No. 05/09

Welcome to FAO’s NWFP-Digest-L, a free e-mail journal that covers all aspects of non-wood forest products. Back issues of the Digest may be found on FAO's NWFP home page: www.fao.org/forestry/site/12980/en.

You can take part in contributing to the continued success of this newsletter by sharing with the NWFP community any news that you may have regarding research, events, publications and projects. Kindly send such information to NWFP-Digest-L@mailserv.fao.org:We also appreciate any comments or feedback.

A special thank you to all those who have sent me links to information.


PRODUCTS

  1. Bamboo bike project
  2. Bamboo keyboards manufactured in China
  3. Bushmeat: Cameroon raid nets key poachers and huge bushmeat haul
  4. Bushmeat entering the USA
  5. Bushmeat sold in Nairobi butcheries
  6. Ginseng: Anti-inflammatory effects
  7. Honey: British beekeepers charge $114 for 'local' manuka honey
  8. Honey: Exporters misuse the ‘Kashmir’ honey brand
  9. Honey: Scientists identify antibacterial agent in Manuka honey
  10. Juniper Berries: Not just for gin
  11. Kava (Piper methysticum) can help treat anxiety, depression
  12. Mushrooms: Ganoderma Lucidum mushrooms offer medicinal benefits
  13. Sandalwood: Indo-China smuggling via Nepal in upward swing
  14. Shea butter: Fair Trade partnerships
  15. Silk: Silkworm’s chemical attraction to Mulberry leaves discovered

COUNTRY INFORMATION

  1. Brazil: Brazilian brokering company to market Amazonian NWFP oils
  2. Canada: Wildharvesting may come at a cost
  3. China introduces traditional medicines into basic healthcare program
  4. Kyrgyzstan becoming increasingly forested but fruit and nut trees still endangered
  5. Peru gets $120m to protect 212,000 sq mi of Amazon rainforest
  6. Philippines: DENR to distribute malunggay seedlings in Bicol
  7. Sri Lanka: Branding and marketing of cinnamon and other spices
  8. Tanzania's forests under threat
  9. Viet Nam: Nearly 4,000 new medicinal plants found

NEWS

  1. Bioprospecting: The green gold rush
  2. “Plantbottle,” Coca Cola’s new earth-friendly bottle
  3. Trans-boundary Rainforest Park in West Africa will be a symbol of peace and stability
  4. UNFF8 Adopts resolution on forests in a changing environment, defers decision on financing to 2011

EVENTS

  1. Forest Communities Conference 2009: Trends and Opportunities
  2. Forest tenure, governance and enterprise: New opportunities for livelihoods and wealth in Central and West Africa

LITERATURE REVIEW AND WEB SITES

  1. The Indigenous World 2009
  2. Other publications of interest
  3. Web sites and e-zines

MISCELLANEOUS

  1. Biofuel crops can invade tropical ecosystems

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PRODUCTS

1. Bamboo bike project

Source: Mother Nature Network, USA, 12 May 2009

Bamboo Bike Studio, based in New York, USA, is offering a two-day bamboo bike building course. For $1000, you get all the raw materials and instructions to build your own bike, custom-fit for your body and riding style and made with a local, renewable resource — all while supporting a good cause.

That cause is the Bamboo Bike Project, which seeks to build a sustainable, eco-friendly bike industry in Ghana — to create a sustainable form of transportation for poor Africans in rural areas.

For full story, please see: www.mnn.com/lifestyle/health/blogs/make-your-own-bamboo-bike

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2. Bamboo keyboards manufactured in China

Source: Sustainablog.com, USA, 7 May 2009

Jiangqiao Bamboo and Wood hails from China’s Jiangxi province, where bamboo resources are plentiful. Though the company began as a flooring company, they are now diversifying their production to include the latest in green design: bamboo keyboards.

In recent years, bamboo – a rapidly regenerating material – has gained popularity as a sturdy, sustainable alternative to wood flooring. Currently, China produces 200,000 cubic meters annually of bamboo plywood.

Jiangqiao, which began manufacturing the green keyboards last October, has already received orders for 40,000 finished units and is China’s sole producer of bamboo keyboards. The company says the product is as strong as its plastic equivalent. Proof that bamboo’s strength surpasses what its flexibility suggests lies in the fact that modern Hong Kong developers prefer bamboo over steel reinforcing rods when constructing some of the world’s tallest skyscrapers.

Jiangqiao faced the same difficulties typical for adapting bamboo for industrial use, including keeping the bamboo keyboard frame from cracking, preventing the bamboo bottom plate from distorting and firmly fastening the buttons with the main board. However, the company has successfully developed (and patented) its formula, and also developed a bamboo mouse and USB expected to go on the market this spring.

Though Jiangqiao is not the first company to use natural resources in computer accessories, it may be the most eco-friendly. Much of the bamboo used in the keyboards is leftover scrap from bamboo floorboard manufacturing, says the company’s general manager.

Combining efficiency with aesthetically pleasing design, Jiangqiao is earning a name for itself in innovation and sustainability.

For full story, please see: http://sustainablog.org/2009/05/07/chinese-bamboo-keyboard-manufacturer-a-local-green-design-leader/

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3. Bushmeat: Cameroon raid nets key poachers and huge bushmeat haul

Source: WWF, Cameroon, 7 May 2009

Yaoundé, Cameroon. Authorities in southeast Cameroon last week seized more than 1,000 kgs of illegal bushmeat and guns, and arrested 15 wildlife poachers in an unprecedented police operation.

Prompted by concerns about poaching from WWF, the Cameroon Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife organized a major week-long anti poaching operation in the region in tandem with the national military. A combined unit of soldiers, police and game rangers uncovered more than 1,000 kg of bushmeat, the remains of which included several protected species: gorillas, elephants, and chimpanzees. They also confiscated more than 30 guns from the suspected poachers, including high caliber rifles and illegally owned war weapons (AK-47’s).

Among those arrested was a municipal councilor, suspected of being a white collar elephant poacher based in the town of Moloundou, south of Nki National Park. Three other notorious elephant poachers, a Central African, a Congolese and a Cameroonian were arrested around Boumba Bek and Lobeke National Parks.

WWF is now calling on the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife to push for the swift prosecution of the 15 suspected poachers arrested to properly complete last week’s spectacular anti-poaching drive.

The operation was carried out in targeted villages with the help of local traditional rulers and the local population. The teams also carried out in-forest and maritime patrols during which two elephant tusks, three elephant tails and great ape parts were confiscated.

“It is critical for both government and other stakeholders to examine the alarming wildlife decimation in order to forestall what could turn out to be a regrettable carnage and irreversible loss of biodiversity”, says Martin Tchamba, national director for WWF Cameroon. “We need to urgently work out the causes of the present poaching upsurge and determine appropriate actions in order to safeguard key wildlife species in and around the parks”.

