No. 5/2003


1) Climate Change Info & Events
2) Research/Publication on Climate Change and Forestry
3) Climate Change News
4) New Publications
5) Web sites of interest
6) Climate Change Jobs



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1) Climate Change Info & Events

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REVIEW OF SBSTA 18 - BONN: NEGOTIATIONS ON SINKS IN THE CDM

** Definitions, rules and modalities for afforestation and reforestation under the CDM

Main output of the negotiations is a condensed version of the former 84-page consolidated text prepared on the basis of country submissions by the Secretariat to a 29-page document

(FCCC/SBSTA/2003/L.13, http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2003/sbsta/l13.pdf)

This will now form the foundation for further negotiations, scheduled for a 2-3 day pre-sessional meeting before SBSTA 19 and at SBSTA19 itself, to enable a final decision at COP 9 in Milan in December this year. Remaining core issues are:

- definitions of forest, afforestation and reforestation contained in the Marrakech Accords for domestic forestry activities in Annex I countries are accepted for the CDM as well; however, the threshold date for reforestation remains controversial, with mainly Canada and Colombia insisting on the year 2000.

- four options for calculating net anthropogenic greenhouse gas removals by sinks beyond a baseline were identified; differences essentially centre on the treatment of non-CO2 gases in the baseline and the project.

- two options of dealing with non-permanence of sinks, namely insurance schemes and temporary credits remain. Most of the parties seem to be of the view that insurance cannot solve the non-permanence problem. Canada and Colombia persist in allowing insurance schemes.

- the length of the crediting period for projects

- the social and environmental impacts of forestry projects.

- mainly developing countries are promoting smallholder projects and agroforestry through simplified procedures during the project cycle.

** IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF

SBSTA commended the progress made in the expert/government review of the first draft of these guidelines and urged completion of this task, as well as the report on defining and accounting for human- induced forest degradation for decisions at COP 9.

** Pre-session workshop with African and Latin American sink negotiators

Following up previous supporting workshops with African and Latin American negotiators, UNEP, IUCN and FAO arranged a joint pre-sessional meeting with sink negotiators from these regions to hone understanding for upcoming negotiations in SBSTA, and work out commonalities and differences.

The meeting spawned contacts and mutual support between delegates from these regions during the session and beyond. Several delegates from Central America involved in the FAO capacity- building project joined the meeting.

Participants elaborated priority themes for the planned intersessional workshops after SBSTA 18 and before COP9 and established an electronic forum for communications. A firstworkshop for sink negotiators/forestry officials on afforestation and reforestation under the CDM and other forest sector related issues at COP9 is now planned for October 16/17, 2003.

** Side event on rules and modalities for the CDM from the perspective of developing countries

In a joint UNEP-IUCN-FAO side event visited by approximately 130 delegates, the cooperating organizations reported on their joint support to developing country negotiators and capacity building. Two delegates each from Africa and Latin America described the state, preparations, experiences and expectations in their countries regarding forestry projects under the CDM. It became obvious, that good projects and an equitable distribution across regions and continents will only materialize, if capacity in general and in the forestry sector will be improved substantially, based on support outside the proper CDM, such as GEF, ODA and other funds. Pilot projects and ¿learning by doing¿ will raise public awareness and enable broader participation. All presentations stressed the importance of smallholder and community projects and the need for building capacities for the CDM in general and specifically in the forestry sector.

** Collaborative Partnership on Forests contributes to the climate change negotiations

SBSTA recognized the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and encouraged the Secretariat to cooperate closely with that body on issues related to forests.

SEVENTH EUROPEAN Ph.D. WORKSHOP ON INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE POLICY

October 10-11, 2003, Hamburg, Germany

The seventh Ph. D. workshop of the European Ph.D. network on International Climate Policy will be held at the Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA) on October 10-11, 2003 in Hamburg, Germany.

The workshop is open to Ph.D. students and researchers from all disciplines working on different aspects of International Climate Policy. It offers a forum to present (preliminary) Ph.D. research ideas and results and discuss them with other students and researchers working in the field. The workshop will be held in English. There is no workshop fee. We cannot offer funding to cover travel costs.

