17 May 2001
1. "Agricultural Influences on Carbon Emissions and Sequestration: A Review of Evidence and the Emerging Trading Options", by Jules Pretty and Andrew Ball, Centre for Environment and Society Occasional Paper 2001-03, University of Essex, March 2001.
In this paper, the authors review the latest empirical data on carbon sequestration opportunities in agricultural systems through both soil storage and terrestrial biomass. Although this paper does not directly deal with forestry, it gives good reference to the issues surrounding carbon sinks.
Agricultural systems contribute to carbon emissions through:
1) the direct use of fossil fuels in farm operations,
2) the indirect use of embodied energy in inputs that are energy-intensive to manufacture (particularly fertilizers), and
3) the cultivation of soil resulting in the loss of soil organic matter.
There is good evidence to show that sustainable agricultural systems can lead to the annual accumulation of 0.3-0.6 tC/ha, rising to several tonnes per ha when trees are intercropped in cropping and grazing systems.
The authors summarise the evidence comparing sustainable with high-input conventional systems of production. Sustainable systems are much more energy efficient than conventional farming systems. Adoption of `conservation tillage' and `zero-tillage' systems result in reduced soil erosion and improved soil organic matter and carbon content. Intensive arable with zero-tillage results in accumulation of 0.3-0.6 tC/ha/year, but ZT with mixed rotations and cover crops can accumulate 0.66-1.3 tC/ha/year. The rates are higher in humid-temperate areas (0.5-1.0 tC/ha/yr), lower in the humid tropic (0.2-0.5 tC/ha/yr), and lowest in the semi-arid tropics (0.1-0.2 tC/ha/yr).
The first carbon exchange systems have set credit values from US$1-38 per tonne of carbon, though most commonly in the $2.50-5.00 range. The paper uses these market prices to plot the potential gains for zero-tillage farmers using three different types of ZT systems. Intensive ZT systems with no rotations yield less income than mixed systems. The best are ZT systems with mixed rotations and leguminous cover crops that accumulate more than 1 tC/ha/yr. For the UK, it is estimated that carbon could bring arable and grassland farmers between £18m ($27m) and £147m ($220m) per year, which would represent a significant additional source of additional income.
The authors raise several key policy questions, such as how to establish permanent or indefinite sinks; how to prevent leakage; how to agree measurements; and whether the cost of implementation can be justified through their additional side effects or multifunctionality. Even though farmers are not set to become solely carbon farmers at current prices, carbon represents an important new source of income for farmers, as well as helping to encourage farmers to adopt a wide range of sustainable practices.
The paper can be downloaded from:
- UN climate boss seeks early draft on pollution pact May 10 (Reuters/ENN)
- European Compliance with Kyoto Protocol Deemed Affordable
BRUSSELS, Belgium, May 9, 2001 (ENS)
- Japan vows to support Kyoto pact
April 27 (Reuters/ENN)
-Biodiversity: buffer against climate change May 10, 2001 (Reuters/ENN)
-Global Warming Forecast to Hit Australia Hard SYDNEY, Australia, May 8, 2001 (ENS)
- Informal Climate Change Talks to Convene in June UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE
Secretariat PRESS ADVISORY BONN, 4 May 2001 -- The President of the ongoing UN climate change negotiations, Mr. Jan Pronk, Minister of the Environment of the Netherlands, will convene a short informal meeting for all interested Governments during the month of June. The meeting will give Governments an opportunity to explore how to move forward towards a political compromise at the resumed sixth session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which will be held in Bonn during the period 16-27 July. The exact date and location of these informal talks is still to be decided. Originally scheduled to take place in Stockholm around the time of the 22-23 May Diplomatic Conference on the new Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) treaty, the meeting has been pushed back for logistical reasons. The last round of informal talks held on 21 April in New York focused in large part on the recent US statement that the Bush administration opposes the Kyoto Protocol. The June meeting will concentrate on advancing substantive preparations for the resumed COP. Documents currently on the table include the negotiating texts from The Hague and a paper entitled "New Proposals by the President of COP 6" (see www.unfccc.int <www.unfccc.int > ). The President also plans to issue a consolidated negotiating text in early June as an additional document for consideration by the resumed COP. In the meantime, he will seek advice from various Parties on how to make progress in the negotiations. Although the discussions will be closed to the press, Mr. Pronk and UNFCCC Executive Secretary Michael Zammit Cutajar intend to brief journalists immediately after the informal meeting ends.
For more information, please contact: Michel Smitall, UNFCCC Information Officer, at +49-228-815-1005 or firstname.lastname@example.org ; or Michael Williams, UNEP Information Officer, Geneva, at +41-22-917-8242, +41-79-4091528 (cell), or email@example.com .
- ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE 2002SUMMIT-L LIST
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- The Shell Foundation's Sustainable Energy Dialogues
The Sustainable Energy Programme is adopting a proactive approach to defining the problems it will tackle through its five themes, developing the solutions and communicating the results. This process has four elements - Dialogue, Design, Deliver and Disseminate.
The purpose of the electronic dialogue process is to tap the expertise, experience and common sense of interested stakeholders to help SEP identify within each Theme those issues or problems where it can use its resources to deliver the greatest benefit.
The Themes for the first series of Dialogues are:
* Modern Biomass: Using modern biomass as a sustainable energy source to reduce poverty.
* Energy Services
Innovating to deliver modern energy services to poor communities in developing countries.
* Household Energy
Breaking the link between traditional patterns of household energy use and poor health in women and children
* Urban Transport
Designing `effective' solutions to the urban transport-environment dilemma
See Sustainable Energy Dialogues website for more information.