For full story, please see: www.panda.org/wwf_news/?163722/Major-Cameroon-raid-nets-key-poachers-weapons-and-huge-bushmeat-haul

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4. Bushmeat entering the USA

Source: NJ.com, USA, 9 May 2009

NEWARK -- Nineteen pounds of antelope and cane rat were seized in late April along with various fruits and dairy products packed in three suitcases belonging to a U.S. citizen traveling from Uganda.

Basil Liakakos, chief agricultural specialist of the Customs and Border Protection service said it was the sixth seizure of bushmeat since October, totaling over 41 pounds. Last year, similar seizures weighed in at 88 pounds, he said. Previous interceptions of bushmeat in passenger luggage have included a small monkey head, but the most frequently seized items are small bats, said Elmer Camacho, spokesman for the Customs and Border Protection service.

Federal law prohibits the entrance of bushmeat into the United States. Authorities consider it to be a potential carrier of zoonotic, or animal-to-human, viruses like Ebola, HIV or monkeypox, said Shelly Diaz, spokeswoman for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cane rat was banned in June 2003 after the African rodent species were found to be responsible for an outbreak of monkeypox.

Bushmeat is meat butchered from wild species, legal or illegal and including elephant, monkey, antelope and rodents. It is increasingly being commercialized and is a favorite of certain ethnic groups, consumed throughout Cameroon, Nigeria and the Congo River Basin. Cane rats and other species also are eaten throughout West Africa, said Richard Schroeder, the assistant director of the Center for African Studies at Rutgers University. It doesn't surprise him people are trying to carry bushmeat into New Jersey, given concentrated populations of Africans. "It's people interested in preparing certain dishes and who miss those foods," he said. "At a very basic human level, this is food from home."

For the full story, please see: www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2009/05/seizure_of_bushmeat_from_lugga.html

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5. Bushmeat sold in Nairobi butcheries

Source: The Daily Nation, Africa, 21 May 2009

Meat lovers beware. Half of the meat you buy from Nairobi butcheries is likely to come from uninspected wildlife. These gut-wrenching estimates are based on the rise of illegal game hunting in areas surrounding Nairobi, a phenomenon fuelled by the long drought which has affected areas that supply the city with mutton and beef.

The estimates were based on findings from samples collected from 200 butcher shops two years ago which found that 47 per cent of the stock was bushmeat. “The situation is much worse today, mainly because of the long drought which has depleted livestock in parts of Ngong, Namanga and Kajiado — the major meat suppliers for Nairobi,” Mr Steve Itela of the Youth for Conservation Group told a symposium in Nairobi on Wednesday.

Ms Nancy Kabete of Kenya Wildlife Service said suspect animals that may have found their way into kitchens across the city include zebras, giraffes, wildebeests, antelopes and buffaloes. She said the trend was threatening the survival of some wild species while presenting human beings with the danger of contracting animal diseases.

“One of the biggest challenges in fighting the crime is the lenient fines meted out by our courts. For killing an eland that can fetch Sh40,000 in a choice hotel, one is fined less than Sh3,000, which is hardly a deterrent,” she said. 

For full story, please see: www.nation.co.ke/News/-/1056/600790/-/ujn6cq/-/index.html

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6. Ginseng: Anti-inflammatory effects

Source: EurekAlert.org, 13 May 2009

Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the immunological effects of ginseng. Researchers writing in BioMed Central's open access Journal of Translational Medicine have shown that the herb, much used in traditional Chinese and other Asian medicine, does have anti-inflammatory effects.

Allan Lau led a team of researchers from the University of Hong Kong who identified seven ginseng constituents, ginsenosides, which showed immune-suppressive effects. He said, "The anti-inflammatory role of ginseng may be due to the combined effects of these ginsenosides, targeting different levels of immunological activity, and so contributing to the diverse actions of ginseng in humans".

The scientists treated human immune cells with different extracts of ginseng. They found that of the nine ginsenosides they identified, seven could selectively inhibit expression of the inflammatory gene CXCL-10. Lau concludes, "Further studies will be needed to examine the potential beneficial effects of ginsenosides in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in humans".

Uniquely, the researchers were able to holistically test the ginseng extract's immune effects by using sophisticated purification technologies to identify individual constituents and define their bioactivity using genomics and bioactivity assays. After that, they reconstituted them back into a whole extract with definable individual ginsenosides for re-confirmation of effects. This potentially opens up a vigorous methodology to study medicinal herbs with state-of-the-art technologies.

For full story, please see: www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-05/bc-gn051209.php

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7. Honey: British beekeepers charge $114 for 'local' manuka honey

Source: The New Zealand Herald, New Zealand, 19 May 2009

British beekeepers have imported manuka plants from New Zealand to produce their own version of medicinal manuka honey, which they are selling at £5 ($13) a teaspoonful.

The honey is being produced on the Tregothnan estate in Cornwall, England. Tregothnan's garden director, Jonathan Jones, said: "The honey is expensive, but it is Britain's only manuka honey. It has become a lifestyle product, a luxury. This year is the first time the plants produced nectar which gave us our first jars, around 100...They were sold to women of a certain age who are very health conscious, but recently we have been getting much wider interest."

The estate company claimed the price tag was justified because its 100,000 bees are housed in 20 special hives claimed to be worth £5000 each and have the exclusive run of the garden's manuka bushes.

The honey is claimed to have medicinal qualities and can help ailments including gum disease, sore throats, acne, sunburn and digestive problems.

For full story, please see: www.nzherald.co.nz/lifestyle/news/article.cfm?c_id=6&objectid=10573239

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8. Honey: Exporters misuse the ‘Kashmir’ honey brand

Source: Institute of International Trade, India, 12 May 2009

Honey exporters of Punjab and Tamil Nadu have been alleged of selling inferior quality honey under the brand name ‘Kashmir.’ Kashmir honey and Kashmiri apiculturists have demanded legal action against the ‘brand theft’.

Apiculturists have alleged that a Punjab-based exporter, Kashmir Apiaries Exports, a leading honey producer in India, has been selling honey extracted from Punjab and elsewhere under the brand ‘Kashmir’ to European and Middle-East countries.

70,000 tonnes of honey are produced in India every year, of which 25,000 tons are exported. Punjab’s contribution to the honey exports is around 5,500 tonnes, of which 3,000 tons, worth US$ 3 million, are exported to the USA, UK, Europe and West Asia.

Although, the Punjab-based honey exporter claims to be collecting honey from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, Kashmiri bee keepers belie the claim saying that the exporter is cheating buyers by mixing Kashmir honey with significantly large volumes of honey produced from other States.

A Chennai-based honey exporter ‘Lion KASHMIR Honey’ claims to meet international standards for the Kashmir Status. However, since no Geographical Identification (GI) status has been granted to Kashmir-honey, such claims by manufacturers are baseless. A proposal has already been sent to the Ministry of Food Processing and as soon as Kashmir-honey is granted a GI status, a campaign will be launched against all such parties.

Kashmir-honey is unique because it is produced from wild trees – about 90% from Acacia trees (commonly known as Kikar) and the remaining 10% from wild flowers. The honey produced in other states comes either from Poplar trees or Mustard plants. Moreover, Kashmir-honey is a fertilizer and pesticide-free product, and its glucose and fructose content is several times higher that the honey produced in other parts of the world.