Further information on the workshop, as well as on past Ph.D. workshops, is available on the website of the European Ph.D. network on International Climate Policy:

http://www.sls.wageningen-ur.nl/enr/ICP/ and on the website of the Programme "International Climate Policy" of the Hamburg Institute of International Economics www.hwwa.de/climate.htm.

For registration, please contact Martina Jung (martina.jung@hwwa.de) or Maike Sippel (maike.sippel@hwwa.de ), including your name, name of institution or university and subject of Ph.D. thesis. Registration closes on Sept. 1.

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

MEXICO CITY, 23 JULY 2003:

"SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA FOR CARBON-BASED FORESTRY PROJECTS AND THE
MEXICAN CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY PROCESS"

Researchers at the School of Development Studies at the University of East Anglia (UK) and the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (UK) have organised a workshop in cooperation with the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico) to inform the Mexican policy process and discuss a set of sustainable development criteria for carbon-based forestry projects. A range of institutions and organisations, including government, international consultancies and NGOs, will participate and present their views on forestry carbon-based projects and sustainable development. The workshop will take place in Mexico City on the 23rd of July. Unfortunately, there are no more funds available to cover assistance costs.

Contact YatziriZepeda (yatzem@ine.gob.mx ) or Esteve Corbera
(e.corbera-elizalde@uea.ac.uk) for further information.

INTERNATIONAL COURSE ON "PLANNING OF CDM PROJECTS IN THE FORESTRY AND BIO-ENERGY SECTORS"

CATIE, Global Change Group, October 6th -10th 2003

For 4 years, the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE, Costa Rica) has been offering a one-week course on climate change, forestry and bioenergy. The next session will be held from the 6th to the 10th of October2003 in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

This international course on planning of CDM projects in the forestry and bio-energy sectors does not only provide state of the art about climate change and its impacts, but also detailed information and practical training on how to design and negotiate CDM projects.

A series of lectures and practical exercises will guide the participants through the rules and procedures of the CDM, provide the necessary technical skills required to apply IPCC good practice guidance to project design, and transfer basic knowledge on how to use a specialized software for estimating carbon storage. The course also includes fundamental information on the emerging greenhouse gas market and on funding opportunities for project developers.

The course is offered by the Global Change Group, a skilled team of international professionals working at the CATIE. Speakers include Thomas Black (CAEMA, Colombia), Markku Kanninen (CIFOR Indonesia), Oscar Coto (Costa Rica), Lucio Pedroni (CATIE Costa Rica), Bruno Locatelli (CIRAD France-CATIE Costa Rica). The working language will be Spanish, though part of the literature will be in English.

For more information please contact Mrs Zenia Salinas at zsalinas@catie.ac.cr

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TROPICAL FORESTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE - ¿CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM¿

Manila, Philippines - 21.10.-23.10.2003

Venue: Asian Institute of Management (AIM), Benabidez St., Makati City

Objectives

- To discuss the state of knowledge on carbon sequestration and the clean development mechanism

- To explore ways of enhancing the role of forestry projects in meeting carbon reduction obligations

-To strengthen linkage among researchers, policy makers, forest developers and NGOs.

For further information, please visit: http://www.enfor.com.ph/announcements.html

Online registration: http://www.enfor.com.ph/regform.html

Contact:

Dr. Rodel D. Lasco
Professor and Chair, Technical Committee
Environmental Forestry Programme
College of Forestry and Natural Resources
University of the Philippines Los Baños
4031 College, Laguna, Philippines
E-mail: enfor@laguna.net

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2) Research/Publication on Climate Change and Forestry

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CARBON ACCOUNTING IN FORESTS

A proceedings on "Carbon Accounting in Forests" based on an international workshop held in Canberra in February 2003 has been prepared by CSIRO. The book contains the following papers:
International Responses to Threats of Climate Change, The Clean DevelopmentMechanism, The National Carbon Accounting System, Current Methodologies for Assessing Carbon Budgets in China's Forests, Implementing the Clean Development Mechanism in Thailand, Carbon Flows in the Forestry Sector of Thailand, Application of the COMAP model for Developing and Evaluating Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in Vietnam, A Toolbox for Carbon Accounting in Plantations, Toolbox Application: Case Studies for Firewood Production, Species-Site Matching for Carbon Sequestration Plantations, Greenhouse Accounting Research in CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products and The CRC for Greenhouse Accounting.
Copies of the proceedings are downloadable from:

