19 March 2001
1. "A multi-scale analysis of a terrestrial carbon budget: Is New Zealand a source or sink of carbon?"
by K.R. Tate, N.A. Scott, A. Parshotam, L. Brown, R.H. Wilde, D.J. Giltrap,N.A. Trustrum, B.Gomez and D.J.Ross Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment, Volume 82, Issues 1-3, December 2000, Pages 229-246, Copyright © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Is New Zealand a sink or source of terrestrial carbon?
This study tests the hypothesis that New Zealand's terrestrial ecosystemsare C neutral because C uptake by planted forests and scrub is roughlybalanced by C losses from indigenous forests and soils. Specific-sitemeasurements, regional databases, satellite observations, and models were used to answer this question.
Net ecosystem C balance was estimated from the difference between netprimary production (NPP) and heterotrophic soil respiration. Theproductivity portion of the CASA model and NOAA¯AVHRR imagery were used toestimate national NPP (128±14 MtC per year). Main sources of uncertaintywere the coarse spatial scale (1×1 km2 grid cells), and the general lack ofinformation on photosynthetically active radiation, light-use efficiency,and below-ground C allocation for the major vegetation types: indigenous andexotic forests, scrub, and grasslands (improved, unimproved and tussock).
Total soil CO2-C production predicted from an Arrhenius-type functioncoupled to climate and land-cover data was 380±30 MtC per year, suggestingthat New Zealand's terrestrial ecosystems may be either (a) a net source ofatmospheric CO2 or (b) roughly in C balance if ca. 252 Mt CO2-C per year(66%) can be attributed to roots. Soil moisture limitations on respirationwere small, reducing the national value to 365±28 MtC per year. Differencesbetween NPP and heterotrophic soil respiration were -29 Mt C per year forimproved pastures, -8 Mt C per year for indigenous forests, and +4 Mt C peryear for planted forests; the large negative value for improved grasslandsmay be due to under-estimation of NPP and root respiration. Soil C losses tocoastal waters, as estimated from a consideration of all the major erosion processes, were ca. 3¯11 Mt C per year.
These national-scale estimates of ecosystem C balance were in generalagreement with those based on plot-scale data for some major ecosystemsincluding planted forests (4 Mt C per year vs 3.7 Mt C per year,respectively) and indigenous forest (-8 Mt C per year vs ca. -2.8 Mt C peryear, respectively). Poor agreement for forest regenerating after landabandonment (-17 Mt C per year vs +3 Mt C per year) was probably due to an underestimate of NPP at the national scale.
Overall, the results suggest that New Zealand is a net C source, despite thefact that some ecosystems are accumulating C. For some land-use types, usingthe balance between NPP and soil respiration at the national scale toestimate the net ecosystem C balance may be too coarse, and studies ofland-use changes at finer spatial scales are needed to reduce uncertainties in national-scale C balance estimates.
For further information, contact:Dr Kevin Tate, Landcare Research, Private Bag 11052, Massey UniversityCampus, Palmerston North, New Zealand, Tel: (++64) 6 356 7154, Fax: (++64) 6355 9230Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- The changing U.S. position on regulating carbon dioxide emissions has been the center of attention this week.
For a summary on this issue, seehttp://www.unfoundation.org/unwire/unwire.cfm#9
*Bush's Reversal Could Affect Global Warming Agreement
*US lawmakers move to reverse Bush decision on CO2 emissions
Responses by other countries, regions and organizations:
-EU: NY Times: EU 'Concerned' Over Bush's CO2 And Climate Stance
FT.com: EU concern over Bush retreat on CO cut
-Japan: Japan regrets Bush stance on pollution
-UNEP: Comment by Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
-WRI: White House decision on power plant emissions stunningly shortsighted
- Study Has New Evidence of Global Warming / Data, Taken 27 Years Apart, Shows Less Heat Escaping Earth Now
Scientists from the Imperial College of London report in today's issue ofthe journal Nature that the amount of long-wave, or infrared, radiationescaping from Earth into space has decreased over the past three decades.