If the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) standards are maintained, 1kg of Kashmir honey would sell for more than Rs 1000 in the international market.

For full story, please see: http://iitrade.ac.in/news-archive.asp?news=639

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9. Honey: Scientists identify antibacterial agent in Manuka honey

Source: Indian News Link, New Zealand, 12 May 2009

New Zealand’s Waikato University chemistry department researchers made a breakthrough discovery when they identified the source of the antibacterial activity in Manuka Honey. Waikato University associate professor Dr Merilyn Manley-Harris said “We have known for some time that a unique antibacterial activity of Manuka honey is associated with the presence of methylglyoxal, or MGO. But until now the origin of methylglyoxal was not known.”

The research showed dihydroxyacetone, or DHA, was present in young honeys shortly after bees deposit it in the comb. As the honey ripened, the DHA converts to MGO, the component that gives Manuka honey its antibacterial activity. The researchers stored the young Manuka honey for 120 days and found a strong correlation in the drop-off of DHA, and an increase in MGO. Since DHA is not antibacterial like the MGO, the antibacterial activity increased as the honey matures.

Dr Manley-Harris said when the researchers realized that the DHA was the precursor to MGO, they set about determining its origin. “They discovered it when they tested the nectar from Manuka flowers from various trees around Hamilton and the Waikato,” she said.

Dr Manley-Harris said the discovery would enable producers to determine when a batch of honey would mature, whether it would remain inactive and other details.

For full story, please see: www.indiannewslink.co.nz/educationlink/3244.html

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10. Juniper berries: Not just for gin

Source: The Seattle Times, USA, 17 May 2009

In certain dishes there is no substitute for juniper, with its unique aroma: piney, woodsy and vaguely peppery. It is especially popular when used with game, but it is also good with pork, beef and duck, and is a standard addition to dishes containing sauerkraut. Contemporary cooks have been more playful with juniper, dancing around its association with gin or abandoning it altogether for new associations that sound promising.

The "berries" are actually the modified cones of the conifer Juniperus comminus; under-ripe berries are preferred by gin makers while overripe specimens are gathered for culinary purposes. Green or ripe the berries have a lot of pinene, the essential oil that gives rosemary its distinctive snap, and they contain some of the same compounds that give citrus fruits their fresh scent. But in riper berries the sharper notes give way to a softer, vegetal aroma.

For full story, please see: http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/pacificnw/2009224142_pacificptaste17.html?cmpid=2628

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11. Kava (Piper methysticum) can help treat anxiety, depression

Source: The Age.com, Australia, 11 May 2009

Kava (Piper methysticum), used for generations in traditional ceremonies by Pacific islanders, is an effective and safe treatment for anxiety, university researchers say. People with "chronic high levels of anxiety" feel less worried and, in some cases, less depressed during a 60-person trial undertaken at the University of Queensland (UQ). "We've been able to show that kava offers a natural alternative for the treatment of anxiety and, unlike some pharmaceutical options, has less risk of dependency and less potential of side-effects," said lead researcher Jerome Sarris, a PhD candidate from UQ's School of Medicine. "We also found that kava had a positive impact on reducing depression levels, something which had not been tested before."

Critically the study's participants did not show any signs of potential liver damage - contrary to concerns that prompted European, British and Canadian authorities to ban kava sales in 2002. Kava products sold in those countries were based on ethanol or acetone extracts of the kava plant, Mr Sarris said, not the water-soluble extracts used traditionally by Pacific islanders and approved for sale in Australia.

Kava contains the psychoactive agent "kavalactones" and a traditional ceremony involves pulping roots of the plant and then drinking it mixed with water. It is said to have a tranquillising effect but without the loss of mental clarity associated with alcohol.

Vanuatu and Fiji are among the world's largest producers of kava, and Mr Sarris said the loss of major export markets had delivered a significant blow to the islands' economies.

"Allowing the sale of kava in Europe, the UK and Canada would significantly enhance Pacific island economies, which have lost hundreds of millions of dollars by not being able to export the plant over the past several years," he said.

For full story, please see: http://news.theage.com.au/breaking-news-national/kava-can-help-treat-anxiety-scientists-20090512-b0qy.html

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12. Mushrooms: Ganoderma Lucidum mushrooms offer medicinal benefits

Source: Gulf Daily News, Bahrain, 21 May 2009

Thousands of people in Bahrain are turning to a "miracle" mushroom said to help combat potentially deadly diseases, including cancer. But it should be taken only as an aid and not instead of normal medical treatment.

Indian microbiologist Dr K K Janardhanan said research he has conducted over several years at the Amala Cancer Research Institute in Thrissur, Kerala has proved beyond doubt that the mushroom powder, consumed regularly as a food supplement, helps patients who are suffering from potentially fatal diseases. "Tests on animals and reports from patients whose side effects of drugs were greatly reduced, have led us to publish studies in several international medical journals of repute," Dr Janardhanan said at a Press conference in Manama, Bahrain.

The Press conference was held at the offices of Daehsan Trading, who represent manufacturers DXN, a Malaysian company that cultivates the mushroom and markets products containing it as beverages and food supplements.

Ganoderma Lucidum mushrooms have been cultivated for centuries in China, Korea and Greece and has been well-known for its medicinal qualities.

For full story, please see: www.gulf-daily-news.com/NewsDetails.aspx?storyid=251093

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13. Sandalwood: Indo-China smuggling via Nepal in upward swing

Source: The Economic Times, India, 12 May 2009

SILIGURI: According to Sasastra Seema Bal (guards of the Indo-Nepal border) and Nepal security agencies, over 1000 metric tons of red sandalwood have been seized during the last year from both sides of the border. Apparently, it is in high demand, for the wood is used to make butts of guns.

While talking to the Economic Times about the possible buyers, a senior intelligence official specializing in cross-border smuggling prevention said, "Due to less fragrance but equal curving capacity and strength, red sandalwood is preferred for making butts of firearms. China is one of the largest buyers. Now since all attention is focused on political developments in Kathmandu, the grey trade operatives are likely to increase their activities."

The consignments, generated largely as a result of illegal Indian felling in Karnataka, first get routed to Nepal through the porous Indo-Nepal border along UP, Bihar or West Bengal. From there, they get into China through Tatopani on the Arniko Highway in North Nepal, the largest Sino-Nepal trade point.

"Arniko Highway has practically been taken over by red sandalwood smugglers," said Nepali exporters working in Tatopani. "The governments of India, Nepal and China should jointly focus on the issue on common interest," they added.

For full story, please see: http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/Red-Sandalwood-Indo-China-smuggling-via-Nepal-is-getting-upward-swing/articleshow/4521629.cms

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14. Shea butter: Fair Trade partnerships

Source: Marketwire.com, Canada, 7 May 2009

OTTAWA, ONTARIO - Knowledge shared throughout the millennia by generations of African women meets the 21st century, during Fair Trade Month. Ten Thousand Villages, a North American fair trade dealer, and Uniterra, one of Canada's leading international voluntary programs, welcome their partners from Burkina Faso to celebrate Certified Fair Trade shea butter. Ms. Kourtoumi Chalim Aschlet Niangao and Mr. Abou Dradin Tagnan represent the Union of Producers of Shea Products of Sissili and Ziro of Burkina Faso, where shea is the third largest export.

