence limit, across each estate. These results were compared with estimates made using an allometric relationship from Nova Scotia, Canada, and a stand-based relationship from Australia. Bias in estimates made using the region-specific or Nova Scotia relationships appeared to be unimportant if the confidence limit was >10% of the estimate. Bias was greater using the stand-based relationship and was unimportant only ifthe confidence limit was >30% of the estimate. It was concluded that using sampling intensities of around 2-4% of the estate area, the total carbon sequestered by an individual small plantation estate in the region could generally be estimated satisfactorily with a 95% confidence limit of about 30-40% of the estimate or better, with a minimum of about 10%. Generally, the younger the plantation estate, the higher was the sampling intensity necessary to achieve the same precision of estimate as in older estates. If small plantation owners in the region are intending to offer sequestered carbon for sale as carbon credits, it appeared it will be difficult for them to estimate carbon sequestration by their trees with a 95% confidence limit as low as the present Australian recommendation of 10% of the estimate. If owners pooled their estates in a cooperative, they should be better able to achieve the required confidence limit from the much larger, pooled estate. Analysis of organic carbon contents of soil below plantations and adjacent pasture paddocks suggested there was a decline in soil carbon with time following plantation establishment. Growers will need to account for these losses when estimating the total carbon sequestered by their plantations ecosystems.

***

Journal: Biomass and Bioenergy

Volume: 25 Issue: 4 October 2003

- A reassessment of carbon content in wood: variation within and between 41 North American species

S. H. Lamlom, R. A. Savidge

pp 381-388

Abstract:

At present, 50% (w/w) carbon is widely promulgated as a generic value for wood; however, the literature yields few data and indicates that very little research has actually been done. C contents in heartwood of forty-one softwood and hardwood species were determined. C in kiln-dried hardwood species ranged from 46.27% to 49.97% (w/w), in conifers from 47.21% to 55.2%. The higher C in conifers agrees with their higher lignin content (~30%, versus ~20% for hardwoods). Wood-meal samples drilled from discrete early wood and late wood zones of seven of the forty-one species were also investigated. C contents of early woods were invariably higher than those in corresponding late woods, again in agreement with early wood having higher lignin content. Further investigation was made into freshly harvested wood of some species to determine how much volatile C is present, comparing oven-dried wood meal with wood meal dried at ambient temperature over a desiccant. C contents of oven-dried woods were significantly lower, indicating that all past data on C content in oven- or kiln-dried woods may be inaccurate in relation to the true C content of forests. We conclude that C content varies substantially among species as well as within individual trees. Clearly, a 50% generic value is an oversimplification of limited application in relation to global warming and the concept of "carbon credits".

***

Journal: Environmental Impact Assessment Review

Volume: 23 Issue: 6 October 2003

- A generic approach to integrate biodiversity considerations in screening and scoping for EIA

Roel Slootwega, Arend Kolhoff

pp 657-681

Abstract:

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) requires parties to apply environmental impact assessment (EIA) to projects that potentially negatively impact on biodiversity. As members of the International Association of Impact Assessment, the authors have developed a conceptual framework to integrate biodiversity considerations in EIA. By defining biodiversity in terms of composition, structure, and keyprocesses, and by describing the way in which human activities affect these so-called components of biodiversity, it is possible to assess the potential impacts of human activities on biodiversity. Furthermore, the authors have translated this conceptual framework in generic guidelines for screening and scoping in impact assessment. Countries can use these generic guidelines to further operationalise the framework within the existing national procedures for impact assessment. This paper is fully coherent and partly overlapping with the guidelines recently adopted by the CBD, but differs in the sense that it provides more scientific background and is less policy-oriented.

