1. "Implications of the Kyoto Protocol for tropical forest management and land use: prospects and pitfalls" Tropical Forestry Reports 22, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, by Jarkko Koskela, Pekka Nygren, Frank Berninger and Olavi Luukkanen, Helsinki 2000.
This report gives a comprehensive picture on how the efforts proposed in Kyoto for mitigating global climate change may influence land use, the management of tropical forests, and the role of these forests in supporting sustainable development in developing countries. It evaluates the role of tropical forests as carbon sinks and their contribution to mitigate global climate change in relation to the other functions they have. It also discussed how management efforts for increasing the carbon stock in tropical vegetation may alter the existing management goals and how this may affect the availability of various goods and benefits obtained from, or provided by, the tropical forests.
In conclusion, it raises some points regarding inclusion of forest conservation and sustainable forest management in CDM, strengthening of international actions such as those recommended by IPF and IFF, promotion of a system to monitor the long-term effects of sustainable forest management, etc., and research needs in the areas of carbon balance, agroforestry systems, integrated effects of an increasing CO2 concentration and global warming on tropical forests, new methods for tree plantation management, and carbon sequestration potential of tropical drylands.
Full report is available at http://honeybee.helsinki.fi/tropic/Kyoto.pdf
2. "Introduction: Towards an integrated scientific approach for carbon accounting in forestry"
Laitat E., et al. 2000, Biotechnol.Agron. Soc. Environ. 4 (4):241-251.
"What is really the potential role of forests in achieving the GHG emissions reduction?" "How should C-stocks and stock changes be monitored and accounted?" "What are the impacts of various forest management strategies on C-stocks and stock changes?"
- These are the questions that the COST E21-Action "Contribution of Forests and Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Effects" , an action within the European Co-operation in Science and Technology Programme, tries to address. It focuses on European forests and some of the GHG, i.e. CO2, N2O and CH4.
The paper "Introduction: Towards an integrated scientific approach for carbon accounting in forestry" by Éric Laitat, Timo Karjalainen, Denis Loustau and Marcus Lindner gives an overview of the activities of COST E21, which consists of the following:
Working Group 1: inventory of sinks and sources in the perspective of net-C-emission reporting
Working Group 2: analysis of forest management practices
COST E21 Clearing House: four databases for users, literature, research projects and electronic resources.
The paper also presents other studies that point out that:
- the state of the art of forest inventorying and C-sinks/emission reporting is highly variable between different European countries.
- the key problem is that National Forest Inventories are performed for assessing marketable stemwood and not for C-sinks/emission reporting. Therefore, harmonisation is needed with regard to the different expansion and conversion factors applied for transforming timber volume into overall CO2-emissions and sinks.
- in terms of monitoring techniques and reporting C-sequestration for land use change and forestry, it becomes evident ... that EU countries are in the position to report a much bigger C-sinks. Reported data might be multiplied by a factor around 10, illustrating that the current ways of reporting of C-sink strength are simply inadequate.
The paper can be downloaded from: http://www.bib.fsagx.ac.be/base/pdf/v4n4/lai-ful.pdf
COST E21's homepage: http://www.bib.fsagx.ac.be/coste21/
3. "Ecosystems & Global Climate Change: A Review of Potential Impacts on U.S. Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity" by Jay R. Malcolm and Louis F. Pitelka for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change
What are the possible impacts on the terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity in the United States? This Pew Center report details "the very real possibility that warming over this century will jeopardize the integrity of many of the terrestrial ecosystems on which we depend".
One of the key issues is that the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems will change as plants and animals follow the shifting climate. Different shifting patterns are expected in the eastern and western United States, as well as for various topographies and regional climatic variations.
With the estimated quick rate of warming, it is not known whether species will be able to migrate fast enough to adapt to the rapidly shifting climatic zones.
Furthermore, climate change is likely to alter ecosystem composition and function, which could jeopardize the numerous economically valuable goods and services that ecosystems provide to the human societies.
Finally, the report points out the inherent complexity of ecosystems and the limitation of our ability to predict exactly how species and ecosystems will respond to a changing climate. This uncertainty limits our ability to mitigate, minimize, or ameliorate the effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, we must continue to support existing strategies to conserve biodiversity and protect natural ecosystems in order to maximize nature's own potential to adapt to climate change.