Shea, dubbed "the gold of African women", is well known for its moisturizing and protective properties. Equitably-traded organic shea turns those benefits into real gold for nearly 3,000 women, who've doubled their income as a result of this collective. Since earning fair trade certification in 2006, producers have poured much of their earnings back into community projects such as literacy groups for women, programs for children orphaned by HIV and Aids, and the construction of a childcare centre. These are welcome developments in Burkina Faso, one of the poorest countries in Africa, ranked at 173 of 177 on the Human Development Index.

Despite the economic downturn, Canadian sales of fair trade shea products are on the rise. Ten new personal care products, prepared with certified fair trade shea, will be launched this month at Ten Thousand Villages' 47 stores throughout Canada, at festival sales and on its web site. Shea Delapointe, a Quebec-based family business and a Ten Thousand Villages supplier, imported nine tons of certified fair trade shea in 2008, expected to double in 2009, thanks to fair trade partnerships between Canadian entrepreneurs and African producers.

For full story, please see: www.marketwire.com/press-release/World-University-Service-Of-Canada-986334.html

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15. Silk: Silkworm’s chemical attraction to Mulberry leaves discovered

Source: United Press International, 8 May 2009

TOKYO. Japanese scientists say they have isolated the jasmine-scented chemical that attracts silkworms to mulberry leaves -- their primary food source. The findings could help silk producers fine-tune the diets of silkworms to get them to eat more and digest food more efficiently, a study published in Current Biology reported Friday.

The chemical cis-jasmone emitted in small quantities by the leaves of the mulberry tree triggers a single, highly tuned olfactory receptor in the worms' antennae, said Kazushige Touhara, a professor at the University of Tokyo. Cis-jasmone is so powerful that just a tiny amount draws silkworms toward the source of the smell, he said. Cis-jasmone might be added to artificial diets to increase the efficiency of the worms' food intake. It also could be used to develop a safe form of pest control, attracting unwanted insects also drawn to the scent of cis-jasmone.

For full story, please see: www.upi.com/Science_News/2009/05/08/Silkworms-favor-jasmine-scented-chemical/UPI-50241241797203/

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COUNTRY INFORMATION

16. Brazil: Brazilian brokering company to market Amazonian NWFP oils

Source: PR.com, 13 May 2009

Sao Paulo, Brazil. Unit Brazil, a brokering company headquartered in Sao Paulo, has just been hired as the export agent to market Amazon oils and butters produced by Engefar, a cosmetics raw materials supplier located in the state of Para.

Engefar's products are oils and butters extracted from exotic fruit pulps and seeds of the rainforest such as buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), acai (Euterpe Oleracea), copaiba (Copaifera spp.), muru-muru (Astrocaryum murumuru), andiroba (Carapa guianensis), etc. Theses raw materials have functional elements which are desirable to upgrade formulations. For example, the acai oil, extracted from the acai berry pulp, can add antioxidants to moisturizing creams and shampoos; the buriti oil is widely used as a solar filter for skin protection while pracachi is a new finding for pregnant skin repair.

According to John Laurino, Unit's CEO: "we are amazed to see such fast positive feedback from major cosmetics ingredients distributors all over the world; it is like we are offering them a golden raw material, capable to upgrade their product's profile."

John Laurino has a 14 years background in international brokering, and according to him, the Amazon oils he just added to his portfolio may represent a US$20 million/year business in a couple of years.

For full story, please see: www.pr.com/press-release/151401

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17. Canada: Wildharvesting may come at a cost

Source: The Globe and Mail, Canada, 21 May 2009

The choice to buy something foraged from a Canadian forest instead of imported broccoli may seem good, but when wild foods hit the mainstream, the risks of overharvesting can threaten the species and large-scale industrial processing can diminish the qualities that attracted people in the first place.

A few years ago, wild leeks, also known as ramps (Allium tricoccum), were enjoyed only by foragers and gourmets who knew the woodland plant offered a delectable onion flavour with a hint of garlic. This year, the wild relative of the onion is everywhere. "It's crazy," says Anthony Rose, executive chef at Toronto's Drake Hotel who in the past few weeks has been approached by about 20 different sellers, more than two times the number of people who contacted him last year. But all this attention isn't good news for the leek, says Gérald Le Gal, president of the Quebec-based Association for the Commercialization of Forest Mushrooms and owner of Gourmet Sauvage, a company that sells prepared wild fruits and vegetables. Mr. Le Gal doesn't think anyone should be selling ramps. "Don't touch the stuff. It's just too vulnerable," he says.

When you pick a ramp, you take the entire plant, including the bulb. Once the bulb is gone, there is nothing left of the plant; it will not grow back the next year. The Toronto and Region Conservation Authority considers it to be "a species of conservation concern." And eating a nice sized bulb could be the equivalent of dining on an old-growth cedar. "It's a really, really, slow-growth plant. A bulb could be 18 to 20 years old," Mr. Le Gal says.

In Quebec, the wild leek saw a similar surge in popularity in the early 1990s. At farmers' markets across the province, bottles of pickled wild leek were snapped up by the hundreds, pushing the species to the brink. Today in Quebec, it's illegal to sell wild leeks. In an attempt to stop extinction by commercialization, the provincial government only allows people to harvest 50 bulbs a season for personal use. Chefs aren't allowed to cook with them, and it's forbidden to import them from other provinces.

Wild leeks aren't the only forest product growing in popularity. NorCliff Farms Inc., the country's largest supplier of fiddleheads (Matteuccia spp.), has seen a 20-per-cent rise in demand each year for its fresh and frozen products over the past 10 years, says chief executive officer Nick Secord. This spring, the company opened a processing plant in Quebec where about 60,000 tons of fiddleheads roll off the conveyor belt every day. To satisfy demand, the company trucks in fiddleheads foraged from riverbanks and forests in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, as well as the northeastern United States, Mr. Secord says.

Unlike ramps, harvesting fiddleheads doesn't endanger the plant - as long as you don't take too many from the same patch, says Jonathan Forbes, owner of Forbes Wild Foods. He says pickers should only take three of the seven fronds of each plant or else risk its survival. "You can't take all the fiddleheads off the plant," Mr. Secord says.

Experts say problems start when people don't respect these guidelines. "You've got people who are aware of how to harvest properly and others who just want to make a buck," says Tim Brigham of the Centre for Non-Timber Resources at Royal Roads University on Vancouver Island, a research centre dedicated to the sustainable use of forest products.

Mr. Brigham believes that it is possible for Canadians to commercially harvest wild foods from nature in ways that preserves the ecosystem. He is part of a group trying to put together a national network of sustainable harvesters. As long as harvesting is done sustainably, the wild foods can help to protect nature, Mr. Forbes says. "When people realize that the forests provide really good food, it gives it an ecological value it didn't have before. Then they may go easy on the environment."