***

Journal: Environmental Science & Policy

Volume: 6 Issue: 5 October 2003

- A review of remote sensing technology in support of the Kyoto Protocol

Åke Rosenqvist, Anthony Milne, Richard Lucas, Marc Imhoff, Craig Dobsone

pp 441-455

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the role of remote sensing technology in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Kyoto Protocol and is based largely on discussions held at an international workshop in MI, USA, and the report that followed [A. Rosenqvist, M. Imhoff, T. Milne, C. Dobson (Eds.), Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance, Workshop Report, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 20-22 October 1999, 2000a, 159 pp. Available at http://www.eecs.umich.edu/kyoto]. The implications of significant decisions pertaining to the definition of the key terms forest and afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (ARD) activities taken at the conference of parties (COP 6:2 and COP 7) meetings in Bonn and Marrakesh, respectively in 2001 are also discussed. Past, current and near-future remote sensing instruments with applications appropriate to Kyoto requirements are short listed; research topics that need to be advanced to support use of these are outlined, and future actions recommended.

***

Journal: Environmental Science & Policy

Volume: 6 Issue: 5 October 2003

- Potential carbon sequestration in China's forests

Xiao-Quan Zhang, Deying Xu

pp 421-432

Abstract:

Forests are believed to be a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. There are 158.94 million hectares (Mha) of forests in China, accounting for 16.5% of its land area. These extensive forests may play a vital role in the global carbon (C) cycle as well as making a large contribution to the country's economic and environmental well-being. Currently there is a trend towards increased development in the forests. Hence, accounting for the role and potential of the forests in the global carbon budget is very important.

In this paper, we attempt to estimate the carbon emissions and sequestration by Chinese forests in 1990 and make projections for the following 60 years based on three scenarios, i.e. "baseline", "trend" and "planning". A computer model F-CARBON 1.0, which takes into account the different biomass density and growth rates for the forests in different age classes, the life time for biomass oxidation and decomposition, and the change in soil carbon between harvesting and reforestation, was developed by the authors and used to make the calculations and projections. Climate change is not modelled in this exercise.

We calculate that forests in China annually accumulate 118.1 Mt C in growth of trees and 18.4 Mt in forest soils, and release 38.9 Mt, resulting in a net sequestration of 97.6 Mt C, corresponding to 16.8% of the national CO2 emissions in 1990. From 1990 to 2050, soil carbon accumulation was projected to increase slightly while carbon emissions increases by 73, 77 and 84%, and net carbon sequestration increases by -21, 52 and 90% for baseline, trend andplanning scenarios, respectively. Carbon sequestration by China's forests under the planning scenario in 2000, 2010, 2030 and 2050 is approximately 20, 48, 111 and 142% higher than projected by the baseline scenario, and 8, 18, 34 and 26% higher than by the trend scenario, respectively. Over 9 Gt C is projected to accumulate in China's forests from 1990 to 2050 under the planning scenario, and this is 73 and 23% larger than projected for the baseline and trend scenarios, respectively. During the period 2008-2012, Chinese forests are likely to have a net uptake of 667, 565 and 452 Mt C, respectively, for the planning, trend and baseline scenarios. We conclude that China's forests have a large potential for carbon sequestration through forest development. Sensitivity analysis showed that the biggest uncertainty in the projection by the F-CARBON model came from the release coefficient of soil carbon between periods after harvesting and before reforestation.

_________________________________


3) Climate Change News
_________________________________

RUSSIA AND KYOTO
Until Russia joins other countries in ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, the international community will not be in a position even to start tackling the challenge of striking a balance between stricter curbs and geographic inclusiveness on the issue of climate change, argues this article.
http://search.ft.com/search/article.html?id=030813000327&query=kyoto&vsc_appId=totalSearch&state=Form

[from Point Carbon]

KYOTO 'WILL NOT STOP GLOBAL WARMING'
Even if the Kyoto Protocol is fully implemented, greenhouse gas emissions worldwide will still increase by 70 per cent, says the Institute for Public Policy Research.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/3131285.stm

[from Point Carbon]

WA SHIRE CREATES CARBON SINK
A wheatbelt shire council in mid-west Western Australia has planted nearly 20,000 trees in what is thought to be the first carbon sink on public land in WA. Narembeen council has undertaken the project with the Carbon Credits International Group, as a way of allowing companies around the world to offset their carbon emissions.
http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s912449.htm

