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"Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines and Tanzania" Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 6 (3-4): 185-211, 2001 Guest Editors: J. Sathaye, W. Makundi and K. Andrasko Copyright © 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers All rights reserved
In this special issue of the journal Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change titled "Forestry Mitigation Potential and Costs in Developing Countries", a set of studies are presented that aim to estimate the (1) GHG emissions from these and neighboring countries, (2) potential for emissions avoidance and carbon sequestration, and (3) monetary and other costs and benefits of forestry mitigation options, and (4) to assess project opportunities. The countries studied are Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines and Tanzania by the following authors: J.A. Sathaye, W.R. Makundi, K. Andrasko, R. Boer, N.H. Ravindranath, P. Sudha, S. Rao, R. Lasco, F. Pulhin, O. Masera, A. Ceron, J. Ordonez, X. Deying, X. Zhang, S. Zuomin.
Abstract of the summary paper
This paper summarizes studies of carbon (C) mitigation potential and costs of about 40 forestry options in seven developing countries. Each study uses the same methodological approach - Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (COMAP) - to estimate the above parameters between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios. Coupled with data on a per ha basis on C sequestration or avoidance, and costs and benefits, it allows the estimation of monetary benefit per Mg C, and the total costs and carbon potential. The results show that about half (3.0 Pg C) the cumulative mitigation potential of 6.2 Petagram (Pg) C between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries (about 200× 106 Mg C yr-1) could be achieved at a negative cost and the remainder at costs ranging up to $100 Mg C-1. About 5 Pg C could be achieved, at a cost less than $20 per Mg C. Negative cost potential indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of these options. The achievable potential is likely to be smaller, however, due to market, institutional, and sociocultural barriers that can delay or prevent the implementation of the analyzed options.
- No electronic copy of the paper is available. Please consult the printed copy of the journal for details.
- Global warming hits species all over world, says study March 28 (Reuters/ENN)
- Japan task force draws up emission-cut framework March 21 (Reuters/ENN)
- CLIMATE CHANGE: Kyoto Reluctance Costs Australia Millions, Firms Say March 27 (UN Wire) http://www.unwire.org/unwire/current.asp#25047
- Canada ponders Kyoto protocol March 16 (AP/CNN.com) http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/americas/03/16/canada.kyoto.ap/index.html
- Climate Change Spreads Drought Across Australia March 14 (ENS)
- BP Reaches Climate Goals Eight Years Early March 12 (ENS)
- Government to ratify Kyoto Treaty "within weeks" March 8 (Reuters/Planetark)
- E.U. ministers back Kyoto Protocol but fail to set emissions levels March 5 (Associated Press/ENN)
- EU agrees to be bound by Kyoto protocol March 4 (FT.com)
- Europe Decides to Ratify Kyoto Climate Protocol March 4(ENS)
2nd Annual Emissions Trading - the commercial and financial implications May 20-21, 2002, Thistle Tower Hotel, London E1
This two day conference, organised by Euromoney Energy Events, will bring together the most experienced decision-makers in the emissions trading sector and will provide you with an excellent insight into this rapidly growing market. You will learn about the future of the international markets and will have an opportunity to network with the leaders of the industry.
website www.euromoneyenergy.com or
contact Euromoney Energy Events,
London EC4V 5EX,
Tel: +44 20 7779 8103,
- Economists and Scientists
UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment
The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment is expanding its activities and is recruiting for researcher and senior researcher positions to begin mid-2002.
You will participate in the Centre's international projects and research programmes, especially in the areas of:
Methodology development and capacity building for implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism and other climate change related programmes in developing countries Energy sector analysis with a special focus on policy and financing options for promoting implementation of sustainable energy Adaptation project analysis, support to national adaptation strategies including capacity building, assessment of institutional and financial barriers.
We expect that you have a degree in economics, engineering, planning, natural science or other relevant discipline at Ph.D. or equivalent level. Moreover we expect that candidates applying for the senior research positions have several years of working experience in relevant areas and demonstrated ability to initiate new projects in co-operation with international institutions.
Terms of employment
You will be employed in accordance with the terms valid for scientific staff at Risø National Laboratory. Individual supplements can be negotiated along with travel and expatriation allowances. The period of employment is two years with the possibility for extensions.
Please send your application to:
Risø National Laboratory, 33-36/02
Systems Analysis Department, building 142
P.O. Box 49
The deadline for the application is 12 April 2002.
You are welcome to contact
Head of the Centre John Christensen,
tel. +45 46 77 51 30,
Administrator Stine Skipper,
tel. +45 4677 5175,
Chairman of the Board Hans Larsen,
tel +45 46 77 5101 or send us an e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org for further information.
You can read more about Risø on risoe.dk and about Centre activities on www.uccee.org
Risø values variety and supports equal opportunities irrespective of sex and ethnic back-ground.
The Centre The Centre is a leading international research and advisory centre on energy, environment and sustainable development in partnership mainly with UNEP and developing country institutions.
The successful candidates will join an international team in an interdisciplinary work environment.