For full story, please see: www.theglobeandmail.com/life/food-and-wine/article1143510.ece#article

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18. China introduces traditional medicines into basic healthcare program

Source: Xinhuanet.com, China, 7 May 2009

BEIJING - China is trying to incorporate its centuries-old traditional medicine, mostly based on herbs, into the national basic healthcare program.

The State Council, the country's Cabinet, pledged in a circular Thursday to enable every community and village health service center to provide a traditional medicine service for citizens. "Traditional medicines have outstanding advantages. They cost much less than Western medicines. They will fit in with the health service in rural areas and communities," said Prof. Ha Xiaoxian from Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

In the circular, the State Council said traditional medicine hospitals will be on the list of designated hospitals under the country's basic health insurance programmess for both rural and urban residents. In addition, the government welcomes private investors to invest in hospitals or pharmacies of traditional medicine. It also encourages veteran doctors to open their own clinics and allows doctors to work at chemist's shops dispensing traditional medicines.

The circular admitted that the country sees many problems in passing on and renewing the ancient knowledge of traditional medicine. "A lot of valuable knowledge was not passed from the older generation to the younger and some important therapies were lost." The government plans to register ancient medical books, develop a catalog and set up a digital database for them. It will also support research and publishing of these books.

More resources will be spent on education and training of doctors. The central government will support some key research institutes and colleges. The government also encourages apprenticeships for training doctors as an alternative to medical schools, especially in rural areas. For thousands of years, doctors of traditional Chinese medicine passed on their knowledge through apprentices, especially from father to son. Even now many doctors prefer keeping effective and original prescriptions as "family secrets" and only tell them to people they trust.

For full story, please see: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-05/07/content_11332281.htm

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19. Kyrgyzstan: Increasingly forested but fruit and nut trees still endangered

Source: Eurasianet.org, 15 May 2009

A new map of Kyrgyzstan reveals that 7 percent of the country is woodland, slightly more than previously thought. However, experts are warning that 90 percent of Central Asia’s fruit and nut trees have been lost during the past 50 years. According to the map produced by the Kyrgyz-Swiss Forestry Support Program, 1.39 million hectares of Kyrgyzstan is forested.

Flora and Fauna International (FFI), a conservation non-profit organization, is cautioning that 44 tree species in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan are facing extinction. Many of these trees are the wild ancestors of domesticated fruit and nut trees, including walnut, cherry and apricot.

Some 3 percent of the Kyrgyz state budget is earmarked for environmental protection. The lack of funding is widely acknowledged to "hamper" conservation efforts, the CA-news.org news website reported on 13 May 2009.

Regionally, just 3.9 percent of Tajikistan is forested. Kazakhstan’s tree coverage amounts of 7 percent of its territory, and Turkmenistan is 8.8 percent woodland. Uzbekistan is the most densely forested with trees covering 10.1 percent of the country.

For full story, please see: www.eurasianet.org/departments/news/articles/eav051309b.shtml

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20. Peru gets $120m to protect 212,000 sq mi of Amazon rainforest

Source: Mongabay.com, 13 May 2009

The Japanese government will loan Peru $120 million to protect 55 million hectares of Amazon rainforest over the next ten years, reports El Comercio.

The loan, to be distributed in three phases starting next year, has an interest rate of 0.10 percent payable over 40 years.

Antonio Brack, Peru's Minister of the Environment, said the loan will be used to establish permanent forest reserves, including indigenous territories.

Brack estimated the initiative would avoid emissions of 20 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Brack set forth the funding proposal at last December's climate talks in Poznan, Poland. At the time he said Peru was seeking $200 million over 10 years in donations from industrialized countries to reduce Amazon deforestation to zero.

Peru — home to the fourth largest extent of tropical rainforests after Brazil, Congo, and Indonesia — has historically had one of the lowest annual deforestation rates in the Amazon basin, but forest loss has been increasing in recent years due to illegal logging, mining, agriculture, and expansion of road networks, including the paving of a highway that provides access to a remote and biologically-rich region in south-eastern part of the country. In 2005 — the most recent year for which data is available — at least 150,000 hectares of forest were lost, while a similar area was degraded through logging and other activities.

For full story, please see: http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0513-peru.html

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21. Philippines: DENR to distribute malunggay seedlings in Bicol

Source: Philippine Information Agency, Philippines, 15 May 2009

Legazpi City -- Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Bicol regional executive director Joselin Marcus Fragada has instructed his field officials in the provincial offices to distribute malunggay seedlings during the Independence Day celebration on 12 June 2009.

Fragada said that the malunggay seedling distribution project supports President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's program to spur rural growth through job creation and food production to cushion the effects of the global economic meltdown and at the same time mitigating global warming and climate change.

Malunggay, scientifically known as Moringa Oleifera, is an important source of nutritional food. According to Mark Fritz, a writer of Los Angeles Times, every ounce of malunggay contains seven times the Vitamin C found in oranges, four times the Vitamin A of carrots, four times the iron of spinach, four times the calcium content of milk and three times the potassium of bananas. Dr. Ann Hirsch, professor of Botany at University of California, Los Angles, U.S.A., reported that. Malunggay is packed with amino acids highly absorbable and crucial to good health. "It has the full component of the essential amino acids that human beings need," she said. She pointed out that of the 20 different amino acids needed to build protein and utilized to grow, repair and maintain the human cells, only 12 types can be manufactured and synthesized by the body, while the other eight essential amino acids must come from a person's diet, such as food derived from malunggay.

Experts agree that the long-term solution to malnutrition is to consume foods that are rich in essential nutrients often lacking in people's diets. Modern scientific research proves that Moringa leaves are one of the richest sources of such nutrients.

There are other practical uses of Malunggay, one is the well-documented detoxifying effect on the human body, the ability of Moringa to purify water, attaching itself to harmful material and bacteria, and allowing them to be expelled as waste. The evidence points to the same process going on inside your body.

Other benefits from malunggay are as natural fertilizer, feeds and known to be effective in treating certain diseases and human illnesses.

For full story, please see: www.pia.gov.ph/default.asp?m=12&r=&y=&mo=&fi=p090513.htm&no=69

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22. Sri Lanka: Branding and marketing of cinnamon and other spices

Source: The Daily News, Sri Lanka, 12 May 2009

Export Development and International Trade Minister of Sri Lanka, Professor G.L. Peiris, met representatives of companies in the spice sector to discuss a wide range of issues related to strengthening their trade performance. One of the main issues discussed was the concept of branding and its usefulness in relation to the marketing of cinnamon and other products. Prof. Peiris explained to industry representatives measures which had been taken by his Ministry in this area.

Cabinet approval has been granted to the Export Development Board to hold the ownership of the Ceylon Cinnamon Brand. It has also been decided to appoint three committees regarding the scientific identification, logo design and preparation of rules and regulations and certification procedure of Brand launching program.