http://www.ffp.csiro.au/fap/Carbon%20Accounting%20in%20Forests.htm

FORESTRY PROJECTS: LESSONS LEARNED AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CDM MODALITIES

by Jane Ellis

This paper examines how additionality, baselines and leakage have been assessed for several afforestation/reforestation (A/R) projects currently underway. It identifies trends and draws lessons from this experience that could be useful when agreeing on the modalities and procedures for including A/R projects into the CDM for the first commitment period. The paper concludes that the risk of free-rider projects can be significantly reduced by incorporating relatively small changes into the definitions of additionality, baseline and baseline approach that are set to be agreed for A/R CDM projects at COP9. The importance of leakage can be reduced through careful project design and siting.

http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/24/15/2956438.pdf

"Can Permanence be insured? Consideration of some Technical and Practical Issues of Insuring Carbon Credits from Afforestation and Reforestation" by Jenny Wong and Michael Dutschke.

HWWA Discussion paper 235, Hamburg Institute of International Economics, 2003

Abstract:

GHG removals from carbon sink activities are considered to be of temporary nature and non-permanent. Specific modalities related to non-permanence will need to be developed in order to include afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM and for a decision on modalities to be reached at COP 9 in December 2003. Two main options on how to address non-permanence have been proposed, temporary credits and insurance of emission reduction credits. This paper discusses the practicality and potential difficulties of the insurance approach for addressing non-permanence of sequestered carbon stocks and the validity of CERs generated. The insurability of CERs or non-permanence is considered against common insurability criteria. The marketability of the insurance product and several technical questions in relation to developing this new market instrument are asked. In addition, inequities likely to arise if the approach is adopted as a mandatory modality are discussed.


The full paper can be downloaded from the HWWA website:
http://www.hwwa.de/Publikationen/Discussion_Paper/2003/235.pdf

Journal: New Forests

Volume: 26 Issue: 2 September 2003

Economics of wastelands afforestation in India, a review

KulbhushanBalooni

pp 101-136

Abstract

India has vast tracts of wastelands. Afforestation of these wastelands is one of the many alternative uses of such lands. Given the scarcity of capital in India, it becomes imperative to determine the economics and financial feasibility of wastelands afforestation projects. The studies reviewed in this paper deal with cost and financial feasibility analysis of wastelands afforestation projects in India. The main rationale behind this review is to examine the prospects of increasing investments in the afforestation projects. This also has a global significance, since afforestation augments carbon sequestration, which has become an exigency in view of externalities associated with global warming. The study uses review of existing literature and regression analysis as analytical tools. The review reveals that reclamation of wastelands through afforestation is not an expensive venture in India. Afforestation projects are financially viable even when no environmental benefits are taken into consideration. The results of the study suggest that polluting companies/countries should explore the possibility of investing in afforestation in India to gain carbon credits economically, once the parties to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change decide to approve it. The studies reviewed reveal that researchers have used different sets of criteria for financial feasibility analysis of the afforestation projects. Almost all the studies have ignored non-market benefits of afforestation projects. Such methodological differences need to be addressed in view of the increasing importance of plantations as carbon sinks. Some socioeconomic issues like investment in tree crops vis-à-vis agricultural crops, preference for mixed plantation and wastelands development as a means of resource development have also emerged from this review.

Journal: Climate Policy

Volume: 3 Issue: 2 June 2003

A conceptual framework and its application for addressing leakage: the case of avoided deforestation

Louise Aukland, Pedro Moura Costa and Sandra Brown

pp 123-136

Abstract

One of the most challenging technical issues associated with project-based mechanisms is that of leakage. A conceptual framework is proposed for the identification and analysis of leakage potentially generated by a project. The categorization of leakage based on the actors responsible for their manifestation is proposed, which divides sources of leakage into primary and secondary types. It is the actors or agents responsible for the baseline activities that cause primary leakage. Secondary leakage occurs when the project's outputs create incentives for third parties to increase emissions elsewhere. This distinction, based on the source of leakage, provides a basis for the analysis outlined in the paper. The extent and type of leakage will vary depending on the project typology and design. Using a decision tree approach, the process of identifying potential sources of leakage is demonstrated for the case study of avoided deforestation projects. If the main elements determining a baseline are properly identified and understood, in particular the `baseline agents', a combination of the decision tree approach and apportioning responsibility, can assist in the quantification and monitoring of primary leakage. An analysis at the project design stage can also assist in minimizing the risk of future leakage. Econometric methods may prove more useful in analyzing secondary leakage.