The report can be downloaded from the Pew Center on Global Climate Change website:
4. "Evaluating carbon offsets from forestry and energy projects: How do they compare?" by Kenneth M. Chomitz, Development Research Group, World Bank
"Do forestry projects, as a class, face more difficulties than energy projects in producing GHG emissions reductions that are real, measurable, additional and consistent with sustainable development?" The author considers the main criteria for qualifying a project that produces emissions reductions: baseline and additionality determination, leakage assessment, measurement of actual emissions or sequestration, and duration or permanence. It is difficult to find generic distinctions between LUCF and energy projects for all the criteria except permanence.
More important distinctions among projects have to do with such things as:
- the level and distribution of direct financial benefits that result from the project,
- the degree to which the project is integrated with a broader physical and economic system,
- the internal homogeneity and geographic dispersion of the project components, and
- the local replicability of project technologies.
It is argued that permanence is an issue specific to LUCF projects and several potential approaches to ensure permanence or adjust credits for duration are analyzed, i.e. the ton-year approach, the combination approach, a technology-acceleration approach, and an insurance approach.
The report can be downloaded from the following website:
- Climate change talks to resume - New York, 12 February 2001 -
UNITED NATIONS-FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE - Secretariat - PRESS RELEASE
The President of the climate change talks that were suspended last November in The Hague announced at UN Headquarters today that the negotiations will resume for two weeks within the period from mid-June to late July 2001. The exact dates and the venue will be decided shortly based on the availability of suitable conference facilities.
The decision by Jan Pronk, Environment Minister of The Netherlands, was taken after wide-ranging consultations with the Bureau of the Conference and with governments who wanted sufficient time to prepare adequately for the conference. It reflects his conviction that the membership of the UN Climate Change Convention remain strongly committed to advancing the Convention's work and to making the 1997 Kyoto Protocol fully operational.
Key issues that must still be resolved at the resumed talks include a package of financial support and technology transfer to help developing countries contribute to global action on climate change, including measures for adapting to climate change impacts; the establishment of an international emissions trading system and a "clean development mechanism"; the rules for counting emissions reductions from carbon "sinks" such as forests; and a compliance regime.
Note to journalists: For more information, see www.unfccc.int or contact
Michael Williams at +41-22-917-8242 or email@example.com .
- EUROPEAN UNION AGREES TO CLIMATE TALKS DELAY
BRUSSELS, Belgium, February 8, 2001 (ENS) - European Union countries have accepted a demand by the United States and allied countries to push back the date of the next formal attempt to finalize the 1997 UN Kyoto climate protocol from May to July.
For full text and graphics visit:
- MELTING PERMAFROST MAY ACCELERATE TREND - UNWire, 7.2.2001
Global warming may accelerate as rising temperatures in the Arctic melt the permafrost, causing a release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, UN Environment Program scientists warned today.
An estimated 14% of the world's carbon is stored in Arctic lands. Emerging evidence, however, reveals that this ancient carbon is starting to be released as rising temperatures cause the permafrost to melt and its organic material to be broken down by bacteria. The threat of climate change to the Arctic will be addressed at the Arctic Council meeting of ministers scheduled for June.
- CLIMATE CHANGE COSTS $300 BILLION/YEAR-UN Daily Highlights, 5.2.2001
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) issued a new report indicating that losses due to more frequent tropical cyclones, loss of land as a result of rising sea levels and damage to fishing stocks, agriculture and water supplies, could annually cost around $304.2 billion. Losses from global warming would be felt in the energy sector, the water industry, ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, construction, transport and tourism. Natural disasters, including more frequent cyclones and hurricanes, could add further to the globe's climate-related bill.
- IPCC'S THIRD ASSESSMENT REPORT (Working Group I) "Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis"
Summary for policymakers can be downloaded from: http://www.ipcc.ch/
- "Message from the President of COP 6: The way ahead to a resumed COP 6" is available on the UNFCCC Secretariat web site at: http://www.unfccc.int/wnew/. The text of decision 1/CP.6 is available as well.
- IEA Bioenergy Task 25/38-Greenhouse Gas Balance of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems - international workshop annoucement-
Task 25/38 of IEA Bioenergy is holding an international workshop titled, "Carbon Accounting and Emissions Trading Related to Bioenergy, Wood Products and Carbon Sequestration", on 26-30 March 2001 in Canberra, Australia. Details can be found on : http://www.joanneum.ac.at/iea-bioenergy-task38/
- International Conference on Equity and Global Climate Change
The Pew Center on Global Climate Change invites you to its April 17 - 18 International Conference on Equity and Global Climate Change in Washington, DC.
For conference updates, visit
or contact Christie Jorge Santelises at :
firstname.lastname@example.org, tel +1-703-516-4146.
Registration deadline is March 16, 2001.