The Spice Council noted that the cinnamon dealers have certain issues with regard to the new Comprehensive Rural Credit Scheme that is implemented for cinnamon with commercial banks. Minister Peiris said that he would convene a joint meeting of representatives of the spice sector and the commercial banks.

For full story, please see: www.dailynews.lk/2009/05/12/news50.asp

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23. Tanzania's forests under threat

Source: The Citizen Daily, United Republic of Tanzania, 13 May 2009

Tanzania is facing a serious threat from deforestation amid reports that the country is losing an average of 420,000 hectares of forests annually through rampant tree felling.

The minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Ms Shamsa Mwangunga, said yesterday the situation posed a serious threat to the country’s economic development. Mwangunga made the revelations in Dar es Salaam while launching the National Forest Resources Monitoring and Assessment project.

At the same occasion, Finland's ambassador to Tanzania, Mr. Juhani Toivonen said the rate at which deforestation is taking place in the country was "alarming." He urged the Government to seek ways of protecting natural forests, adding that the launched project would provide a basis for intervention measures. "It (the project) will provide the necessary tools to identify the means to stop forest degradation at regional, district and village levels, and promote sustainable use of forest resources," he said.

The UN’s Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has been selected to coordinate the implementation of the project, working in collaboration with the Forest and Beekeeping Division of the forestry ministry.

Dr Louise Setshwaelo, the UN agency's country representative said: "The project will provide valuable information on forest resources and how to improve their management." "It symbolizes the key role that forest resource monitoring and assessment play in providing relevant and timely information," she added.

In Tanzania, the new $3.07 million (Sh3.9 billion) project is being funded by the Government of Finland.

For full story, please see: http://thecitizen.co.tz/newe.php?id=12518

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24. Viet Nam: Nearly 4,000 new medicinal plants found

Source: Viet Nam News, Viet Nam News Agency, Viet Nam, 12 May 2009

HCM CITY — Scientists have identified 3,948 species of plants and mushrooms in Viet Nam that have medicinal and nutritional value, a conference announced. The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology of Viet Nam held the conference in northern Vinh Phuc Province last week to review the past 20 years of medicinal herbs research in Viet Nam. Of the total number of species, there are 52 species of seaweed, 22 mushrooms, four kinds of moss and 3,870 species of higher plants

In the past 20 years, research has mostly been carried out in botanical gardens, national parks and naturalpreservation zones. During 2009-19, government agencies will focus on preserving rare plants that are at risk of extinction.

For full story, please see: http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/showarticle.php?num=01HEA120509

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NEWS

25. Bioprospecting: “The green gold rush”

Source: TheGreenGoldRush.org

The Green Gold Rush is the name of a video documentary about bioprospecting and indigenous peoples that was realized in October-November 2008 in Geneva, Switzerland. This project is the result of a collaboration between the Swiss NGO Group of Volunteers Overseas (GVOM) and the Vicepresidency of the Republic of Bolivia. It is financed by the Service of International Solidarity of the Canton of Geneva, the Delegation for Cooperation of the City of Geneva, and the Municipalities of Genthod, Jussy and Meinier, Switzerland.

The objective of the project is to stimulate the debate about the protection and valorization of traditional knowledge and biological resources in Bolivia. It is articulated in two phases.

During the first two months in Geneva, Switzerland (October-November 2008), a video documentary was produced and information about international experiences and strategies was collected.

During the next six months in La Paz, Bolivia (January-June 2009), various public presentations of the video documentary and debates, weekly meeting of experts, seven workshops with more than 700 delegates of indigenous peoples and a national encounter of 50 delegates of indigenous peoples, are being organized.

The national encounter will take place in La Paz during three days of the first week of June 2009 in coordination with a regional encounter of 180 indigenous peoples' delegates on “intellectual property and traditional knowledge” organized by COINCABOL. It is also expected that various international experts, intellectuals and activists will be able to come this week to La Paz, Bolivia, and participate to a seminar to debate these issues.

For full story, please see: www.thegreengoldrush.org/

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26. “Plantbottle,” Coca Cola’s new earth-friendly bottle

Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 15 May 2009

Coca-Cola Co. is working on a new type of beverage bottle that is more Earth-friendly and could potentially replace some of the environmentally harmful plastic it now uses.

The new package, called "PlantBottle," replaces the conventional petroleum-based resin bottles with a blend of petroleum-based materials and up to 30 percent plant-based materials. The blend could make the bottles easier and cheaper to recycle, while reducing the time they remain in landfills. “We're interested in developing the packaging of the future, which we think is going to be in some ways derived from either plants or something else that is a naturally occurring resource that's not under stress like petroleum," said Lisa Manley, a Coca-Cola spokeswoman.

For full story, please see: www.wbcsd.org/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?type=DocDet&ObjectId=MzQ0NDE

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27. Trans-boundary Rainforest Park in West Africa will be a symbol of peace and stability

Source: Bird Life International, 15 May 2009

The Presidents of Sierra Leone and Liberia today met in the Gola Forest, Sierra Leone, to announce the establishment of a new Trans-boundary Peace Park, to protect one of the largest remaining blocks of intact forest in the Upper Guinea Area of West Africa. The Peace Park unites the Gola Forest Reserve in Sierra Leone (75,000 ha) and the Lofa and Foya Forest Reserves in Liberia (80,000 ha and 100,000 ha respectively), with additional forest to provide corridors for the movement of wildlife between them.

H.E. President Ernest Bai Koroma of Sierra Leone said: "The long-term benefits of the conservation of the Gola Forests far outweigh the short-term benefits of extraction and destruction. As I have said since I was elected in 2007, the Gola Forests will become a National Park in Sierra Leone and mining will not be permitted".

H.E. President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf of Liberia said: “This launch of the Sierra Leone - Liberia Trans-boundary Peace Park Project will serve as a symbol of our renewed commitment to peace, stability and biodiversity conservation in this region"

The local communities in Sierra Leone, through their traditional chiefs and Members of Parliament, have both expressed their support for the conservation of the Gola Forest and its designation as a national park.

The Upper Guinea Forest Ecosystem, which extends from Guinea to Togo, is one of the world’s most biodiversity-rich ecosystems. However, centuries of human activities have led to the loss of more than 70 percent of the overall forest cover, which was initially estimated at 420,000 square kilometers. The remaining forest is highly fragmented, restricting habitats to isolated patches and threatening the unique flora and fauna.

The forests provide very important ecological services locally, nationally and regionally, including wood and NTFPs, medicinal plants, continuous provision of water, protection against soil erosion, climatic conditions conducive to agricultural production, and climate change mitigation.

They are also internationally important for carbon sequestration. Both Governments have expressed interest in carbon trading and in the REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) process. The Peace Park will provide the potential to raise tens of millions of dollars over forthcoming decades, ensuring sustained funding for protected area management and community development. The establishment of the Peace Park will ensure that the long-term conservation of the forests, their biodiversity and global carbon storage benefits is secured through national and international partnerships for improved forest governance across the Sierra Leone–Liberia border.