Journal: Climate Policy

Volume: 3 Issue: 2 June 2003

The climatic impacts of land surface change and carbon management, and the implications forclimate-change mitigation policy

Gregg Marland, Roger A. Pielke, Sr., Mike Apps, Roni Avissar, Richard A. Betts, Kenneth J. Davis, Peter C. Frumhoff, Stephen T. Jackson, Linda A. Joyce, Pekka Kauppi, John Katzenberger, Kenneth G. MacDicken, Ronald P. Neilson, John O. Niles, Dev dutta S. Niyogi, Richard J. Norby, Naomi Pena, Neil Sampson and Yongkang Xue

pp 149-157

Abstract

Strategies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can reduce the build-up of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. However, climate mitigation policies do not generally incorporate the effects of these changes in the land surface on the surface albedo, the fluxes of sensible and latent heat to the atmosphere, and the distribution of energy within the climate system. Changes in these components of the surface energy budget can affect the local, regional, and global climate. Given the goal of mitigating climate change, it is important to consider all of the effects of changes in terrestrial vegetation and to work toward a better understanding of the full climate system. Acknowledging the importance of land surface change as a component of climate change makes it more challenging to create a system of credits and debits wherein emission or sequestration of carbon in the biosphere is equated with emission of carbon from fossil fuels. Recognition of the complexity of human-caused changes in climate does not, however, weaken the importance of actions that would seek to minimize our disturbance of the Earth's environmental system and that would reduce societal and ecological vulnerability to environmental change and variability.

Journal: Science

Volume :300 6 June 2003

Climate-Driven Increases in Global Terrestrial Net Primary Production from 1982 to 1999

Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Charles D. Keeling, Hirofumi Hashimoto, William M. Jolly, Stephen C. Piper, Compton J. Tucker, Ranga B. Myneni, Steven W. Running
pp 1560-1563

Abstract:

Recent climatic changes have enhanced plant growth in northern mid-latitudes and high latitudes. However, a comprehensive analysis of the impact of global climatic changes on vegetation productivity has not before been expressed in the context of variable limiting factors to plant growth. We present a global investigation of vegetation responses to climatic changes by analyzing 18 years (1982 to 1999) of both climatic data and satellite observations of vegetation activity. Our results indicate that global changes in climate have eased several critical climatic constraints to plant growth, such that net primary production increased 6% (3.4 petagrams of carbon over 18 years) globally. The largest increase was in tropical ecosystems. Amazon rain forests accounted for 42% of the global increase in net primary production, owing mainly to decreased cloud cover and the resulting increase in solar radiation.

Journal: Science

Volume :300 6 June 2003

Slow in, Rapid out? Carbon Flux Studies and Kyoto Targets

Körner, C.

pp 1242-1243.

Abstract:

Plot-based carbon flux measurements cannot produce a realistic picture of a landscape's contribution to carbon sequestration. The same holds for growth responses of forests to elevated CO2

Journal: Science

Volume :300 6 June 2003

Europe's Terrestrial Biosphere Absorbs 7 to 12% of European Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions

Jansens, IA, Freibauer, A., Ciais, P., Smith, P., Nabuurs, G., Folb erth, F., Schlamadinger, B., Hutjes, R.W.A., Ceulemans, R., Sculze, E., Valentini, R., and Dolman, A.J

pp 1538-1542.

Abstract: Most inverse atmospheric models report considerable uptake of carbon dioxide in Europe's terrestrial biosphere. In contrast, carbon stocks interrestrial ecosystems increase at a much smaller rate, with carbon gains in forests and grassland soils almost being offset by carbon losses from cropland and peat soils. Accounting for non?carbon dioxide carbon transfers that are not detected by the atmospheric models and for carbon dioxide fluxes bypassing the ecosystem carbon stocks considerably reduces the gap between the small carbon-stock changes and the larger carbon dioxide uptake estimated by atmospheric models. The remaining difference could be because of missing components in the stock-change approach, as well as the large uncertainty in both methods. With the use of the corrected atmosphere- and land-based estimates as a dual constraint, we estimate a net carbon sink between 135 and 205 teragrams per year in Europe's terrestrial biosphere, the equivalent of 7 to 12% of the 1995 anthropogenic carbon emissions.