[from Point Carbon]

_________________________________


4) New Publications:
_________________________________

WILDLIFE RESPONSETO CLIMATE CHANGE: NORTH AMERICAN CASE STUDIES

Stephen H. Schneider, Terry L. Root (Eds.), Island Press, Washington, DC, 2002, US$ 60.00, ISBN 1-55963-925-3

There are few factors that have a greater direct effect on the global distribution and abundance of species than climate. As such, the Earth's biota represent a rich organic instrument for detecting climate change and gauging the potential consequences of climate change for ecosystems and their goods and services. Recent studies have documented a coherent response on behalf of wildlife to the 0.6±0.2 °C warming observed over the 20th century which demonstrates the high sensitivity of biological systems to even small changes in climatic conditions. In addition, numerous individual studies and assessments have attempted to provide both qualitative and quantitative estimates of the ecological consequences of the climate change projected for the 21st century. As a result, one may question what additional insight another publication on this subject can provide amidst the veritable flood of information that has recently emerged.

As it happens, Wildlife Responses to Climate Change is a relatively fresh approach to the description of climate change impacts to wildlife, which provides in-depth analyses of the responses of specific species to climate variability and change while raising a broad-range of important considerations pertinent to this area of study. The book centers around eight case studies executed by graduate students who were guided by the notable researchers Stephen Schneider and Terry Root and supported by the National Wildlife Foundation (NWF).

[Book review in Climate Policy, Article in Press, by Benjamin L. Preston]

_________________________________


5) Web sites of interest:
_________________________________

ELECTRONIC JOINT IMPLEMENTATION QUARTERLY

Foundation JIN has published the first issue of eJIQ, a compact and more frequently issued electronic variant of the regular JIQ (Joint Implementation Quarterly). The eJIQ will be published in PDF format, as an addition to the regular quarterly JIQ issues. It will appear irregularly, triggered by events and developments concerning the Kyoto Mechanisms.

In the first issue:

- The EU emissions trading scheme linking directive: how much to link?

- CDM issues at Meth-6

- More CDM Issues at EB-10

- Facts about the Kyoto Mechanisms

- Meeting Planner

The eJIQ can be downloaded directly at http://www.northsea.nl/jiq/eJIQ1.pdf

_________________________________

6) Climate Change Jobs

_________________________________

SENIOR FORESTRY OFFICER - Global Forest Resources Assessment

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Professional Vacancy Announcement No: 1205-FOR

Deadline For Application: 30 September 2003

Duty Station Rome

Grade Level P-5

Duration Fixed term: 3 years

For further details please visit:

http://www.fao.org/VA/PROF/1205forE.htm

Send your application to:

V.A 1205-FOR

Chief, Forest Resources Development Service (FORM)

FAO Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome ITALY

Fax No: +39 06 57055137

E-mail: E-mail: peter.holgrem@fao.org

**** for a regular check on FAO Vacancies visit: http://www.fao.org/VA/Employ.htm****

 

MULTIDISCIPLINARYPh.D. FELLOWSHIPS IN GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH / EARTH SYSTEM MODELLING

The International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling offers several fellowships for interdisciplinary Ph.D. studies in the comprehensive field of Earth System Modelling. Key questions of Global Change will be investigated by means of numerical modelling at the global and/or regional scale.

Successful applicants will begin their Ph.D. research in early 2004 at one of the participating institutions:

Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg

University of Hamburg

GKSS Institute for Coastal Research, Geestacht

Hamburg Institute of International Economics

Centre for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Submit your complete application by September 12, 2003 to:

Coordinator - Earth System School

Max Planck Institute for Meteorology

Bundesstr. 55D-20146 Hamburg, Germany

or to coordinator@earthsystemschool.mpg.de

(please send files as .pdf

*******************************************************

*******************************************************

Thank you for your inputs for this issue:

André Gabus, Neelu Gera, Andreas Häusler, Matthias Jonas

*******************************************************

The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Products Division (FOP).

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last updated:  Friday, March 19, 2004