For full story, please see: www.birdlife.org/news/news/2009/05/peace_park_west_africa.html

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28. UNFF8 Adopts resolution on forests in a changing environment, defers decision on financing to 2011

Source: IISD Linkage, May 2009

The eighth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF8) was held from 20 April - 1 May 2009, at UN Headquarters in New York. Over 600 participants attended the two-week session, to address: means of implementation for sustainable forest management (SFM); and forests in a changing environment, including forests and climate change, reversing the loss of forest cover and degradation, and forests and biodiversity conservation. After an all-night session on the last night of the forum, delegates adopted a resolution on forests in a changing environment, enhanced cooperation and cross-sectoral policy and program coordination, and regional and subregional inputs.

Delegates were not able to agree on a decision on financing for SFM. The principle contention from the outset were the disparate views of developing countries and donor countries: the G-77/China favored the establishment of a global forest fund as soon as possible; and JUSCANZ and the EU preferred to establish a facilitative process to, among other things, enable easier access to current funding and create enabling conditions for private sector and other investment. Delegates almost reached agreement on setting up a process to consider recommendations on the establishment of the fund, but attempts to find compromise did not result in a reconciliation of the needs of both donor and recipient countries. Delegates ultimately decided to forward bracketed negotiating text to the Forum’s next session.

For full story, please see: www.iisd.ca/recent/recentmeetings.asp?id=6#mtg6545

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EVENTS

2. Forest tenure, governance and enterprise: New opportunities for livelihoods and wealth in Central and West Africa

25-29 May 2009

Yaoundé, Cameroon

Organized by: The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), FAO and the Cameroon Ministry of Forests and Wildlife.

This conference will catalyze new and broader actions on securing tenure rights in Central and West Africa for implementation by governments, civil society organizations and local communities with the support of international institutions and funding agencies. This will involve setting up goals and developing agendas for new interventions and reforms. Participants will share experiences in securing tenure rights, including the relationship between tenure reform and other goals such as improving livelihoods, securing investment, spurring small scale enterprises, and addressing climate change. The diversity of stakeholders present and the multiplicity of perspectives they represent will allow for discussion, debate and the strengthening of collaborations and partnerships. The new initiatives emanating from this conference will help strengthen the impact of other key efforts particularly on forest law enforcement and governance and voluntary partnership agreements that are being launched in Africa, all of which point to the necessity and urgency of clarifying rights.

Agenda items include: Experience with extraction and management of NTFPs. The role and perspectiive of forest communities in the forest reform process; and a roundtable discussion on the role of tenure and governace in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

This is a strategic and timely opportunity to build on the existing and growing awareness among Central and West African government leaders of the necessity to address these issues and to spur action to improve existing frameworks of forest ownership and use. Strengthened and clarified tenure rights will play a crucial role in facilitating the most efficient and just allocation, use and preservation of forest resources to address local, national, regional and global interests and concerns.

For more information, please contact:

Eduardo Mansur (ITTO RFM)

E-mail: mansur@itto.or.jp

Tel: 81-45-223-1110

Fax: 81-45-223-1111

www.itto.int/en/workshop_detail/id=44270000

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30. Forest Communities Conference 2009: Trends and Opportunities

4-7 November 2009

Vancouver Island, Canada

Join municipal and Aboriginal leaders, government agencies, industry partners, economic development officers, community groups and researchers to hear their success stories and help chart the course for your forest-based community for the 21st century.

Whether you’re interested in bioenergy, ecotourism, new business models and markets, NTFPs, innovative forest tenures, environmental goods and services, economic infrastructure or community engagement and adaptation, you will have the opportunity to share experiences and explore new ideas and strategies with colleagues from across the country.

The two days of plenary sessions and workshops will explore various themes, followed by an evening Shop the Wild event (to see and sample products from BC forests) and a special NTFPs day on 6 November.

Several field trips will build on conference topics while taking advantage of the natural beauty and breathtaking scenery of Vancouver Island.

For more information, please see:

www.workingforest.com/content/canadian-forest-communities-conference-2009-nanaimo-bc

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LITERATURE REVIEW AND WEB SITES

31. The Indigenous World 2009

From: IWGIA, 15 May 2009

This yearbook contains a comprehensive update on the current situation of indigenous peoples and their human rights, and provides an overview of the most important developments in international and regional processes during 2008. Over 60 indigenous and non-indigenous scholars and activists provide their insight and knowledge to the book with:

  • Region and country reports covering most of the indigenous world.
  • Updated information on international and regional processes relating to indigenous peoples.

The Indigenous World 2009 is an essential source of information and indispensable tool for those who need to be informed about the most recent issues and developments that have impacted on indigenous peoples worldwide. It is published in English and Spanish.

For more information, please see: www.iwgia.org/sw35890.asp

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32. Other publications of interest

From:  FAO’s NWFP Programme

Avocc.vou-Ayisso, Carolle; Sinsin, Brice; Adcbgbidi, Anselme; Dossou, Gatien; Van Damme, Patrick. 2009. Sustainable use of non-timber forest products: Impact of fruit harvesting on Pentadesma butyracea regeneration and financial analysis of its products trade in Benin. Forest ecology and management. 257(9) p. 1930-1938

Bawankule, D. U.; Dayanandan Mani; Anirban Pal; Karuna Shanker; Yadav, N. P.; Sachidanand Yadav; Srivastava, A. K.; Jyoti Agarwal; Shasany, A. K.; Darokar, M. P.; Gupta, M. M.; Khanuja, S. P. S. 2009. Immunopotentiating effect of an ayurvedic preparation from medicinal plants. Journal of Health Science. 55: 2, 285-289. 21 ref.

Bifarin, J. O. Ajibola, M. E. Fadiyimu, A. A. 2008. Analysis of marketing bushmeat in Idanre Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Tropag & Rural Database African Journal of Agricultural Research. Academic Journals. 3: 10, 667-671 12 ref.

Chun, Young Woo; Tak, Kwang-Il. 2009. Songgye, a traditional knowledge system for sustainable forest management in Choson Dynasty of Korea. Forest ecology and management. 257(10) p. 2022-2026.

Songgye, a traditional method of forest management, evolved in late Choson Dynasty of Korea in reaction to  rapid privatization of national forests by the elite class and government officials. Songgye was a unique social institution to promote sustainable use of local forests by local citizens. The primary goals of Songgye were to determine the annual amount of harvest and assign certain areas for specific uses and activities. Songgye also organized various activities within the community to prevent wild fires and illegal logging and smuggling, besides setting up rules and regulations to control activities as well as infringements. Songgye, remembered today as a cultural reminiscence, played a significant role in the success of reforestation of denuded landscapes after colonization and war.