The presumed reason: Over that time, the atmosphere has accumulated higherand higher concentrations of so-called greenhouse gases, which are believedto trap long-wave radiation inside the atmosphere. The most notorioussuspect is carbon dioxide gas, which is generated by the burning of fossil fuels.
- FAO FOREST RESOURCE ASSESSMENTS AND GLOBAL WARMING Rome, 15 March 2001 - The UN Food and Agriculture Organization's ForestInformation System, based on its Forest Resources Assessments, could becomea tool for assessing the changes in forest carbon stocks, under the Kyoto
Protocol, FAO said today. Plans for a new Global Forest Resources Assessment are one of the keydiscussion points for more than 300 ministers, senior officials and expertsrepresenting the forestry sector throughout the world, meeting in Rome thisweek for the 15th Session of FAO's Committee on Forestry (COFO).Excerpted from FAO Press Release 01/16 http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/OIS/PRESS_NE/PRESSENG/2001/pren0116.htm
- Call for Letters/Expressions of Intent or pre-proposals for Regional or
National Assessment Projects, Assessments of Impacts of and Adaptations toClimate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors (AIACC)START and TWAS are inviting pre-proposals from qualified persons fromdeveloping countries in Africa, Asia, Central/South America and Small IslandStates for potential research projects on "Assessments of Impacts of andAdaptations to Climate Change in multiple Regions and Sectors". Submission Deadline: 15 April 2001
For details see: http://www.start.org/Projects/AIACC/call.html
- A new documents from IIASA Forestry Project
"Cap Management for LULUCF Options: An economic mechanism design to preservethe environmental and social integrity of forest related LULUCF activities under the Kyoto Protocol.
In this paper we identify four main problems that arise from a quantitativecap on landuse, land-use change and forestry activities discussed at COP 6.In order to solve these problems, we propose a tender auction mechanism thatcould already be applied today for forest sinks. Under such a regime,negotiators simply need to determine a quantitative cap (as they alreadystarted to negotiate at COP 6), while an efficient market mechanismguarantees integrity with respect to sustainability and economic efficiency criteria.
You can visit their web site at www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/ and downloadthis paper and others in PDF format. Regards," From Ian McCallum, The Forestry Project, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis,
- WORKSHOP on "Developing synergies between carbon sinks and sustainable development through forest certification".
JIN Foundation, Indufor and FORM Ecology will organise on the 5th and 6th ofApril 2001 a workshop on "Developing synergies between carbon sinks andsustainable development through forest certification". It aims at exchanging views on and experiences with three fields of certification:
· the state of play in carbon sink enhancement · the certification of sustainable forest management, and · certification as mentioned in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol in order to
arrive at certified emission reductions.
More information can be found on www.northsea.nl/jiq/forestcertification .
- 16-20 July 2001. Detecting Environmental Change: Science and Society.
London, U.K. Contact: Dr. Catherine Stickley, Fax: +44-20-7679-7565; Email:
(Originally posted in FIU newsletter)
- IMPACTS OF CARBON CREDIT VALUES ON NEW PLANTATIONS
"Are you aware of any work on the subject of the likely impacts of carboncredit values on the establishment of new forests above BAU. Any contacts or references you could provide would be greatly appreciated."
Please direct your reply to: Angela Duignan email@example.com Climate Change and Energy, ForestResearch, Private Bag 3020,Rotorua,New Zealand. Tel: +64 7 343 5417, Fax:+64 7 343 5332. Please cc: your reply to CLIM-FO-L@mailserv.fao.org.
- Post-doctoral fellow position, Environmental Social Science
A post-doctoral fellow position is available immediately in the Center forIntegrated Assessment of the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Based inthe Department of Engineering and Public Policy, the Center is aninterdisciplinary network, with members at institutions in the US andabroad. [http://hdgc.epp.cmu.edu/ ]
The fellow would work in interdisciplinary groups, bringing social scienceknowledge to bear on environmental problems, as well as conduct relevantbasic research. A doctorate in any social science discipline is required.