Journal: Climatic Change
Volume: 58 Issues: 1-2 May 2003

Can Trees Buy Time? An Assessment of the Role of Vegetation Sinks as Part of the Global Carbon Cycle

Miko U. F. Kirschbaum
pp 47-71

Abstract:

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations can be reduced by storing carbon in vegetation. However, this lowers the concentration gradient between the atmosphere and other potential carbon reservoirs, such as the oceans, and thereby reduces the subsequent inherent rate of removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Hence, storage of carbon in temporary reservoirs can reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the short term, but if the carbon is released again, it will increase concentrations in the long term. It must, therefore, be considered when, or, indeed whether, to store carbon in vegetation sinks. To determine an optimal strategy, the exact nature of climate-change impacts needs to be considered first. Impacts can be mediated by:

1. the direct and instantaneous effect of CO2 and its associated temperature;

2. the rate of change in CO2 and its associated temperature;

3. the cumulative effect of CO2 and its associated temperature.

Carbon stored in permanently maintained vegetation sinks can lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but this can be done most effectively if sequestration occurs close to the time when atmospheric concentrations are to be lowered. Similarly, maximal rates of change can be most effectively reduced by carbon sequestration close to the time of anticipated maximal rates of change. For reducing impacts via cumulative forcing, however, early sink activity would be more effective than delayed activity. Temporary carbon stores would only be beneficial for climate change impacts related to the cumulative impact of CO2, but it could even worsen impacts mediated via the instantaneous effect of temperature or those related to the rate of change. Hence, the planting of trees is only beneficial in reducing climate-change impacts if the most serious impacts are those related to the cumulative effect of increased temperature. If other impacts are more serious, then the planting of trees would bring greater benefits if it is delayed until closer to the time when the most severe impacts are to be expected. However, if serious land degradation would result from deforestation, or from a failure to plant trees in the near future, then trees should still be planted in order to maximise the amount of carbon stored on land.

Journal: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Volume: 7 Issue: 2 2002

Wood materials used as a means to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs): An examination of wooden utility poles

Roger A. Sedjo

pp 191-200

Abstract

There has been growing concern over the build-up of greenhouse gase (GHGs) in the atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), as a cause of globalwarming. The IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001) suggests two ways in which the choice of materials could be relevant. First, some materials, particularly wood, have the advantage that they continue to hold carbon (C)in their cells even after being converted to products. The implications of this feature are well researched. Second, an area that is not well researched relates to the different energy requirements for producing similar products made with different materials. Using the findings of recent research, this paper compares the energy requirements and C emissions of manufacturing a product using wood with that of other materials. The case study of utility poles demonstrates the positive C and global warming consequences of the lower energy requirements of wood in the U.S., compared to other materials such as steel or concrete. It demonstrates that GHG emissions associated with utility poles are a small but significant percent of total US annual emissions. Wood utility poles are associated with GHG emission reductions of 163 Terragrams (Tg) of CO_{2} when compared with steel poles. This is about 2.8 percent of US annual GHG emissions, which are estimated at about 5.28 Petragrams (Pg) of CO2 annually. Thus, the use of wooden utility poles rather than steel results in a small but significant reduction in total US emissions.

Journal: Environmental and Resource Economics

Volume: 25 Issue: 2 June 2003

Carbon Trading with Imperfectly Observable Emissions

Odd Godal, Yuri Ermoliev, Ger Klaassen, Michael Obersteiner

pp 151-169

Abstract

The Kyoto Protocol foresees emission trading but does not yet specify verification of (uncertain) emissions. This paper analyses a setting in which parties can meet their emission targets by reducing emissions, by investing in monitoring (reducing uncertainty of emissions) or by (bilaterally) trading permits. We derive the optimality conditions and carry out various numerical simulations. Our applications suggest that including uncertainty could increase compliance costs for the USA, Japan and the European Union. Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union might be able to gain from trading due to higher permit prices. Emissions trading could also lower aggregate uncertainty on emissions.