The working language at the Centre is English [from climate-l]
- "Les instruments de la Convention-cadre sur les Changements Climatiques et leur potentiel pour le developpement durable de l' Afrique"
The paper, produced by FAO in cooperation with CIRAD, contains a detailed discussions of UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, of the CDM and of other funding possibilities for SFM of the Protocol. In addition, there is useful background information on Climate Change and forests, as well as proposals for practical implementation in Africa.
The working paper is currently being translated into English. The electronic version (in French) will shortly be available on the Forestry and Climate Change Web site http://www.fao.org/forestry/Climate/
- "Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Developed Countries: 1990 - 2010"
This new EPA document presents emissions and baseline projections of the non-CO2 gases from major anthropogenic sources for 38 developed countries.
The report is available at http://www.epa.gov/ghginfo/reports or contact
Elizabeth Scheehle (email@example.com).
- "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market"
By the Pew Center on Global Climate Change
The Solution Series report describes the characteristics of the emerging greenhouse gas market and key features of early trades. It also evaluates the potential evolution of the market due to ongoing domestic and international climate change policy development and potential scenarios regarding the U.S. response to climate change.
Full report and press release available here: http://www.pewclimate.org/projects/trading.cfm
Raul Ponce-Hernandez writes:
At the GIS and Land Resource Lab of Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario Canada, we have completed two projects directly related to the application of remote sensing techniques to forestry resources: The projects are related to the measurement of carbon stock in tropical forest biomass and on the assessment, measurement and mapping of plant diversity in the same tropical forests the relationship to landscape fragmentation.
"Estimation of Tropical Forest Above-ground Biomass by Multispectral Remote Sensing". M.Sc. thesis of J. Galarza. Watershed Ecosystems Graduate Program, Trent University. (To be posted shortly as pdf in http://www.trentu.ca/gis)
"Mapping the spatial distribution of plant diversity indices of tropical forests using multi-spectral satellite image analysis and field measurements". Ph.D. research of J.L. Hernandez-Stefanoni. Watershed Ecosystems Graduate Program. Trent University."
Accurate estimates of tropical forests' biomass density are required for inventory and monitoring of carbon sinks in terrestrial ecosystems on a regional and global basis.
Procedures for the estimation of tropical forest above ground biomass using multispectral remote sensing techniques supported by ground measurements were investigated. A stratified sampling scheme was used to place quadrat sampling sites on the ground, using the classes from a supervised classification of the Landsat Thematic Mapper image of the area, as the strata for sampling. Standard regression equations of biomass as a function of allometric measurements of trees, obtained from quadrat sites on the ground, were fitted to the data.
The spectral response (i.e. Digital Numbers (DNS), radiance and reflectance) of three different multispectral waveband ratios (NDVI, GVI and NDWI) computed from the Landsat TM image was correlated to biomass as measured in the field, yielding relative strong associations.
Three predictive models of biomass as a function of spectral response parameters (DNs, radiance and reflectance) of the band ratio images were created to estimate above ground biomass. The results revealed that the best predictive models of biomass were exponential functions of the DNs of a GVI band ratio image resampled to match the resolution of quadrat sites on the ground.
Maps of image ground biomass in tropical forests were created using the reflectance properties of the GVI image and the equations developed. Respective maps of expected standard error of estimates from regression were also created as an indication of the spatial distribution of the expected accuracy of biomass estimates from the developed models.
The relationships between standard plant diversity indices (species richness, exponential Shannon diversity index, reciprocal Simpson, Margalef index and reciprocal Berger-Parker) computed from 73 randomly selected (10x10m) sampling quadrat sites of vegetation in a tropical forest of the Yucatan, Mexico, and the landscape element types, as obtained by a supervised Maximum Likelihood classification of a Landsat Thematic Mapper multi-spectral image, are examined in order to derive quantitative estimates of biodiversity over the entire landscape, from the limited number of quadrat sites sampled.
A relatively high map accuracy of the vegetation classes map produced, was revealed by the overall accuracy assessment and the Cohen's Kappa statistic. A standard one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the diversity indices over the classes defined by multispectral analysis of the satellite image, as criteria in the ANOVA, confirmed a statistically significant reduction of the within-class variance of the diversity indices with respect of their total variance across the landscape.
Computed Uniformity Indices (U) measuring the internal uniformity of vegetation classes on the diversity indices confirmed the goodness of the mapped classes in stratifying variability of the diversity indices, and therefore, allowing for the use of the mapped classes as mechanism for spatial interpolation, prediction and upscaling of the quadrat- site computed biodiversity indices to the entire landscape studied.
The examination of the spatial variability of the plant diversity indices with the mapped vegetation classes allowed to establish a pattern of relationships between the diversity indices and the various stages of tropical sub-deciduous forest succession, as represented by the landscape element types or vegetation classes identified and mapped from the multispectral satellite image classification.
CARLOS A. SUAREZ, INGENIERO AGRONOMO of ORAN SALTA ARGENTINA says:
"I'd like to say Hi!. I'm very interested in having exchange of info related to the climatic change and Forestry!
I'm involved in reforestation programs in northwestern subtropical Argentina, and this matter concerns me very much. Thanks!"
- WORLD VIEW OF GLOBAL WARMING photographic project
- Following information is available on the CDM
Call for experts for panels; the third meeting of the executive board -
Proposed agenda, annotations and documentation
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