The Center, Department, University activities, and Pittsburgh, are lively,friendly places. Carnegie Mellon University is an AA/EEO employer.
Please mail applications to Granger Morgan, EPP, CMU, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Includea resume, writing sample, statement of research interests, and list of potential references.
Thank you,Barbara J. Bugosh, Assistant Director, Carnegie Mellon University, EPP:HDGC 129 Baker Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, 412-268-5486
[posted on IAI Listserv]
- SENIOR PROJECT LEADER, U.S. NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY
The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a Senior ProjectLeader position available to lead implementation of climate change programswith developing countries and the donor community. This Senior ProjectLeader will be responsible for leading implementation of clean energyinvestment and technology transfer projects with developing countries andwill direct efforts to integrate these activities with related bilateral andmultilateral donor programs. This work will support NREL's leadership ofprograms for implementation of technology transfer under the UNFCCC incollaboration with the U.S. Government, the Climate Technology Initiative,and the donor and business community. This project leader will also assistwith implementation of other NREL climate change and air pollution programs.
Candidates must have a master's degree and at least 6 years' of relevantwork experience, including experience working with developing countries onenergy and/or climate change projects and with the bilateral andmultilateral donor community on the implementation of energy and developmentprograms. Experience with development and financing of clean energybusiness investment projects is also desired. Interested applicants shouldsend resumes to email firstname.lastname@example.org .
Further information onthis position can be found at http://www.nrel.gov/hr/employment/jobs_files/785.html .
Further information on NREL's work on climate change and clean energy technology transfer withdeveloping countries can be found at http://www.nrel.gov/tcapp
- A NUMBER OF POSITIONS, UNDP, NEW YORK
The United Nations Development Program's Bureau for Development Policy ishiring for various positions. UNDP is a 'thinking and learning' organizationat the forefront of today's development dialogue in championing the poor anddisadvantaged. Its focus is on providing developing countries withknowledge-based consulting services and building national, regional andglobal coalitions for change. It is now hiring a new generation of expertpractitioners who want to contribute to those partnerships by offering strategic approaches to long-standing problems.
They are seek individuals who can communicate advice and new ideas acrosscultures and all strata of society, primarily in developing countries. Theyare recruiting in each of UNDP's six major practice areas: Energy andEnvironment; Technology; Democratic Governance; Pro-Poor peoples Policies;Peace-Building and Disaster Mitigation; Information and Communications;and,HIV/Aids. They have a wide range of international opportunities at variouslevels, at our global headquarters in New York, and at locations includingAddis Ababa, Bangkok, Beirut, Bogota, Bratislava, Dakar, Harare, Kathmandu,Kiev, Oslo, Pretoria and San Jose, Costa Rica. We offer competitive salariescommensurate with experience. Applications are being considered on a rollingbasis, so please apply immediately. Please do use their on-line applicationform. For more information and to APPLY ONLINE, please visit their websiteat http://www.undp.org/jobs
[These announcements were posted in HEDON mailing list on Household Energy.
For more information about HEDON visit: www.ecoharmony.net/hedon ]
The Overstory is a free noncommercial e-mail journal. Subscribers areagroforestry practitioners, researchers, professionals, and enthusiasts in146 countries. Each issue focuses on a concept for tropical agriculturalsystems which integrate trees and other perennial plants. Recent topics include:
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information and past editions: <http://www.overstory.com >
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-The March 13 issue of CLIMATE CANADA is now available!
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CLIMATE CANADA is an informal, 8-page newsletter published every otherTuesday by the International Institute for Sustainable Development. Itreports on climate change issues and events in Canada and elsewhere. Today's issue covers the latest report from IPCC's Working Group III,selected news stories from Canada and around the world, and a list of upcoming events.
[posting originally on climate-L list]
Thank you for your inputs for this issue: Richard Sikkema, Angela Duignan,Ian McCallum, Michael Obersteiner, Jeff Tschirley, Tina Etherington and R. Douglas Wells.
The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current informationand experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts andnon-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis ofcontributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on thetopic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Products Division (FOP).
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