*Please reply directly to the person concerned with cc: CLIM-FO-L@mailserv.fao.org .
- Ms. Neelam Singh, Researcher at Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, India wrote,
"For an article on sinks, i am looking for cost comparisons for per ton of carbon reduced:
1. by use of sinks,
2. through domestic cuts in fossil fuel use, and
3. through use of flexibility mechanisms
Could anyone help me with this by either send in the figures or
direct me to a proper source? Thanks in advance."
Please send information directly to:email@example.com and cc:
Otherwise contact her at: 41, Tughlaqabad Institutional Area,
Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi-110062, India,
Website: www.cseindia.org .
- 7 positions in 6 organizations (FAO, UNIDO, Kiel Inst., IAI, START/TWAS, GTZ).
(1) SENIOR FORESTRY OFFICER (Forests & Climate Change)
Forest Products Division, FAO
DEADLINE FOR APPLICATION: 21 February 2001
(2) CHIEF TECHNICAL ADVISER ,
'Energy Conservation and GHG Emissions Reduction in Chinese TVEs' Project
Details of the position, the project and how to apply can be found on
the Web pages of UNIDO's Kyoto Protocol Branch at
(3) the Kiel Institute of World Economics offers two jobs in the field of environmental economics with focus on climate change and resource economics. Basic knowledge of German is necessary. Please find attached the job advertisement at our web site (in German):
(4) Scientific Officer, INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH
The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) is an intergovernmental
organization composed of 18 countries of the Americas. It was established in
1992 as a regional network of cooperating research institutions and it pursues
the principles of scientific excellence, international cooperation, and the
full and open exchange of scientific information relevant to global change.
The Institute's research themes include: (1) Understanding Climate Variability
in the Americas, (2) Comparative Studies of Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Land Use
and Water Resources in the Americas, (3) Changes in the Composition of the
Atmosphere, Oceans and Fresh Water, (4) Integrated Assessments, Human
Dimensions and Applications. These research themes were selected because they
are regionally relevant for policy-making and will foster cooperation among
research entities (including extra regional ones), strengthen global change
research capabilities and infrastructure of the region, and improve public
awareness and information related to global environmental conditions, resource
management and sustainable development. Through its research, the Institute
attempts to forge linkages between the products of scientific research and the
region's most pressing environmental issues so that those products are
available to decision-makers interested in implementing sustainable development
in the Americas. Currently, the IAI is supporting 65 projects involving 90
institutions and more than 300 scientists of its member countries.
The Institute's Directorate (IAI's administrative organ) is composed of a
small international staff, which includes the Director, the Scientific Officer,
the Administrative Officer, the Communication Officer, and the Manager of the
Data and Information System (DIS). It is located at the main campus of
Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE) in Sao Jose dos Campos,
State of Sao Paulo. Voluntary contributions from the member countries support
the Directorate plus the operational expenses of the Scientific Advisory
Committee (IAI's scientific advisory organ), and the Executive Council (IAI's
executive organ). External contributions and grants complement these voluntary
contributions to finance major research programs and projects as well as
capacity building activities.
1. Main Responsibilities
Reporting to the IAI Director, the Scientific Officer (SO) is chiefly
responsible for proposing and implementing research-related policies and
systems, for monitoring the scientific progress of the Institute, and for
supporting the work of the Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) so that the
research priorities are clearly established, activities are performed
effectively through decentralized and cooperative efforts, and the Institute is
fully accountable to its member countries and donors.
In the monitoring role, the SO will be responsible for ensuring that
end-products (quantifiable and measurable, to the extent possible) are in place
for each research activity, and that the peer-review processes are utilized
objectively and on a timely basis. The SO will also take responsibility for
seeing that research activities and research end-products, in each instance,
include appropriate interfaces with the policy communities of the Americas.
Frequent travels to sites where research projects are being conducted will be
In his supporting role, the SO serves as the primary liaison with research
institutions and with the IAI organs with respect to project design,
implementation and monitoring and also to assist them in identifying sources of
funding for the work that they propose. The SO will develop close and fruitful
relationships with the donor community interested in global change.
In addition, the SO will be responsible for assisting and/or coordinating the
preparation of scientific papers by the IAI's Directorate, particularly those
aiming at synthesizing results emerging from research projects supported by the
Institute. The SO will be the scientific spokesperson for the Institute and
he/she will be responsible for permanently building close and productive
relations with the several regional/international entities, conventions, and
protocols involved in global change issues.