Journal: Forest Ecology and Management

Volume: 180 Issues: 1-3 17 July 2003

Biomass and carbon sequestration of ponderosa pine plantations and native cypress forests in northwest Patagonia

Pablo Laclau

pp 317-333

Abstract

Fast growth tree plantations and secondary forests are considered highly efficient carbon sinks. In northwest Patagonia, more than 2 million ha of rangelands are suitable for forestry, and tree plantation or native forest restoration could largely contribute to climate change mitigation. The commonest baseline is the heavily grazed gramineous steppe of Festuca pallescens (St. Yves) Parodi. To assess the carbon sequestration potential of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa (Dougl.) Laws) plantations and native cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis (Don) Flor. et Boutl.), individual above and below ground biomass models were developed, and scaled to stand level in forests between 600 and 1500 annual rainfall. To calculate the carbon sequestration baseline, the pasture biomass was simulated. Also, soil carbon at two depths was assessed in paired pine-cypress-pasture sample plots, the same as the litter carbon content of both forest types. Individual stem, foliage, branch and root log linear equations adjusted for pine and cypress trees presented similar slopes (P>0.05), although some differed in the elevations. Biomass carbon was 52.3 Mg ha-1 (S.D.=30.6) for pine stands and 73.2 Mg ha-1 (S.D.=95.4) for cypress forests, given stand volumes of 148.1 and 168.4 m3 ha-1,respectively. Soil carbon (litter included) was 86.3 Mg ha-1 (S.D.=46.5) for pine stands and 116.5 Mg ha-1 (S.D.=38.5) for cypress. Root/shoot ratio was 19.5 and 11.4%, respectively. The low r/s value for cypress may account for differences in nutrient cycling and water uptake potential. At stand level, differences in foliage, taproot and soil carbon compartments were highly significative (P<0.01) between both forest types. In pine stands, both biomass and soil carbon were highly explained by the rainfall gradient (r2=0.94). Nevertheless, such a relationship was not found for cypress, possibly due to stand and soil disturbances in sample plots. The carbon baseline estimated in pasture biomass, including litter, was 2.6 Mg ha-1 (S.D.=0.8). Since no differences in soil carbon were found between pasture and both forest types, additionality should be accounted only by biomass. However, the replacement of pasture by pine plantations may decrease the soil carbon storage, at least during the first years. On the other hand, the soil may be a more relevant compartment of sequestered carbon in cypress forests, and if pine plantation replaces cypress forests, soil carbon losses could cause a negative balance.

Journal: Forest Ecology and Management

Volume: 180 Issues: 1-3 17 July 2003

Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

Laura A. B. Giese, W. M. Aust, Randall K. Kolka and Carl C. Trettin

pp 493-508

Abstract

Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian forests were recovering from disturbance (thermal pollution), whereas the fourth represents a mature, relatively undisturbed riparian forest. Above and belowground carbon pools were determined from linear transects established perpendicular to the main stream channels and spanning the width of the riparian area. The objective of this study was to quantify the biomass and carbon pools in severely disturbed, early successional bottomland hardwood riparian forests and to compare these values to those of a less disturbed, mature riparian forest.

Aboveground biomass in all four riparian forests increased during the 2.5-year investigation period. The total carbon pool in these South Carolina Coastal Plain riparian forests increased with forest age/development due to greater tree and soil carbon pools. The mature riparian forest stored approximately four times more carbon than the younger stands. The importance of the herbaceous biomass layer and carbon pool declined relative to total aboveground biomass with increasing forest age. As stands grew older fine root biomass increased, but an inverse relationship existed between percentages of fine root biomass to total biomass. The root carbon pool increased with forest age/development due to a combination of greater fine root biomass and higher root percent carbon.

Aboveground net primary production (NPP) in young riparian forests rapidly approached and exceeded NPP of the more mature riparian forest. As a woody overstory became established (after ~8-10 years) annual litterfall rate as a function of NPP was independent of forest age and litterfall amount in the young riparian forests was comparable to mature riparian forests. Biomass in the riparian forest floor and carbon pool declined with increasing riparian forest development. Woody debris in these riparian forests comprised a relatively small carbon pool. An understanding of bottomland hardwood riparian forest carbon pools at different stages of succession allows us toassess how time since disturbance influences these pools, leading to a better understanding of the recovery processes.