- Consultancy for the Catchment Forestry Project (CFP): Resource Economic Analysis of catchment Forest Reserves in Tanzania.
The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania through the Ministry of Natural Resource and Tourism (MNRT) implements the Catchment Forestry Project (CFP) with financial assistance from the Government of the Kingdom of Norway through Norwegian Agency for development Cooperation (NORAD). The CFP is presently implemented in 4 regions in Tanzania. It is intended that part of the project funds will be used to cover costs for the provision of consultancy services for the study on Resource Economic Analysis of catchment Forest Reserves in Tanzania.
The Ministry of Natural Resource and Tourism on behalf of the government now invites eligible consultants or consulting firms to indicate their interest in providing the above services. Consultants' firms will be selected in accordance with the procedures set out by the government of Tanzania.
Interested consultant or consulting firms must provide information indicating their professional affiliation, availability of qualified personnel, legal status, such as information shall include brochures, description of the similar assignments, experience in similar conditions, availability of appropriate skills among staff, etc. Foreign consultants/firms are encouraged to associate with national consultant/firms and to create a consortium that can demonstrate capacity to address adequately all aspects of the study.
Having provided the information above, we at the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology (CEEST) an NGO we are looking for a foreign partner firm/consultants with which we can form a consortium for biding and undertaking the said project. So if there is any firm or consultants interested in joining us to bid this assignment we will appreciate it.
The expression of interest in writing must be submitted to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism on 8th June 2001. Interested partner may send the information to CEEST and we will compile the same together with ours information and submit it.
The contact person and address at CEEST is as follows;
Mr. Stephen Mwakifwamba
Research and Consultant Officer (Forester)
The Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology (CEEST)
B3-16 TIRDO Estate, Morogoro Stores, Oysterbay
P. O. Box 5511
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Tel: 255-22-2667569, Fax: 255-22-2666079
Thank you for your cooperation, and looking forward to hearing from you soon.
- International Doctoral Program for Development Studies at the Center for Development Research (ZEF) in Bonn, Germany
The Center for Development Research (ZEF) in Bonn, Germany, invites highly-qualified, young scientists from Developing Countries to participate in its International Doctoral Program for Development Studies. ZEF is a multi- and interdisciplinary institution with three departments: Political and Cultural Change (Prof. Dr. Andreas Wimmer), Economics and Technological Change (Prof. Dr. Joachim von Braun), Ecology and Resource Management (Prof. Dr. Paul. L.G. Vlek). By pooling the expertise of these three departments, this three year Doctoral Program enables the students to take advantage of ZEFB4s strength in interdisciplinary development research and cooperation with national and international institutions. Its International Doctoral Program for Development Studies aims at further education of highly qualified, young scientists around the world engaged in Development Economics, Policy Analysis, Sociology and International Resource Management, Agriculture and Forestry. ZEF offers on a competitive basis doctoral degrees, which may be submitted in consultation with ZEF to any co-operating faculty, overseas or in Europe. The doctoral degrees may be in Social or Political Science, Economics, Agricultural Economics, Agriculture, Forestry or Natural Science. The entire program is in English. A two-month conversational German language course is offered at the beginning of the course program. The doctoral studies are associated with interdisciplinary and disciplinary courses. The empirical research has to be conducted at their specific location abroad, in developing countries or international institutions, in an environment with quality advisors and supervisors. ZEF supports individual students with funds for field research. Fellowships from several national and international foundations and sponsors, including DA AD, are offered primarily to students from the developing countries. Students from Germany and the EU countries, with a master or equivalent degree Forestry, Agriculture or Agricultural Economics may apply for a scholarship from the Robert Bosch Foundation (deadline May 30th, every year). Qualified candidates who cannot be offered a scholarship will receive a letter of qualification and acceptance. It will help them to seek financial assistance at other institutions and foundations that provide grants for living expenses (approx. 1800,- DM per month) and research costs (approx. 25.000,-DM). ZEF offers also DAAD-scholarships for a cooperate doctoral studies. Therefore, we encourage students to apply for those sandwich-scholarship, if they are already accepted as a doctoral students at a university in their home country. Those students will receive a scholarship to study at ZEF. They will participate - as the other students - in the doctoral courses at ZEF and conduct their empirical research in their home country. One of their supervisors has to come from their home university.
The next deadline of applications for scholarships and admission to the International Doctoral Program is: September 30, 2001 See details at our web-page: http://www.zef.de
On request we send additional information. Dr. Gunther Manske Co-ordinator International Doctoral Program for Development Studies Center for Development Research (ZEF) Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany Tel.: ++49-(0)228-73-1794 or 1727 FAX: ++49-(0)228-73-1889 E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- CSIRO Solutions for Greenhouse http://www.csiro.au/csiro/ghsolutions/index.html
A nice site as a national model for documenting greenhouse gas issues, emissions, accounting etc. CSIRO (Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)'s greenhouse-related research, its core of advanced climate science, plus applications stemming from it and other CSIRO science, are described in terms of the 8 Modules of the National Greenhouse Strategy (NGS).
-The Research Programme International Climate Policy, The Hamburg Institute of International Economics
The website features all publications and descriptions of the current activities.
- Climate Equity Observer: Issue number 2 http://www.ecoequity.org/ceoarchv.htm
-The report of the meeting held at Chatham House on 25 April 2001
The meeting was a great success, with good discussions and around 100 participants. The surprising conclusion of the meeting was that "President Bush might have done Kyoto a favour". Read the report for the arguments.
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