Daily, G.C., et al. 2009. Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(1):21-28.c

He, Jun; Zhou, Zhimei; Weyerhaeuser, Horst; Xu, Jianchu. 2009. Participatory technology development for incorporating non-timber forest products into forest restoration in Yunnan, Southwest China. Forest ecology and management. 257(10) p. 2010-2016

Abstract:

Indigenous knowledge has become a topic of considerable interest within the research and development environment. Incorporating indigenous knowledge into state-led 'top-down' conservation and development programs, however, is still a great challenge. This paper presents a case from Yunnan, Southwest China, in which indigenous knowledge has been integrated into the development of an agroforestry model with NTFPs for the Sloping Land Conservation Program (SLCP) by using a participatory technology development (PTD) approach. This approach was adopted to increase the likelihood that technologies developed would be suitable for resource-poor households. It is expected that integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge, will lead to positive ecological and economic outcomes. Finally, the paper argues that the integration of indigenous knowledge in both forestry policy formulation and implementation is important in the context of sustainable forest management in mountain areas.

Marshall, E. and Chandrasekharan, C. 2009. Non-farm income from non-wood forest products. Rural Infrastructure and Agro-Industries Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Diversification booklet. Rome, Italy. no. 12.

Matsushima, K.; Minami, M.; Nemoto, K. 2008. Usage of edible wild plants in Bhutan. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, ShinshuUniversity. 45: 1/2, 49-54. 18 ref.

Mulyoutami, Elok; Rismawan, Ratna; Joshi, Laxman. 2009. Local knowledge and management of simpukng (forest gardens) among the Dayak people in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest ecology and management. 257(10) p. 2054-2061.

Abstract

Among the Dayak people in East Kalimantan, simpukng (forest gardens) are an important component of their traditional farming systems. Simpukng is managed secondary forests in which selected species of fruits, rattan, bamboo, timber and other plants are planted. While most are owned by families and passed down from one generation to the next, some are managed on a communal basis. Complex customary Dayak rules exist that control the use and inheritance of these forests that help to avoid over-exploitation of resources. There is clear gender division of labour among Dayak in the management of simpukng that provide a range of products - for household consumption and sale and for customary rituals - fruits, vegetables, medicines, fire wood, honey, rattan, bamboos, and timber. Local knowledge about the more highly valued species are discussed. These indigenous forest garden systems are currently under threat from large-scale mining and logging activities; conflicts between local and external agencies are unfortunately frequent. This paper examines the development and management of simpukng in four Dayak villages in East Kalimantan and their implications on sustainable management of natural resources, with particular emphasis on the role of local knowledge of some of the more highly valued species and the current challenges faced by these communities in maintaining their traditional agroforest management practices.

Niederhofer, H. 2009. Panax ginseng May Improve Some Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Dietary Supplements. 6: 1, 22-27.

Abstract

Pei, Shengji; Zhang, Guoxue; Huai, Huyin. 2009. Application of traditional knowledge in forest management: Ethnobotanical indicators of sustainable forest use. Forest ecology and management. Apr. 30. 257(10) p. 2017-2021.

Pimbert, Michel. 2009. Towards food sovereignty: Reclaiming autonomous food systems. London, International Institute for Environment and Development. 70 pp.

Sunderland, Terry C.H.; Balinga, Michael P.B.; Asaha, Stella; Malleson, Ruth. 2008 The utilization and management of African rattans: constraints to sustainable supply through cultivation. Forests, trees and livelihoods. 18(4) p. 337-353.

Theo, A.; Masebe, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kikuchi, H.; Wada, S.; Obi, C. L.; Bessong, P. O.; Usuzawa, M.; Oshima, Y.; Hattori, T. 2009. Peltophorum africanum, a traditional South African medicinal plant, contains an anti HIV-1 constituent, betulinic acid. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 217: 2, 93-99. 38 ref.

Van Looy, Tinne; Carrero, G. Omar; Mathijs, Erik; Tollens, Eric. 2008. Underutilized agroforestry food products in Amazonas (Venezuela): a market chain analysis. Agroforestry systems. 74(2) p. 127-141.

Youn, Yeo-Chang. 2009. Use of forest resources, traditional forest-related knowledge and livelihood of forest dependent communities: Cases in South Korea. Forest ecology and management. 257(10) p. 2027-2034.

Abstract

The patterns of forest resource use in South Korea have been overviewed along with the forest resource availability to the forest users and in relation to the socio-economic conditions of local people. In South Korea, forest income arises more from NTFPs and forest ecosystems services than from timber. The relationship between availability of forest resources and income of residents in mountainous villages was addressed with statistical analysis of results of household surveys conducted in Gangwon-do Province. The result indicates that the mere existence of forest resources and related cultural heritages is not enough for local communities to obtain income from forest land. Proper arrangements for local communities in accessing the forest resources and knowledge of making use of the resources is required to make the relationship constructive for people's livelihood. Joint management agreement between forest communities and the forest owner serves both parties for sustainable forest management in Korea as seen in the case of maple sap collection within Seoul National University Forests. The traditional knowledge held by local residents is of value for income generation for forest dependent communities and is considered as an integral part of sustainable forest management as seen in the case of native honey bee keeping near protected forest areas managed by the national forest authority. However, traditional cultural values may be positive or negative for ecologically sound forest management as seen in the pest management policy of the Korean government formulated based on cultural value rather than considerations of ecosystem health.

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33. Web sites and e-zines

From:  FAO’s NWFP Programme

Platfrom for Agrobiodiversity Research

www.agrobiodiversityplatform.org/wp_main/

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MISCELLANEOUS

34. Biofuel crops 'can invade tropical ecosystems'

Source: SciDev.Net Weekly Update (4 - 10 May 2009)

[LIMA] Biofuel crops are more likely than other plants to become invasive in tropical and subtropical ecosystems worldwide, scientists have found.

They say that a weed risk assessment (WRA) — which examines a plant's biology, geographic origin, known pest status and behaviour — can be used to predict whether a species of biofuel crop will become invasive, enabling countries to avoid environmental and economic losses.

In the first quantitative study of the invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops, researchers at the US-based University of Hawaii used a WRA adapted for screening potentially invasive species on both biofuel crops proposed for Hawaii and non-biofuel plant species, to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness.

They found that biofuel crops are two to four times more likely to be invasive or to establish wild populations than a random sample of other plants introduced to Hawaii.

The team concludes that extensive planting — a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation — will aggravate invasions.

They claim these results are valid for all areas with tropical and subtropical ecosystems. The WRA used in the study is now an internationally accepted means of determining risk of crop invasiveness.

Lead author Christopher Buddenhagen told SciDev.Net that some of the key potential or actual invasive species include gorse, jatropha and kudzu. Non-invasive examples include macadamia and sugarcane. "Planting of potentially invasive species near important natural areas with high biodiversity should be discouraged," Buddenhagen said. "If a crop species has a high risk of being invasive, the likelihood of it becoming invasive is worsened by planting it on a large scale," he added.

Governments should give priority to non-invasive or less invasive species before granting funds or approval for biofuel planting programs, said Buddenhagen.

Julio Ugarte, the Peruvian coordinator of the World Agroforestry Centre, told SciDev.Net that in particularly biodiverse areas it is better to act cautiously and find alternative sources of biofuel than to import crops that could put those resources at risk.

For full story, please see: www.scidev.net/en/news/biofuel-crops-can-invade-tropical-ecosystems-.html

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last updated:  Friday, August 28, 2009