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3) Climate Change News

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REAPING THE WHIRLWIND

Extreme weather prompts unprecedented global warming alert. In an astonishing announcement on global warming and extreme weather, the World Meteorological Organization signaled that the world's weather is going haywire.

http://news.independent.co.uk/world/environment/story.jsp

[The Independent, London - July 3, 2003]

FORESTRY INDUSTRY STUMPED BY KYOTO

New forest planting volumes are plummeting in New Zealand, as Government policy

on the Kyoto Protocol is based on increasing areas of trees.
http://www.co2e.com/News/story.asp?StoryID=1199

[from Point Carbon]

KYOTO PROTOCOL AWAITS NOD FROM RUSSIA'S PUTIN
Russia's economy ministry said that the Kyoto Protocol would not harm Russian

interests and that ratification of the landmark environmental pact was a

political question awaiting a nod from the Kremlin.
http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/21416/story.htm

[from Point Carbon]

EU PARLIAMENT LAUNCHES CLIMATE EMISSIONS TRADING

The European Parliament establishes the world's first
international emissions trading market by voting to cap
European industry's carbon dioxide output and let firms trade the
right to pollute.
http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/21371/story.htm

[from Planet Ark]

DEFORESTATION RATE INCREASES

Satellite imagery indicates 25,500 square kilometers of forests in the
Amazon were cleared in the year to June 2002, the highest rate of
deforestation since 1994-1995.
http://ens-news.com/ens/jun2003/2003-06-27-03.asp

[from eCarbon News]

PLANT DIVERSITY REDUCED

Doubling the amount of carbon dioxide in the air significantly reduces the
number of plant species that grow in the wild, according to a newly
released study on climate change in California.
http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2003/june18/jasperplants-618.html

[from eCarbon News]

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4) New Publications:

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CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE IN HIGH ELEVATION REGIONS: PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE

Edited by Henry F. Diaz

KLUWER, Book Series: ADVANCES IN GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH : Volume 15, July 2003, 344 pages

Reprinted from CLIMATIC CHANGE, 59:1-2

The world's mountain systems, including the people in them, have gained international attention in the last few decades. The United Nations' International Year of Mountains-2002 can be regarded as the culmination of a long process involving research, development of research networks, a greater awareness by various sectors of society of the critical importance of mountain regions for a sustainable future, and recognition of that fact by policy makers.

This volume reviews recent climatic trends in high elevation regions of the world, assessing the reliability of various environmental indicators that can be used for monitoring climatic change, and assessing whether physical impacts of climatic change in high elevation areas are becoming evident, and to discuss a range of monitoring strategies needed to observe and to understand the nature of such changes.

BIOENERGY FROM SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY. GUIDING PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

Edited by J. Richardson, R. Björheden, P. Hakkila, A.T. Lowe, C.T. Smith

KLUWER, Book Series: FORESTRY SCIENCES : Volume 71, June 2002, 357 pages

Bioenergy from Sustainable Forestry synthesizes information needed to design or implement sustainable forest management systems for production of biomass for energy in conjunction with other forest products. It is organized around the criteria for sustainable forest management: productivity, environment, social issues, economics, and legal and institutional framework. More than 25 international experts from 10 countries have brought together available ecological, physical, operational, social and economic information and identified gaps in knowledge related to biomass production and harvesting systems. This is the first time that such comprehensive information has been brought together under one cover, using an integrated, holistic approach. Guiding principles and state of the art knowledge are emphasized. The book will enable forest resource managers and planners to evaluate the ability of specific forest regions to sustainably meet bioenergy production demands.

CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY: A SURVEY

Edited by S.H. Schneider, A. Rosencranz, and J.O. Niles

Island Press, September 2002, 368 pages

Topics include climate science and its uncertainties, the economics of carbon abatement, the U.S. policy context, two key arenas of mitigation options (land use change and energy), and the ethics and politics of distributing reductions in greenhouse gas emissions among the rich and poor of the world. Study includes many difficult aspects of climate policy, such as the construction of markets for carbon trading, the options for producing and distributing hydrogen and renewable energy, potential agriculture and forestry policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the positive role businesses can play in bringing about a sustainable energy transition.