The SO should be a recognized scientist with a proven range of experience and
knowledge of the technical and scientific aspects of global environmental
change issues. High-level research accomplishments, as well as a demonstrable
record of successfully linking research to policy formulation and
decision-making should be present. Verbal and written communication skills in
English and in another language of the region (Spanish/Portuguese/French) are
required. Experience in project formulation, monitoring, and evaluation is
highly desirable, as are experience in management of scientific data and
information systems, and experience with multidisciplinary/multinational
research environments. The SO must hold a Ph.D. degree in a relevant
sub-discipline of the natural or social sciences.
3. Appointment Terms
The SO will be appointed for a 3 year-term, which can be renewed, but shorter
appointment terms may be considered. An internationally competitive total
compensation package, commensurate with experience and professional
qualifications will be provided.
4. Application (Instructions)
Applications and nominations of interested candidates should include:
(a) a cover letter, which directly relates the main responsibilities and
qualifications of the position to the candidate's qualifications;
(b) a current curriculum vitae; and
(c) the names/addresses/phone numbers/fax numbers/e-mails of three referees.
These materials should be sent to the following address:
Av. dos Astronautas, 1758 - Jd. da Granja
São José dos Campos, SP - Brasil
The deadline for submission of applications is January 31, 2001, but
applications will be accepted until a suitable candidate is identified.
(5) two positions (Science Director and Project Assistant) to manage the GEF Project "Assessment of the Impacts of and Adaptation to Climate Change (AIACC) in Multiple Regions and Sectors", co-executed by the international START secretariat (START) and the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS).
(6) GTZ is supporting developing countries in the implementation of the UNFCCC.
The programme in charge for these activities, "Measures to implement the
UNFCCC", is financed by the German Ministry of Economic Cooperation and
Development. To intensify the GTZ's involvement in the challenge to address
the anticipated climate change, the programme will extent its staff. Since
the job offered below can only be fill by someone with full command of the
German language, even though the person can have any nationality, the job
description is given in German.
Climate Change, GTZ 44
65726 Eschborn, Germany
Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit
Funktion: Mitarbeiter/in im Projekt "Massnahmen zur Umsetzung der
Aufgaben: Sie unterstuetzen die Projektleitung in der Steuerung und
Konventionsvorhabens "Massnahmen zur Umsetzung der Klimarahmenkonvention",
insbesondere in der fachlich-konzeptionellen Arbeit, dem Management von
Einzelmassnahmen innerhalb des Gesamtprojektes, dem Informations- und
Wissensmanagement, der Aussendarstellung aller Komponenten des Vorhabens,
der fachlichen Beratung des BMZ in Fragen zu den internationalen
Klimaverhandlungen sowie in allen Verwaltungs- und Bueroarbeiten.
- Hochschulabschluss als Diplom-Wirtschaftswissenschaftler/in,
Diplom-Georgraph/in oder Diplom-Ingenieur/in mit Schwerpunkt Umweltschutz
- Kenntnisse der internationaler Umweltkonventionen, insbesondere
- Berufserfahrung in dem Arbeitsgebiet
- Auslandserfahrung erwuenscht
- Gute Faehigkeit zur in Form und Inhalt angemessenen Darstellung und
Praesentation von fachlichen Sachverhalten
- Eigenstaendige Arbeitsweise, Verantwortungsbereitschaft und Teamfaehigkeit
- Hohe Flixibilitaet (Dienstreisen)
- Beherrschung der englischen Sprache und Verstaendigung in Spanisch
Die Stelle ist vorlaeufig befristet vom 1.4.2001 bis 31.12.2001 zu besetzen
(mit Option auf Verlaengerung um weitere 3 Jahre).
Frau Susanne Schuessler, firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.:
Herr Holger Liptow, email@example.com, Tel: +49-(0)6196-79-1352
Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
- IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change And Forestry
- UNFCCC website: Official documents, country information, national communications, climate change information kid, etc. can be found here.
- Forest Energy Forum : FAO's Forestry Department programme on wood energy
- CNE web site: A searchable database of over 3000 documents on climate change is now on
line at http://www.climnet.org/library/library.htm
- FORM Ecology Consultants
FORM, a Dutch consultancy company, is an intermedietary between the various stakeholders involved in forestry issues.
A new web site dedicated to plant environmental stress in agriculture and biology has been launched. The site contains news, announcements, events, articles, a reference database, files and presentations, biotech issues, more than 400 web resources and a bulletin board. The site is dynamic and constantly updated. http://www.plantstress.com/
Thank you for your inputs for this issue: Thomas Enters, Neelam Singh, and Wulf Killmann.
The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Products Division (FOP).
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