AWARMER WORLD- THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND CLIMATE CHANGE

published by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM), April 2003, 168 pages

This book summarizes present-day knowledge about the causes of climatic changes and the consequences of such changes for society and the natural environment. Also presented here are recent SWECLIM calculations of how the European climate could change over the next hundred years. Other themes in the book include conceivable changes of the climatic system in the longer term, and various possibilities to reduce human influences on the climate.

http://www.internat.environ.se/index.php3?main=/documents/pollutants/climate/climate/warmer.html

UNIDO CDM INVESTOR GUIDES FOR BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA

UNIDO has completed CDM investor guides for Brazil for South Africa as a contribution to the UN interagency CDM capacity building project--both are available from our Kyoto Protocol Web page http://www.unido.org/en/doc/3941

The guides provide details of each countries' industrial sectors, that have considerable mitigation potential and are likely to become central to CDM activities, and of the institutional and organizational mechanisms that shape their CDM processes. In addition, up-to-date lists of on-going projects together with contact addresses of project sponsors and developers are presented.

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5) Web sites of interest:

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*Canadian Forests Newsletter - employment opportunities

http://www.canadian-forests.com/job.html

*For career and employment opportunities in the United States, visit
ForestryUSA.com at:

http://www.forestryusa.com/jobs.htm

*TREES AND MARKETS ON-LINE

treesandmarketsonline@cgiar.org

A newsletter on tree cultivation and marketing of products and services from trees.

Published by World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya

To subscribe to the newsletter, send an email to treesandmarketsonline@cgiar.org
with the following details:

First name:
Surname:
Organisation:
Telephone:
E-Mail:
Fax:
Comments:
In the future it is planned to put the newsletter on the ICRAF Website with subscription details.

*CDM Monitor by Point Carbon

Point Carbon recently published the first issue of CDM Monitor, a new monthly publication providing news, views and analysis of the emerging market for certified emissions reductions (CERs).

CDM Monitor is free of charge in the trial period.

To download the first issue of CDM Monitor, go to:

http://www.pointcarbon.com/category.php?categoryID=54

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6) Climate Change Jobs

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*ASSOCIATE PROGRAMME OFFICER CLIMATE IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION

United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya

Division for Global Environment Facility (DGEF)

Climate Change Enabling Activities (CCEA)

Short term professional, Climate Impacts and Adaptation

Grade P.2/3

Duration 11 months

Official Station Nairobi (Kenya)

Objectives of the programme:

The climate change enabling activity programme funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) is responsible for developing and managing climate change enabling activities for developing countries in support of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

The associate programme officer is needed to participate in new climate change enabling activities and climate impacts and adaptation work starting in developing countries, especially Africa and South Asia. The climate change enabling activities will lead to the preparation of National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPAs) by the LDCs identifying the most urgent projects/programmes that are needed to minimise the impact of climate change on society and its resources. The climate impacts and adaptation work will lead to regional and vulnerability and adaptation assessments in the context of sustainable development.

Qualifications and experience

First university degree in natural resources field required. Advanced university degree is advantageous. Fluency in English is essential. Working knowledge of French is desirable. Considerable experience in research project implementation; expertise in climate impacts and adaptation research, several years international experience; good communication and networking skills; ability to manage available resources in innovative ways. Negotiating and advocacy skills.

Application: Interested persons should send their CV in English together with a UNEP Personal History Form not later than 18 July 2003 to the:

Assistant Executive Director, DGEF, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya

Fax: +254.20.624041

e-mail: lisa.masila@unep.org

*VISITING PROFESSOR OF URBAN FORESTRY

The School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida has an opportunity for a visiting professor of Urban Forestry . If anyone is interested in a place to spend a sabbatical or otherwise feel a need for a temporary change in environment, please contact

Dr. George Blakeslee, Interim Director email: gb4stree@ufl.edu.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
University of Florida
PO Box 110410
Gainesville Fl 32611-0410
Telephone: 352-846-0850 Fax: 352-392-1707
Home Page: http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu

**** for all FAO Vacancies visit: http://www.fao.org/VA/Employ.htm ****

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Thank you for your inputs for this issue:

Trevor H. Booth, Jorund Buen, Martina Jung, Bruno Locatelli,

Konrad Meyer

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last updated:  Friday, March 19, 2004